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Industrial

Microbiology
LABORATORY I
WINE MAKING

Fermentation
wine making
YEAST
Yeast is the only known living organism that
is safe for food production, commercially
available and has the ability to decompose
sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
It is a unicellular organism and belongs to
kingdom fungi. Without the aid of a
microscope, it is impossible to see a single
entity. Yeast cells thrive anywhere.

Fermentation
wine making
YEAST
They might be growing within the grapes
fruit cellulose and other non-acidic moist
environment where carbohydrates are
sufficient for their metabolism.
Just like some other single-celled organisms,
they are capable of multiplying rapidly in
desirable conditions. One cell grows into a
long branched chain in about four hours!

Fermentation
wine making
YEAST
Yeast has much economic and medical
relevance. It is utilized by bakers as a
substitute of sodium bicarbonate for
leavening bread.
Properly distilled alcohol from wines could
fortify other alcoholic beverages or may be
used as antiseptic.

Fermentation
wine making
FERMENTATION: THE ACTION OF YEAST
Fermentation is the chemical change done
by micro-organisms especially yeast cells.
Zymase, an enzyme present in yeast cells
acts on the dissolved sugar changing it to
ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Fermentation
wine making
FERMENTATION: THE ACTION OF YEAST
C6H12O6
2CO2

YEAST

2CH3CH2OH +

Sugar is the food for the yeast. Yeast cells


reproduce through budding which is a method
of asexual reproduction.
In order for them to multiply fast, they require
a warm and dark environment.

Fermentation
wine making
FERMENTATION: THE ACTION OF YEAST
C6H12O6
2CO2

YEAST

2CH3CH2OH +

The presence of air inhibits the decomposition


process or weakens the ability of yeast cells to
decompose sugar. When the concentration of
alcohol reaches 11-12% in the fermenting
solution, the yeast is rendered inactive.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
MATERIALS

Collect the following


materials:
Fruits

or any edible
plant rich in sugar,
Sugar,
Yeast,
Cheese cloth
Measuring cup,
Cotton,
Sterilized wine
bottles.

Collect the following


materials:
Beaker
Alcohol

Lamp
Water Bath
Wire Gauze
Tripod
Stirring Rod

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

There are three processes involved in the wine


making process. The first stage is the
extraction of the juice, next is the fermentation
phase that could last up to two weeks or
beyond and the third is the pasteurization
wherein the juice is subjected to low heating to
kill microorganism that spoil the fruit juice
prepared.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES
EXTRACTION OF THE FRUIT JUICE

Juicy fruits like citrus fruits could just be


squeezed or pressed but others require a
preparation for the sugars to be obtained.
Here is the method:

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

EXTRACTION OF THE FRUIT JUICE


1.

Wash the fruit and remove the peelings.

2.

Cut into small pieces and boil the fruits


with an equal amount of water.

3.

Extract the juice by pressing and draining


through a cheese cloth.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

EXTRACTION OF THE FRUIT JUICE


4.

Measure the volume of the extracted


juice.

5.

Add cup of sugar to every cup of the


extract. Some fruits do not contain
enough sugar so we add sugar.

6.

Heat the sweetened extract for 10 to 15

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

FERMENTATION
1.

Weigh 2 g of yeast for every cup of the


extract.

2.

Triturate the yeast into a mortar to make


a smooth paste. Add this to the
previously boiled extract.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

FERMENTATION
3.

Transfer the mixture into a sterilized


container and loosely stopper the mouth
with cotton. Do not let pressure build up
in your bottle, make a hole on your
stopper so that the gas would escape.

4.

Set aside for at least one week or longer


for complete fermentation.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

PASTEURIZATION
1.

Decant or filter the wine through cheese


cloth.

2.

Place the mixture in a clean bottle and


heat in a water bath for 30 minutes.
Keep the temperature of the bath at 60 C.

THE WINE MAKING


PROCESS
PROCEDURES

PASTEURIZATION
3.

Cool the mixture.

4.

Place an airtight cover and age for 10


days or more. Make sure that the bottle
is filled to capacity with the mixture.

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