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Internetworking Basics

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Agenda

Networking History
How a LAN Is Built
LAN Topologies
LAN/WAN Devices

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Networking History

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Early Networks
Samuel Morse
Alexander Graham Bell
Emile Baudot

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Telephone Network

Bell Telephone
Analog Network

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Important Developments

1966Carterphone
attached to phone lines to transmit
1966
radio calls to construction workers
1975FCC
ruled that equipment can attach
1975
to phone lines if it meets specifications
1977FCC
Part 68 enacted to define
1977
technical specifications
1984Court
ordered Bell System/AT&T
1984
breakup

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Telephone Network

MCI

Bell Atlantic

AT&T
Pacific Bell

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1960s1970s Communications

Digital Network
Low-Speed Access Lines

IBM Host Computer Systems


Network Architecture (SNA)
Application Programs
Database
Printing
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D
ig
ita
l

A
na
lo
g

Problem

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Analog and Digital Signals


Digital Transmission
1s and 0s
On or Off
Computer-speak

1 bit

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

Analog Transmission
Wires or wireless,
Audio tones
Info conveyed through
signal amplitude,
frequency, and phase

0 bit

Start
Bit

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Stop
Bit

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SolutionModems

ModemModulator/Demodulator
Modem
Translates digital computer signals to
analog signals which the telephone
world can understand and vice versa

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SolutionModems
ModemModulator/Demodulator
Modem
Translates digital computer signals to analog
signals which the telephone world can
understand and vice versa

POTS

Modem

Modem

Mainframe
Host

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)


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Another SolutionMultiplexing
MultiplexerAllows
multiple
Multiplexer
signals to be carried across
a single physical medium

BroadbandAble
to carry
Broadband
multiple signals simultaneously

Mainframe
Host

BasebandCarries
only one signal at a time
Baseband

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Baseband versus Broadband


Baseband
Local-Area Network
(LAN)

Broadband
Wide-Area Network
(WAN)

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1960s1970s Communications
Sunnyvale Branch

Digital

Digital

POTS

Headquarters,
San Francisco

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Mainframe
Host

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1960s1970s Communications
Sunnyvale Branch
Dedicated Leased
Lines

Digital

Digital

Digital

POTS
Dialup Modem
Connection

Morgan
Hill Branch

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Mainframe
Host

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Birth of the Personal Computer


Applications
File storage
Processing
power
Printing options
Smart terminals

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The Internet1970s and 1980s

ARPANETAdvanced Research Projects


Agency Network, Dept. of Defense
Developed in mid 1960s
Funded research to universities and companies
First packet-switched network built by BBNDec 1969
Many LANs connected to the ARPANET with TCP/IP
Shut down in 1990 due to newer networks emerging

NSFNETNational Science Foundation, late 1970s


High-speed successor to ARPANET
Six supercomputers: San Diego, Boulder, Champaign,
Pittsburgh, Ithaca, and Princeton
Supercomputers given a microcomputer which spoke TCP/IP
Overloaded from the word go

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The Internet
ANSNET (Advanced Networks and Services)
Took over NFSNET in 1990
Formed by MCI, MERIT, and IBM for commercial uses
Upgraded 1.5-Mbps links to 45 Mbps, sold to AOL in 1995

NFS awarded contracts to four NAPs


Pacific Bell (San Francisco), Ameritech (Chicago), MFS (Washington, D.C.), Sprint
(New York City)
Additional government backbones

Mid 1980s, collection of networks


viewed as The Internet
TCP/IP is the glue that holds it together
January 1992, Internet Society formed
Primary applications
E-mail, news, remote login, file transfer, WWW

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1990sGlobal Internetworking

19921 major backbone, 3,000 networks, 200K computers


1995Multiple backbones, hundreds of regional nets, tens of thousands
of LANs, millions of hosts, tens of millions of users

Doubling every year!


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How a LAN Is Built

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Local-Area NetworkLAN
What is a LAN?
A collection of computers, printers, modems, and other
devices that can communicate with each other in a
small area (< ~ 3000 m or 1000 feet)

What are the components?


Computers, operating system (OS),
network interface card (NIC), and hubs

How is a LAN controlled?


ProtocolsFormal descriptions of sets of rules and
conventions that govern how devices on a network
exchange information
StandardsSets of rules or procedures that are either
widely used or officially specified
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Local-Area Networks
LANs are designed to:
Operate within a limited geographic area
Allow multi-access to high-bandwidth media
Control the network privately under local
administration
Provide full-time connectivity to local services
Connect physically adjacent devices

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Network Operating System (OS)

Software that allows


communicating and
sharing of data and
network resources
Examples:

PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

AppleTalk
NetWare
Banyan VINES

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Network Interface Card


Amplifies electronic signals
Packages data for
transmission
Physically connects
computer to
transmission
media (cable)

PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

Connector Port

Network Interface
Card (NIC)
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Wiring Hub
PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

Printer

(Also has a NIC)

Wiring
Hub
NIC

Serves as center of network


Contains multiple independent but
connected modules where network
equipment can be connected
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Cables or Transmission Media


Printer

(Also has a NIC)

Connectors

PC or Workstation
Loaded with NOS

Wiring Hub

NIC

Cable
Physical environments through
which transmission signals pass

RJ-45
Connector

Fiber-optic cable
Coaxial cable Atmosphere
Twisted pair

Connectors (RJ-11, RJ-45, etc.)


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Network Cabling
Media connecting network components
NIC cards take turns transmitting on the cable
LAN cables only carry one signal at a time
WAN cables can carry multiple signals
simultaneously

Three primary types of cabling


Twisted-pair (or copper)
Coaxial cable
Fiber-optic cable
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Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP)


STP only:
Shielded Insulation
to Reduce EMI

Twisted-Pair
Outer Jacket

Speed and throughput:

10/100 Mbps

Relative cost:

Least costly

Color-Coded
Plastic Insulation

RJ-45
Connector

Media and connector size: Small


Maximum cable length:
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100 m
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Coaxial Cable
OuterJacket

Braided Copper Shielding


Plastic Insulation
Copper Conductor

BNC Connector

Speed and throughput:

10/100 Mbps

Relative cost:

More than UTP, but still low

Media and connector size:

Medium

Maximum cable length:

200/500 m

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Fiber-Optic Cable
Kevlar Reinforcing
Material

Outer Jacket

Plastic
Shield

Glass Fiber
and Cladding

Single mode: One stream of laser-generated light (100 km)


Multimode:

Multiple streams of LED-generated light (2 km)

Speed and throughput:

100+ Mbps

Average cost per node:

Most expensive

Multimode
Connector

Media and connector size: Small


Maximum cable length:
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Up to 2 km
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Throughput Needs !!

841,000 bits

100,000 bits

64,000 bps
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202,000,000 bits

7,300,000 bits/screen
30 pictures/second
224,000,000 bps!!!
2,457,000 bits/screen
30 screens/second
73,728,000 bps
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Throughput Rate and Bandwidth

Throughput rate
The rate of information arriving at, and possibly
passing through, a particular point in a network

Bandwidth
The total capacity of a given network medium or
protocol
THROUGHPUT = BANDWIDTH - OVERHEAD

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Throughput Rate
Speed

Networking
Made Easy

10,000 pages
= 53 MB
(Megabytes)

Transmit Time

9,600 bps

12.27 hrs

24,000 bps

4.91 hrs

56 Kbps

2.1 hrs

1 Mbps

7.1 min

10 Mbps

42.4 sec

100 Mbps

4.24 sec

1 Gbps

0.42 sec

1 Byte = 8 bits
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LAN Topologies

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LAN Topologies

Define network device organization


Four common types
Bus topology
Tree topology
Star topology
Ring topology

Topologies are logical architectures


Actual devices need not be physically
organized in these configurations

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Bus and Tree Topology

Tree topology
branch with
multiple nodes

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Star Topology (LAN)


Center: hub,
repeater, or
concentrator
Typically used
in both Ethernet
and Token Ring
5 to 100+ devices

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Ring Topology (LAN)


Redundant ring to
avoid network failure
Repeaters at each
component
Unidirectional
transmission links
Closed loop
Typically used
in FDDI networks

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LAN/WAN Devices

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LAN/WAN Devices

Hubs
Bridges
Switches
Routers

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Hub

Device that serves as the center of


a star topology network,
sometimes referred to as a
multiport repeater, or in Ethernet, a
concentrator; no forwarding
intelligence

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Hubs
123

126

124

127

Hub
125

Data

Data

128

Amplifies signals
Propagates signals through the network
Does not filter data packets based on destination
No path determination or switching
Used as network concentration point

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Bridge
Device that connects and passes
packets between two network
segments.
More intelligent than hubanalyzes
incoming packets and forwards (or
filters) them based on addressing
information.

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Bridge Example
123

126

Bridge

124

127

Hub

Hub

125
Segment 1

128
Corporate Intranet

Segment 2

More intelligent than a hubcan analyze incoming packets and


forward (or filter) them based on addressing information
Collects and passes packets between two network segments
Maintains address tables
Different types of bridges: transparent and source route (used
primarily in Token Ring LANs)
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Switches
Use bridging technology to
forward traffic between ports.
Provide full dedicated data transmission
rate between two stations that are
directly connected to the switch ports.
Build and maintain address
tables called content-addressable
memory (CAM).

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SwitchingDedicated Media
Workstation

10-Mbps
UTP Cable
Dedicated

31

Switch

32

34
35

100 Mbps

33

100 Mbps

36

Corporate Intranet

Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i.e.


maintains address tables, and can filter)
Provides full dedicated transmission rate between
stations that are connected to switch ports
Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking
All types availableEthernet, Token Ring, ATM
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Routers
Interconnect
Interconnect LANs
LANs and
and WANs
WANs
Provide
Provide path
path determination
determination
using
using metrics
metrics
Forward
Forward packets
packets from
from one
one
network
network to
to another
another
Control
Control broadcasts
broadcasts to
to the
the
network
network
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Summary

LANs are designed to operate within


a limited geographic area
Key LAN components are computers, NOS, NICs,
hubs, and cables
Common LAN topologies include
bus, tree, star, and ring
Common LAN/WAN devices are hubs, bridges,
switches, and routers

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Presentation_ID

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