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ROMANESQUE

ARCHITECTURE
9th to 12th Century

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GEOGRAPHICAL
FACTORS
Developed in
those countries
which were under
Roman Rule.
Also influenced by
Byzantine.
The name of this
style of architecture
are the similarities
betweenRoman
Architectureespeci
ally the Roman
'barrel vault' and
the Roman arch.
Romanesque
Architecture was
primarily developed
by the Normans.

GEOLOGICAL FACTORS:
Local materials stone, brick, marble, terracotta.
Features from old Roman Buildings changed in each country.
CLIMATIC FACTORS:
Different styles in North and South of Alps and Pyrenees.
North has duller climate
large windows, high pitched roof
South has more sunlight
smaller windows, flat roofs.
RELIGIOUS FACTORS:
Christianity was the source of education and culture
erection of
churches
foundation of cities
fortification.
Bishops had authority of Provincial and Municipal Govt. Were also military
chiefs.
Prominent buildings were churches and castles for feudal chiefs. Massive
style of Byzantine Architecture influenced castle building.
Crusades over Muslims, who conquered Jerusalem, led to warfare.
Monastic communities developed, which influenced architecture till mid 12 th
Century.
Various religious orders developed (like Benedictine, Friars, Jesuits etc.)
SOCIAL FACTORS:
System of feudal tenure developed i.e. holding of land on condition of
military service which led to development of landless laborers.
Guilds of masons created.
HISTORICAL FACTORS:
Independent States developed after fall of Roman Empire.
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New era started with the coronation of Charlemagne (800AD) by Pope, who

ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTERS
Developed along with Gothic in Italy, France, Germany and
England.
Developed both from Roman and Byzantine (in various countries).
Ancient monuments served as quarries for new buildings birth
of Romanesque.
From 10th to 12th Cent. New construction styles developed stress
in establishing equilibrium use of dressed stones thick mortar
gave rise to Gothic.
Sober and dignified style grouping of towers and projection of
transepts and towers.
Roman Cross-vault was superseded by Rib and Panel Vaulting
framework of ribs supported by thin stone panels.
The profile of transverse, longitudinal and diagonal ribs were
decided that gave the shape of groins.
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All these are


Known as
QUADRIPAR
TITE
VAULTING

Covering
rectangular
plan was more difficult
as length of diagonal
increases
more
produced
awkward
waving lines of ribs on
plan. So, either the
rectangles
are
transferred to squares
(Worms
Cathedral,
Germany)
or
the
intermediate pier was
carried up as a vaulting
shaft to support a rib
which
altered
the
quadripartite vaulting
compartments into six
parts
known
as
SEXPARTITE
VAULTING.
The
difficulty
in
equalizing height of
ribs of different spans
specially
in
oblong
compartments
was

AtSaint-Etienne, Caen, both the nave and the tower


are covered by ribbed vaults. c.1080.

features:
Stone was cut with precision
Walls were initially solid but the walls shell were also designed in
the Romanesque architecture style were hollow and distributed
the weight
The use of the Roman arch led to the stone being supported in
the middle by the arch construction
The stone used was extremely heavy. The weight of the ceilings
would tend to buckle the walls outward and large piles of stone would
be stacked along the wall in intervals to buttress (or support) the
walls from pushing outward - these piles of stones became features of
Romanesque Architecture and buttresses were introduced to the
basic design
The window openings of Romanesque Architecture castles had to be
small to keep the strength of the walls strong
The most important structural developments of Romanesque
architecture was the vault. The vault was developed to enable the
construction of stone roofs - wooden roofs were an obvious fire
hazard
Barrel or Tunnel Vaults - consisted of a continuous surface of
semicircular or pointed sections resembling a barrel or tunnel
which has been cut in half lengthwise
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Groin Vault - A vault produced by the intersection, at right angles

Combining features of Western Roman


andByzantinebuildings, Romanesque architecture is
known by its :massive quality,
thick walls,
round arches,
sturdy piers,
groin vaults,
large towers and
decorative arcading.

PLAN: Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of
very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of
simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The
style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics
and different materials.
Introduction of transepts made churches look like a CROSS in plan
Breadth of transepts = Breadth of nave = 2 X Width of aisles.
The choir raised on piers above the level of nave in which a saint or martyr
have been buried.
Sometimes aisles were taken round the chancel to form an ambulatory.
Cloisters were elaborately treated.
Speyer Cathedral
Square, octagonal or circular towers
were
the most prominent features.
German
Romanesque,
begun 1030

Sant' Ambrogio, Milan


Italian Romanesque,
late 11th century

Durham Cathedral
English Romanesque,
c. 1093

St. Philibert, Tournus


French Romanesque, c. 9501020

St. Pierre, Angoulme


French Romanesque, 12th
century

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The abbey church of Fongombault displays a


cruciform plan, round chancel, apsidal chapels
and high nave with lower aisles.
The south transept of Winchester
Cathedral is in 3 stages.

Mainz Cathedral, Germany, has


possibly the earliest example of an
internal elevation of 3 stages.

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Solidity and strength

Sant Ambrogio, Milan


made of bricks

San Vittore alle Chiuse,Genga, Italy,


of undressed stone, has a typically
fortress-like appearance

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Schoengrabern church, Austria, shows a semicircular chancel, flat buttresses and arcade
beneath the roof. The tower is of
theBaroqueperiod.

At Sant Climent de Tall, Vall de Boh,


the tower has an increasing size in the
windows at each level, typical also of
Italian and German towers.

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WALLS: Walls were roughly built. The walls of Romanesque buildings


are often of massive thickness with few and comparatively small
openings. They are often double shells, filled with rubble.
The building material differs greatly across Europe, depending upon the
local stone and building traditions. In Italy, Poland, much of Germany
and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally used. Other areas saw
extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. The building stone was
often used in comparatively small and irregular pieces, bedded in thick
mortar. Smoothashlarmasonry was not a distinguishing feature of the
style, particularly in the earlier part of the period, but occurred chiefly
where easily-worked limestone was available.
Walls had attached columns connected at the top by semi-circular
arches and horizontal strips (Corbels).

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DOORS AND WINDOWS:


Jambs of doors and windows were set in a series of molded planes
known as ORDERS. Semicircular arches also had receding concentric
rings.

The tympanum ofVzelay Abbey,Burgundy,France, 1130s, has much decorative spiral detail in

The apse of the Cathedral of la Seu d'Urgell, Spain,


has a round-topped windows, an arcade with
colonnades and an ocular window.

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ROOF:
Nave had wooden roof
Vaulting was made for fire proofing.
Crossing of naves and aisles have octagonal domes, the sides had squinch
arches.
Use of flying buttress under aisle roof to counteract the thrust of vaulted
nave roof .
COLUMNS:
Columns are an important structural feature of Romanesque architecture.
Colonnades and attached shafts are also used structurally and for decoration.
Monolithic columns cut from a single piece of stone were frequently used in
Italy, as they had been in Roman and Early Christian architecture. They were
also used, particularly in Germany, when they alternated between more
massive piers. Arcades of columns cut from single pieces are also common in
structure that do not bear massive weights of masonry, such as cloisters,
where they are sometimes paired.

Thecathedral of
Santiago de
Compostela, Spain,
has large columns
constructed of
drums, with
attached shafts.

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Paired columns like those at Duratn, nearSeplveda, Spain,


are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain, Italy and
southern France.

Durham Cathedral, England, has


decorated masonry columns and the
earliest pointed high ribs.

St. Michael's, Hildesheimhas alternating piers and


columns.

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In Romanesque architecture,pierswere often employed to support arches.


They were built of masonry and square or rectangular in section,
generally having a horizontal moulding representing a capital at the
springing of the arch. Sometimes piers have vertical shafts attached to
them, and may also have horizontal mouldings at the level of base.
Although basically rectangular, piers can often be of highly complex form,
with half-segments of large hollow-core columns on the inner surface
supporting the arch, or a clustered group of smaller shafts leading into the
mouldings of the arch.
Piers that occur at the intersection of two large arches, such as those under
the crossing of the nave and transept, are commonly cruciform in shape,
each arch having its own supporting rectangular pier at right angles to the
other

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Various parts of a church


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MOULDINGS AND ORNAMENTS:


Mouldings were elaborate
Ornamentations were done of vegetable and animal form.
In interior, frescoes were more elaborate than mosaics, while stained
glass was used rarely.

The "blind arcade" beneath


this window atCanterbury
Cathedral has overlapping
arches forming points, a
common decorative feature
of Romanesque
architecture in England.
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EXAMPLE : PISA CATHEDRAL SITE PLAN.


CAMPO
SANTO

CAMPANIL
E
BAPTISTE
RY

CATHEDR
AL

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PISA CATHEDRAL (1063-92)


Resembles basilican church in
plan.
Long row of columns connected by
arches, double aisles and nave
with timber roof.
Exterior has red & white bands of
marble.
Ground story has wall arcading.
Entrance faade has tiers of open
arcades up to gable end.
Transepts have segmental arch in
each end.
Elliptical dome over nave and

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Campanile Pisa (Leaning Tower of Pisa) (1174 AD)


Circular tower
52 ( 15.85 m) in diameter 8 stories of encircling circles
Height is 1513 ( 46.10 m) (leaving the topmost portion belfry).
Inclination is 1310 ( 4.215 m) due to subsidence in foundation.
Belfry was added in 1350.

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The baptistery of Pisa, erected between


the years 1152 and 1160
Designed by Diotisalvi,
Is circular, with a diameter of 35.4 m/113 ft;
with a central nave of 60 (18.28 m)
separated by 4 piers and 8 columns from the
surrounding 2 storied aisles. In totality the
building is 129 (39.32 m) in diameter.
Externally lower stories have columns with
semicircular arched under one is the door.
Above, there are opening arcades with small
detached shafts.
The arcade has Gothic addition of 14th C.
which disguise the original design.
The building is raised on three steps, and
surmounted by a hemispherical roof through
which penetrate a truncated cone capped by
a small dome.

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To be continued

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