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FAULTS

What is a Fault?

A FAULT is defined as a crack or


fracture in Earth's crust along which
rock on one side has moved relative
to rock on the other in response to
stress.

There is a chicken and egg relationship between faults and


earthquakes
It was initially thought that earthquakes caused faulting.
It was later realized that faulting produced the earthquakes

Fault Plane - The plane along which


the break or shear of a fault occurs.

STRIKE a horizontal line along the


direction of a fault plane.
DIP the angle between the fault plane
and the horizontal.

Three types of stresses produce faults:

1) Tension
2) Compression
3) Shear

Faults Caused by Tensional Stress

Normal Faults - The upper block (hanging wall) moves


down relative to the lower block (foot wall).

Faults Caused by Compressional Stress

Reverse Faults - The upper block (hanging wall)


moves up relative to the lower block (foot wall).

Faults Caused by Shear Stress

Strike-Slip Faults (Transform Faults) - move


horizontally in response to shearing stress.

Oblique-slip faults - suggests both dip-slip


faulting and strike-slip faulting. It is caused by a
combination of shearing and tension or
compression forces.

Major Fault Lines


in the World

Motagua Fault
A major, active left lateralmoving transform fault which
cuts across Guatemala.
It forms part of the tectonic
boundary between the North
American
Plate
and
the
Caribbean Plate.

North Anatolian Fault


A major active right lateral strikeslip fault in northern Anatolia which
runs along the transform boundary
between the Eurasian Plate and the
Anatolian Plate.
It runs about 20 km south of
Istanbul.
It is one of the most energetic
earthquake zones in the world.

San Jacinto Fault Zone


A major fault zone in Southern
California.
The
fault
zone
is
characterized by a series of strikeslip faults, and minor compressional,
tensional, and oblique zones.
It runs for 130 miles (210km)
through San Bernardino, Riverside,
San Diego and Imperial Counties.
It is not a continuous fault, but a
series of faults focused along the
same general axis.

Chaman Fault
A major, activegeological faultin
Pakistan andAfghanistan that separates
theEurasian
Platefrom
theIndoAustralian Plate.
It runs for over 850 km.

It
is
a
terrestrial,
primarilytransform,left-lateralstrike-slip
fault. In addition to its primary transform
aspect, the Chaman fault system has
acompressional
componentas
theIndian Plateis colliding with the
Eurasian Plate.

Liquie Ofqui Fault


A majorgeological dextralintraarctransform fault in the Chilean
northern patagoneanAndes.
It runs a length of roughly 1000
km in a north-south direction and
exhibits current seismicity.
As the name implies it runs from
theLiquiehot springsin the north
to theOfqui Isthmusin the south.

San Andreas Fault


The most famous and most visible
transform fault in the world.
A continentalright-lateralstrikeslip
fault,
it
forms
thetectonicboundary
between
thePacific
Plateand
theNorth
American Plate.
It runs a length of roughly 810
miles
(1,300km)
throughCaliforniain
theUnited
States.

Famous due to major earthquake


for which it has been responsible.
- The Great 1906 San Francisco
earthquake.
- 3000 dead.
-Depth of 15 to 20 km.
-Identified in 1895 by Berkeley
Geology
Professor
Andrew
Lawson.

Philippine Active Fault


Line

ThePhilippine Fault Systemis an inter-related


system offaultsthroughout the whole of thePhilippine
Archipelago,primarily caused by tectonicforces
compressing thePhilippinesinto what
tectonicgeophysicistscall thePhilippine Mobile Belt.
The Philippine Mobile Belt is composed of a large
number of accretionary blocks and strips. Most strips are
long and narrow like the Zambales ophiolites which is at
least 400 km long and 50 km wide.
The strips generally run north-south and the zones of
convergence are usually demarcated by fault lines. The
Philippine Mobile Belt is compressed on the west by
theEurasian Plateand two arms of theSunda Plate, and
on the east by thePhilippine Sea Plate.

Thesetectonic plateshave compressed and lifted parts of the


Philippines causing extensive faulting, primarily on a north-south
axis. The main fault runs most of the length of the Philippines and is
called the Philippine Fault.

List of the Active Fault Line


Central Philippine Fault
(From Ilocos Norte Aurora Quezon Leyte Agusan Davao)

Valley Fault System


(Bulacan Metro Manila Laguna)

Western Philippine Fault


(Luzon Sea Mindoro Strait Panay Gulf Sulu Sea)

Eastern Philippine Fault


(Philippine Sea)

Southern Mindanao Fault


(Moro Gulf Celebes Sea)

Western
Philippine Fault
(Luzon Sea-Mindoro
Strait-Panay
Gulf-Sulu Sea)
Valley Fault
System
(Bulacan NCR
- Laguna)

Central Philippine

Fault
Entire Ilocos Norte-AuroraQuezon-Masbate-Eastern
Leyte-Southern LeyteAgusan Del NorteAgusan Del Sur-Davao
del Norte)

Southern

ofMindanao
Fault(Moro GulfCelebes Sea)

Eastern
Philippi
ne
Fault
(Philippine
Sea)

List of the Active Fault Line:


Central Philippine Fault
The main fault and the longest
in the Philippines

The earthquake that


destroyed Guinsaugon
is the Central
Philippine Fault.
A massive rock slide-debris avalanche occurred on 17
February 2006 in thePhilippineprovinceofSouthern
Leytethat caused widespread damage and loss of life. The
deadly landslide followed a ten-day period of heavy rains
and a minorearthquakeof magnitude 2.6 on theRichter
scale. The official death toll was 1,126.

The 1990 earthquake


that destroyed Central
Luzon and Baguio is
also the Central
Philippine Fault.

Marikina Valley Fault


TheValley Fault
Systemand formerly as
theMarikina Valley Fault
Systemis a group
ofdextralstrike-slip fault
which extends fromSan
Mateo,Rizalto Taguig
Cityon the south; running
through
thecitiesofMakati,Marikina,

Paraaque,PasigandTaguig.

List of the Active Fault Line:


Marikina Valley
Fault
Consists of two Fault Lines
the West Valley Fault and
East Valley Fault.
It has not moved for the past
500 years.
Experts say that if the Big
One occur it may cause the
Taal Volcano to erupt.
WVF move in a dextral
strike-slip motion while EVF
moves in a dextral oblique
motion.

Marikina Valley Fault


How strong or what is the expected magnitude
when the Marikina Valley fault move?

North Bohol Fault

Undiscovered until 2013


Reverse- type Fault
Caused the 2013 Bohol
Earthquake

North Bohol Fault

Undiscovered until 2013


Reverse- type Fault
Caused the 2013 Bohol
Earthquake