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AC TO AC CONVERTER

(AC VOLTAGE
CONTROLLER)

CLO2: Apply knowledge of basic principle operations of power


electronic converters
using suitable circuit diagrams.
ET502
POWER
ELECTRONICS

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Prepared by: Pn Asiah binti Ab Wahid

AC to AC Converter (AC Voltage Controllers)

AC voltage controllers
(AC line voltage
controllers) are
employed to vary the
RMS value of the
alternating voltage
applied to a load circuit
by introducing
Thyristors between the
load and a constant
voltage AC source. The
RMS value of alternating
voltage applied to a
load circuit is controlled
by controlling the
triggering angle of the
Thyristors in the AC
voltage controller
circuits.

ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor


power converter which is used to convert a
fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input
supply to obtain a variable voltage ac
output. The RMS value of the ac output
voltage and the ac power flow to the load is
controlled by varying (adjusting) the trigger
angle

Fixed AC
Voltage
Supply, fixed
frequency

AC
Voltage
Controlle
r

Variable
AC
Voltage
Supply

ON-OFF CONTROL
Operation

Introduction

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Introduction:
Introduction:

Descripti
ons:
Two
techniques
of AC output
voltage
controls:
ON-OFF
control
PHASE
control

Thyristors are used as switches to connect


the load circuit to the AC supply (source)
for a few cycles of the input AC supply and
then to disconnect it for few input cycles.
The Thyristors thus act as a high speed
contactor (or high speed AC switch).
Chapter 5: AC-AC

ON-OFF CONTROL
Operation
This type of
control is used in
applications which
have high
mechanical inertia
and high thermal
time constant
(Industrial heating
and speed control
of ac motors).
Due to zero
voltage and zero
current switching
of Thyristors, the
harmonics
generated by
switching actions
are reduced.

Single phase full wave AC voltage


controller circuit

The thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned on by


applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect
the input AC supply to the load for n number of
input cycles during the time interval TON. The
thyristor switches T 1 and T2 are turned off by
blocking the gate trigger pulses for m number of
input cycles during the time interval TOFF . The ac
controller ON time TON usually consists of an

n = Two input cycles. TON for two input


cycles.

Positive Half
Cycle:
Apply gate
trigger pulse
to T1 at the
beginning of
each positive
half cycle, T1
ON.
The load
current flows
in the
positive
direction,
which is the
downward
direction
when T1
conducts.

uring T ON for two


input
cycles, n
Negative
Half
Cycle:
Apply gate
trigger pulse to
T2 at the
beginning of
each negative
half cycle, T2
ON.
The load
current flows in
the reverse
direction,
which is the
upward
direction when
T2 conducts.

A bidirectional
load current
flow
(alternating
load current
flow) in an
AC voltage
controller
circuit, by
triggering
the thyristors
alternately.

For a sine wave input supply voltage,


vs =Vm sint = 2Vs sint
Vs =RMS value of input AC supply = Vm = RMS phase
supply voltage.
2 is connected to load for n number of
If the input AC supply
input cycles and
disconnected for m number of input cycles, then,
Controller on time, TON= nT
controller off time ,TOFF= mT
Where input cycle time (time period) , T = 1 and
f
f = input supply frequency.
To = Output time period = (TON + TOFF )= nT + mT .
We can show that,
Output RMS voltage, Vo(RMS) = Vs TON = Vs k
To
Where k = n/(m+n) = duty cycle

DC to AC Converter
(Inverters)

Exercise

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Introduction:
Introduction:

Descripti
ons:
To change a
DC input
voltage to a
symmetrical
AC output
voltage of
desired
magnitude
and
frequency

An AC voltage controller in figure above has a resistive load


of R=10
and the rms input voltage is Vs=120V, 60Hz. The thyristors
switch is on for n=25 cycles and is off for m=75 cycles.
Determine:
a

Chapter 5: AC Voltage

PHASE CONTROL Operation


This circuit is a
single-phase halfwave controller and
is suitable only for
low power resistive
loads, such as
heating and
lighting. Since the
power flow is
controlled during
the positive halfcycle of the input
voltage, this type of
controller is also
known as a
unidirectional
controller. This
unidirectional
control is not
normally used in
practice.

The power flow to the load is controlled by


delaying the firing angle of thyristor . Waveforms
illustrates the gate pulses of thyristor and the
waveforms for the input and output voltages.
Due to the presence of diode D1, the control range
is limited and the effective rms output voltage can
only be varied between 70.7 and 100%. The output

PHASE CONTROL Operation

The firing
pulses of T1
and T2 are
kept 180 Single-phase Full-wave Bidirectional Controller with Resistive Load
apart.

During the positive half-cycle of the input voltage,


the power flow is controlled by varying the delay
angle of thyristor T1; and thyristor T2 controls the
power flow during the negative half-cycle of the
input voltage.

PHASE CONTROL Operation


The firing
pulses of T1
and T2 are
kept 180
apart.

In practice,
Single-phase Full-wave Bidirectional Controller with Inductive Load
most loads
are inductive
During the positive half-cycle of the input voltage,
to a certain
the power flow is controlled by varying the delay
extent.

angle of thyristor T1; and thyristor T2 controls the


power flow during the negative half-cycle of the
input voltage.

Applications of AC Voltage Controllers

Lighting / Illumination control in ac power


circuits.
Induction heating.
Industrial heating & Domestic heating.
Transformer tap changing (on load
transformer tap changing).
Speed control of induction motors (single
phase and poly phase ac induction motor
control).
AC magnet controls.

Cycloconverters

The ac voltage
controllers provide a
variable output
voltage, but the
frequency of the
output voltage is fixed
and in addition the
harmonic content is
high, especially at a
low output voltage
range. A variable
output voltage at
variable frequency can
be obtained from twostage conversions:
fixed ac to variable dc
(e.g., controlled
rectifiers) and variable
dc to variable ac at
variable frequency
(e.g., inverters, which
are discussed in the
previous chapter).
However,
cycloconverter can

A direct-frequency changer
that converts AC power at
one frequency to AC power at
another frequency by AC-AC
conversion, without an
intermediate conversion link.

AC
Voltag
e
Supply
fs

Cycloconve
rter

AC
Voltag
e
Supply
fa

Single-phase Center-tapped Cycloconverter

Positive converter:
Thyristor T1 and T3
Negative
converter:
Thyristor T2 and T4

If thyristor T1 and T3 operate for generating


positive halves of the output cycles and T2 and T4
are responsible for producing negative halves of
the output cycles, then there will be a frequency
division by three at the output.

Waveform of the output voltage of mid-point cycloconverter

Waveform of the output voltage of cycloconverter


(a)without phase control and with phase control (b) constant and (c) adjustable .

Single-phase Bridge Cycloconverter

The two singlephase controlled


converters are
operated as
bridge rectifiers.
However, their
delay angles are
such that the
output voltage
of one converter
is equal and
opposite to that
If converter P is operating alone, the average
of the other
output is positive and if converter N is operating,
converter.

the output voltage is negative.

Positive converter on for the time T0/2 and the negative converter
operating for the time T0/2.
The frequency of the output voltage is f0 = 1/ T0.
If p is the delay angle of positive converter,
the delay angle of negative converter is n = p.
The average output voltage of positive converter is equal and
opposite to that of the negative converter.
Vdc2 = -Vdc1

Three-phase to Single-phase Cycloconverter

The positive converter operates for half the period


of output frequency and the negative converter
operates for the other half-period.

Waveforms for Resistive Load

Three-phase to Three-phase Cycloconverter

The positive
converter
operates for
half the period
of output
frequency and
the negative
converter
operates for the
other halfperiod.

Applications of Cycloconverters

Electric traction
Static VAR generation
Gearless cement and ball mill drives
Speed control of high power ac motor
VSCF generator (variable frequency
constant frequency generator)
Variable speed, constant frequency
power generation for shipboard or
aircraft power supply.