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Rivier College
CS575: Advanced LANs

ATM Adaptation Layer

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ATM Adaptation Layer Functions


0 The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) is designed to support different types of

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applications and different types of traffic, such as voice, video, imagery, and
data
Its basic function is the enhanced adaptation of services provided by the
ATM layer to the requirements of the higher layer
It maps higher layer PDUs into the information field of the ATM cell
AAL is divided into the Convergence Sublayer (CS) and the Segmentation
and Reassembly (SAR) Sublayer
The Convergence Sublayer is service dependent and provides the AAL
services at the AAL-SAP
The functions of the SAR sublayer are segmentation of higher layer PDUs
into a suitable size for the information field of the ATM cell (48 octets) at the
transmitting end and reassembly of the information fields into higher layer
PDUs at the receiving end

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ATM Adaptation Sublayers


0 Convergence Sublayer (CS):

- Handling lost/misdelivered cells


- Timing recovery
- Interleaving
0 Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR):
- Split frames/bit stream into cells for transmission
- Reassemble frames/bit stream for receiving
- Support multiple protocols
Higher Layers
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
(SAR)
ATM Layer (ATM)
Physical Layer (PL)

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Convergence Sublayer (CS)


Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer
Virtual Channel (VC)
Virtual Path (VP)
Transmission Convergence Sublayer (TC)

Physical Medium Sublayer (PM)

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AAL Protocols and Service Classes


0 To minimize the number of AAL protocols, ITU-T proposed a service

classification specific to the AAL


0 The classification was made with respect to the following parameters:
- Timing relationship between sender and receiver
=Related
=Not related
- Bit rate
=Constant bit rate
=Variable bit rate
- Connection mode
=Connection-oriented
=Connectionless

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AAL Protocols and Service Classes (Concluded)


0 Four AAL protocols have been defined to support four AAL service classes
0 AAL service classes

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
0 AAL protocols
- AAL 1
- AAL 2
- AAL 3/4
- AAL 5

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AAL Services
Service

Class A

Timing
between
Source and
Destination
Bit Rate

AAL
TYPE

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Class C

Related

Constan
t

Connection
Mode

Examples
of
Services

Class B

Not Related

Variable

Connection Oriented
Circuit
Emulatio
n
Constant
Bit
Rate
Video
and Audio
AAL 1

Class D

Connectionl
ess

ConnectionVariable
Connectionle
Bit
Rate Video oriented
ss
Date
Data
and Audio
Transfer
Transfer

AAL 2

AAL
3/4
AAL 5

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AAL3/4
AAL 5

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AAL Type 1 Protocol


0 Supports Class A traffic, i.e., constant bit rate data with specific

requirements for delay, delay jitter, and timing, e.g., PCM voice, CBR
video, and emulation of T-carrier circuits (DS1, DS3)
0 Receives constant bit rate stream with a well defined clock from source and
delivers the same to the destination
0 Provides for timing recovery (using SRTS), synchronization, and indication
of lost information not recovered by AAL1
0 Summary of AAL 1 functions
- Segmentation and reassembly of user information
- Handling of cell delay variation
- Handling of cell payload assembly delay
- Handling lost and misinserted cells
- Recovery of sending clock frequency at receiver
- Checking and handling AAL PCI (header) error

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AAL Type 1 SAR-PDU


0 Consists of 1 octet header (PCI) and 47 octets of payload
0 Sequence Number (SN): A 1-bit Convergence Sublayer Indication

and 3-bit sequence count to detect deletion or misinsertion of cells


0 Sequence Number Protection (SNP): 3-bit CRC with even parity
for detecting and correcting SN error

4 bits
SN

4 bits
SNP

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47 Octets
SAR-PDU Payload

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AAL Type 1 Sequence Number and Sequence


Number Protection
0 The 4 bit RTS is transferred by the CSI bit in successive SAR-PDU

headers with an odd SN (SN = 1, 3, 5, 7)


0 For P format operations, the CSI value in SAR-PDU headers with
an even SN (SN = 0, 2, 4, 6) is set to 1
1 bit

3 bits

Convergence Sublayer
Indication (CSI)

Sequence Number (SN)

3 bit
Cyclic Redundancy Check

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1 bit
Even Parity

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AAL Type 1 CS PDU


0 Two CS PDU formats

- Non-P format: No CS header (CS PCI), 47 octet user


information for transfer of unstructured data such as circuit
emulation of full DS1 or DS3
- P format: 1 octet header (Structure Pointer SP), and 46 octet
user information for transfer of octet-aligned data such as N x
64 kbps (e.g., fractional DS1) services
47 Octets AAL User Information
CS-PDU Non-P Forma t
1-Octet SP

46 Octets A A L User Information

CS-PDU P Forma t

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AAL Type 2 Protocol


0 Designed to support Class B (VBR) traffic
0 Supports variable bit rate data where a strong timing relationship

between source and destination is required, e.g., VBR audio and


video
0 Data passed to AAL2 from higher layers at the source at fixed
intervals and must be passed to the destination at the same rate
0 The amount of data passed to AAL2 may vary with each transfer
0 Supports voice compression and silence suppression
0 Supports idle voice channel deletion
0 Supports multiple user channels with varying bandwidth on a
single ATM connection

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AAL Type 2 Voice Application Examples


0 PBX-to-PBX trunking for compressed voice
0 ATM trunking on public-switched telephone network
0 ATM backbone for cellular systems and personal communications

services (PCS)
0 ATM backbone connectivity to packet telephone

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PBX-to-PBX Connectivity

PBX
PCM Voice

PBX
PCM Voice

Compression
Silence Suppression
Packetization

Compression
Silence Suppression
Packetization

AAL
ATM
PHY

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ATM Network

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AAL
ATM
PHY

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AAL Type 2 Packets


0 AAL2 provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate, short,

and variable-size packets for delay sensitive applications


0 AAL2 uses one ATM connection between two points to carry
packets from multiple native connections
0 The ATM payloads from successive cells of the ATM connection are
used as a byte stream on which packets from different native
channels, called logical link channels (LLCs), are packed without
regard to the cell boundaries
0 A channel identification (CID) field is used in the packet header to
identify the LLC to which a packet belongs
0 A length indicator (LI) field is used to identify the boundaries of
variable-length LLC packets

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AAL Type 2 Protocol Sublayers

Service Specific Convergence


Sublayer (SSCS)
Common Part Sublayer
(CPS)

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AAL 2 Common Part Sublayer


0 Defines an end-to-end AAL connection as a concatenation of AAL2

channels
0 Each AAL2 channel is a bi-directional virtual channel, with the
same channel identifier value for both directions
0 AAL2 channels are established over an ATM layer PVC, SPVC, or
SVC
0 Provides basic structure for identifying the users of the AAL
0 Assembling/disassembling the variable payload associated with each
individual user
0 Error detection and correction
0 Multiplexing multiple AAL channels (merging multiple streams of
CPS packets) onto a single ATM connection
0 Provides QoS through the choice of AAL-SAP for data transfer

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AAL 2 Structure
AAL-SAP

Service Specific
Convergence
Sublayer (SSCS)

SSCS-PDU Header
(if present)

SSCS-PDU Payload

SSCS-PDU Trailer
(if present)

SSCS-PDU

Packet Payload
(PP)

Packet Header
(PH)

Packet

Common Part
Sublayer (CPS)

Start Field
(STF)

CPS-PDU Payload
CPS-PDU

ATM-SAP

ATM Layer

Cell Header

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Cell Payload

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Format of AAL2 Packet


CID
8 bits

UUI HEC
5
5
bits
bits
Packet Header (PH)

Information
1 to 45/64 octets

LI
6 bits

Packet Payload (PP)

Packet

0 Channel Identification (CID): Uniquely identifies the individual user channel (LLC)

within the AAL2, and allows up to 248 (8 - 255) individual users within each AAL2
structure.
0 Length Indicator (LI): Identifies the length of the LLC packet associated with each

individual user, and assures conveyance of variable payload.


0 User-to User Indication (UUI): Provides a link between CPS and an appropriate

SSCS that satisfies the higher layer application. Different SSCS protocols may be
defined to support specific AAL2 user services, or groups of services. The SSCS may
also be null.

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Format of AAL2 CPS-PDU


Cell Header
5 octets

OSF
6 bits

SN
P
1 bit 1 bit

Start Field

CPS Information

PAD
0 to 47 octets

CPS-PDU Payload

CPS -PDU

0 Packets are combined into CPS-PDU payload


0 The Offset Field (OSF) identifies the location of the start of the

remaining length of the packet that possibly started in the preceding


cell and is continuing in the current cell
0 Data integrity is protected by the Sequence Number (SN)
0 The Start Field is protected from error by a Parity bit (P)
0 When it is necessary to transmit a partially filled cell to limit packet
emission delay, the remainder of the cell is padded with all zero octets

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AAL 2 Service Specific Convergence Sublayer


0 SSCS is the link between the AAL2 CPS and the higher layer

applications of the individual AAL2 users


0 Standards for SSCS are being developed in ITU-T and ATM Forum
0 A null SSCS satisfies most mobile voice applications

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AAL Type 3/4 Protocol


0 Supports variable bit rate data where there is no timing relationship

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between source and destination, e.g., X.25, frame relay, and TCP/IP
data
Supports Class C (connection-oriented) and Class D (connectionless)
traffic
Convergence sublayer divided into two parts:
- Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS)
- Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS)
SSCS layer may provide assured or non-assured services, or may be
null
- Assured service provides retransmission of missing or corrupted
SSCS-PDUs and flow control is mandatory
- AAL-SDUs may be lost or corrupted for non-assured service
and flow control is optional
CPCS provides message mode or streaming mode services

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AAL Type 3/4 Protocol Sublayers

Service Specific Convergence Sublayer


(SSCS)
Common Part Convergence Sublayer
(CPCS)
Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer
(SAR)

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AAL Type 3/4 CPCS-PDU


1

CPI

0-3

Btag BASize

CPCS-PDU Payload

PAD

AL

Etag Length

4-octet header and 4-octet trailer


CPI Common Part Indicator
Btag Beginning Tag
BASize
Buffer Allocation Size
PAD Padding
AL Alignment
Etag End Tag
Length
Length of CPCS-PDU Payload

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AAL Type 3/4 SAR-PDU


2 bits

4 bits

10 bits

ST

SN

MID

352 bits
SAR-PDU Payload

6 bits
LI

10 bits
CRC-10

2-octet header, 44-octet payload, and 2-octet trailer


ST Segment Type
SN Sequence Number
MID Multiplexing Identifier
LI Length Indication
CRC-10
CRC Code

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AAL Type 5 Protocol


0 AAL5 is a simple and efficient AAL (SEAL) to perform a subset of the

functions of AAL3/4
0 The CPCS-PDU payload length can be up to 65,535 octets and must use PAD
(0 to 47 octets) to align CPCS-PDU length to a multiple of 48 octets
PAD Padding
CPCS-UU
CPI

CPCS User-to-User Indicator

Common Part Indicator

Length

CPCS-PDU Payload Length

CRC-32

Cyclic Redundancy Chuck


0 - 47
CPCS-PDU Payload

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PA D

CPCS
UU

CPI

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Length CRC-32

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AAL Type 5 SAR-PDU

CPCS-SDU

CPCS-PDU
CPCS-PDU Payload

PAD

SAR-PDU
Payload

SAR-PDU
Payload

SAR-PDU
Payload

SARPDU

SARPDU

SARPDU

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SAR-PDU
Payload
SARPDU

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CPCS-PDU
Trailer

SAR-PDU
Payload
SARPDU

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AAL Type 5 Protocol (Concluded)


0 The CPCS-PDU is divided into 48 octets SAR-PDUs
0 Since CPCS-PDU is 48-octet aligned, there is no need for a length

field in the SAR-PDU


0 The AAL5 SAR-PDU is 48 octets of data with no overhead of SARPDU header or trailer
0 The PTI field of the cell header identifies the beginning or end of the
CPCS-PDU
- PTI = 0X1: End-of-Message (EOM)
- PTI = 0X0: Beginning-of-Message (B0M), or Continuation-ofMessage (COM)

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References
W. Stalling, Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 6th edition,
Prentice Hall, 2000, Chapter 11

W. Stalling, Data and Computer Communications, 6th edition,


Prentice Hall, 2002, Chapters 11-12
A. Wu, Advanced Local Area Networks, Lectures & Slides, Rivier
College, 2001.

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