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Making

Molar
Solutions

From
Liquids
(More accurately, from
stock solutions)

Making molar solutions from liquids


Not all compounds are in a solid form
Acids are purchased as liquids (stock
solutions). Yet, we still need a way to make
molar solutions of these compounds.
The Procedure is similar:
Use pipette to measure moles (via volume)
Use volumetric flask to measure volume
Now we use the equation M1V1 = M2V2
1 is starting (concentrated conditions)
2 is ending (dilute conditions)

Reading a pipette
Identify each volume to two decimal places
(values tell you how much you have expelled)

4.48 - 4.50

4.86 - 4.87

5.00

Practice using a pipette


Always keep pipette vertical
To rinse: take up water, remove green filler,
rotate pipette, replace filler, expel water
If filler can not take up or expel enough liquid,
remove, place finger over pipette, turn knob,
replace filler.
Take up water to 0 mark. Measure 3.2 mL
into 10 mL cylinder. (one per person)
If drop is hanging off, touch to cylinder
Repeat with 1.7 mL and 5.1 mL
__________________________________
If done correctly you should get 10 mL in
graduated cylinder

The Dilution formula


E.g. if we have 1 L of 3 M HCl, what is M if we
dilute acid to 6 L?
M1 = 3 mol/L, V1 = 1 L, V2 = 6 L
M1V1 = M2V2, M1V1/V2 = M2
M2 = (3 mol/L x 1 L) / (6 L) = 0.5 M
Why does the formula work?
Because we are equating mol to mol:
V2 = 6 L
M2 = 0.5 M

V1 = 1 L
M1 = 3 M
M1V1 = 3 mol

M2V2 = 3 mol

Practice problems
Q What volume of 0.5 M HCl can be prepared
from 1 L of 12 M HCl?
M1 = 12 mol/L, V1 = 1 L, M2 = 0.5 L
M1V1 = M2V2, M1V1/M2 = V2
V2 = (12 mol/L x 1 L) / (0.5 L) = 24 L
Q 1 L of a 3 M HCl solution is added to 0.5 L
of a 2 M HCl solution. What is the final
concentration of HCl? (hint: first calculate total
number of moles and total number of L)
# mol = (3 mol/L)(1 L) + (2 mol/L)(0.5 L)
= 3 mol + 1 mol = 4 mol
Do 1 8 on
# L = 1 L + 0.5 L = 1.5 L
handout. Try 6
# mol/L = 4 mol / 1.5 L = 2.67 mol/Ltwo ways

1. How many mL of a 14 M stock solution must be


used to make 250 mL of a 1.75 M solution?
2. You have 200 mL of 6.0 M HF. What concentration
results if this is diluted to a total volume of 1 L?
3. 100 mL of 6.0 M CuSO4 must be diluted to what final
volume so that the resulting solution is 1.5 M?
4. What concentration results from mixing 400 mL of
2.0 M HCl with 600 mL of 3.0 M HCl?
5. What is the concentration of NaCl when 3 L of 0.5
M NaCl are mixed with 2 L of 0.2 M NaCl?
6. What is the concentration of NaCl when 3 L of 0.5
M NaCl are mixed with 2 L of water?
7. Water is added to 4 L of 6 M antifreeze until it is 1.5
M. What is the total volume of the new solution?
8. There are 3 L of 0.2 M HF. 1.7 L of this is poured
out, what is the concentration of the remaining HF?

Dilution problems (1-6, 6 two ways)

1.

M1 = 14 M, V1 = ?, M2 = 1.75 M, V2 = 250 mL
V1 = M2V2 / M1 = (1.75 M)(0.250 L) / (14 M)
V1 = 0.03125 L = 31.25 mL
2.
M1 = 6 M, V1 = 0.2 L, M2 = ?, V2 = 1 L
M2 = M1V1 / V2 = (6 M)(0.2 L) / (1 L)
M2 = 1.2 M
3.
M1 = 6 M, V1 = 100 mL, M2 = 1.5 M, V2 = ?
V2 = M1V1 / M2 = (6 M)(0.100 L) / (1.5 M)
V2 = 0.4 L or 400 mL

Dilution problems (4 - 6)
4. # mol = (2.0 mol/L)(0.4 L) + (3.0 mol/L)(0.6 L)
= 0.8 mol + 1.8 mol = 2.6 mol
# L = 0.4 L + 0.6 L
# mol/L = 2.6 mol / 1 L = 2.6 mol/L
5. # mol = (0.5 mol/L)(3 L) + (0.2 mol/L)(2 L)
= 1.5 mol + 0.4 mol = 1.9 mol
# mol/L = 1.9 mol / 5 L = 0.38 mol/L
6. # mol = (0.5 mol/L)(3 L) + (0 mol/L)(2 L)
= 1.5 mol + 0 mol = 1.5 mol
# mol/L = 1.5 mol / 5 L = 0.3 mol/L
Or, using M1V1 = M2V2,
M1 = 0.5 M, V1 = 3 L, M2 = ?, V2 = 5 L

Dilution problems (7, 8)


7.
M1 = 6 M, V1 = 4 L, M2 = 1.5 M, V2 = ?
V2 = M1V1 / M2 = (6 M)(4 L) / (1.5 M)
V2 = 16 L
8. The concentration remains 0.2 M, both
volume and moles are removed when the
solution is poured out. Remember M is mol/L.
Just like the density of a copper penny does
not change if it is cut in half, the concentration
of a solution does not change if it is cut in half.

Practice making molar solutions


Calculate # of mL of 1 M HCl required to make 100 mL
of a 0.1 M solution of HCl
Get volumetric flask, pipette, plastic bottle, 100 mL
beaker, 50 mL beaker, eyedropper. Rinse all with tap
water. Dry 50 mL beaker
Place about 20 mL of 1 M HCl in 50 mL beaker
Rinse pipette, with small amount of acid
Fill flask about 1/4 full with distilled water
Add correct amount of acid with pipette. Mix.
Add water to line (use eyedropper at the end)
Place solution in plastic bottle
Label bottle. Place at front of the room.
Rinse and return all other equipment.
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