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COMMON

COMMUNICAB
LE DISEASES

COMMON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES
It is an illness caused by an
infectious agent, such as
bacteria, virus, fungi or
parasites and/or toxin. Most of
these diseases can be passed
from one person to another.

How do these
communicable
diseases spread?
How these diseases spread
depends on the specific
disease or infectious agent.
Some ways in which
communicable diseases
spread are BY:

1. physical contact
with an infected
person, such as
through touch

2. contact with a
contaminated surface or
object (blood -hepatitis B), or
(water- cholera);

3. travel through the air,


such as tuberculosis or
measles.

4.

bites from
insects or animals
capable of
transmitting the
disease (mosquito:
malaria)

LIST OF COMMUNICABLE
DISEASE
Rabies
Tuberculosis
Sore Eyes
Pneumonia
Dengue Fever

RABIES

Rabies is a serious infection of the


nervous system caused by a virus,
known as Rabies virus. the virus is
usually transmitted to humans by a
bite or scratch from a wild infected
animal, most commonly, a bat or a
skunk. Rabies almost always results
in death if a bite or scratch from a
rabid animal (an animal infected with
rabies) is not treated at the time of

How is Rabies Spread to


Humans?

Rabies is transmitted to humans


and other animals through close
contact with saliva from infected
animals (i.e. bites, scratches,
licks on broken skin and mucous
membranes). Person-to-person
spread is very rare.

TUBERCULOSIS
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable
disease that is caused by bacteria
(germs) that attack the lungs or other
parts of the body such as the kidney,
spine or brain. If not treated properly, TB
can be fatal. Approximately one-third of
the worlds population - over 2 billion
people - is infected with tuberculosis
bacteria. More than 9 million become sick
with TB disease annually.

How is it spread?

TB is spread person-to-person through


the air. When a person with active TB
coughs or sneezes TB bacteria get in
the air. Anyone who has close and
frequent contact with a person with
active TB disease can breathe in the
bacteria and become infected. It
generally takes several exposures
over several hours in order to
become infected.

SORE EYES

The surface of the eyeball and the


inside of the eyelids become
inflamed from exposure to dust
and germs. It is more commonly
known as pink eyes or sore eyes
due to the redness, swelling, and
yellow pus that come with in. in a
new born baby, sticky eyes or a
yellow discharge from the eyes
may not to be due to sore eyes,

WHAT CAUSES SORE EYES?

Sore eyes can be caused by a variety of things. In


most cases they are caused by staring at a
computer screen or book for too long. Your eyes
may become sore after a long day at work or if
you have been deprived of sleep. An incorrect
eyeglass prescription may also lead to sore eyes.
Additional causes may include:
Airborne irritants such as chemicals, smoke, smog,
animal dander, and pollen
Contact lenswear
Excessive rubbing of eyes
Too much sun exposure
Dry eyesor inadequate lubrication of eye surface
Viral infections such as the common cold

STEPS YOU CAN TAKE TO REDUCE THE SORENESS INCLUDE:

Get more sleep at night


Drink plenty of water throughout
the day
Eat a well balanced diet
Avoid rubbing your eyes
Take eye breaks from activities
that may be causing eye strain

HOW TO PREVENT.

Avoid touching your eyes and face when you


have not washed your hands.
Do not share towels, eyeglasses,
sunglasses, or cosmetics, as this may spread
the infection.
If someone close to you is infected, make
sure to wash all surfaces, clothes, towels,
pillow cases, and anything else that may
have come into contact with that person.
Eat a well balanced diet to ensure that the
rest of your body receives enough nutrients
to function correctly.
Drink plenty of water, as this can help to

PNEUMONIA

This is a respiratory disease


caused by a certain kind of
bacteria. It is the inflammation of
the lungs. The disease is more
common in childhood and old
age, and in those with impaired
immune systems (e.g., diabetics,
AIDS victims, alcoholics).
Pneumonia can be life

PNEUMONIA - SYMPTOMS

Symptoms ofpneumoniacaused by bacteria in otherwise


healthy people younger than 65 usually come on suddenly.
They often start during or after thefluor a cold. Symptoms
may include:
Cough, often producing mucus, Mucus may be rusty or
green or tinged withblood.
Fever, which may be less common in older adults.
Shaking, "teeth-chattering" chills.
Fast, often shallow, breathing and the feeling of being short
of breath.
Chest wall pain that is often made worse by coughing or
breathing in.
Fast heartbeat.
Feeling very tired or weak.
Vomiting.
Diarrhea.

HOW IT SPREAD..

They can be spread easily to


another person, either through
the air or by touching a
contaminated surface.
Typically, they enter the
person's body through their
mouth, nose, or eyes.

HOW TO PREVENT

Always wash hands before eating and after going


outside.
Ordinary soap is okay. Expensive antibacterial
soaps add little protection, particularly against
viruses.
Eat a daily diet that includes foods rich in
antioxidants, such as fresh, dark-colored fruits and
vegetables and other nutrients.
Increase lung capacity through brisk walking and
other aerobic exercises. Breathing exercises, which
train us to take slow, deep, relaxed breaths and
exhale through pursed lips, may also be helpful.
Do not smoke.

DENGUE FEVER

Dengue fever is also know as Hfever which is an acute viral


infection. It is transmitted to
humans by the Aedes aegypti
mosquito. It breeds in places where
there is stagnant water.

The dengue virus is transmitted


to humans via the bite of an
infected mosquito. Only a few
mosquito species are vectors
for the dengue virus. What is a
vector? A vector is a vehicle
that carries and transmits a
disease to its host organism.

When a mosquito bites a person


who has dengue virus in his or
her blood, the mosquito
becomes infected with the
dengue virus. An infected
mosquito can later transmit that
virus to healthy people by biting
them. Dengue cannot be spread
directly from one person to
another, and mosquitoes are

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE FEVER?

At about 24-36 hours after being bitten by


a virus-carrying mosquito, patients will
experience sudden high fever (as high as
41C). Just before fever develops, many
patients experience
Chills
skin rash
facial flushing
Severe muscle pain of the lower back, arms
and legs, and joint pain, especially of the
knees and shoulders may also be present.

Haemorrhagic symptoms may


include small amounts of
bleeding from the nose or
gums. Other non-specific
symptoms may include
headache, fatigue, malaise,
abdominal pain, sore throat and
cough.

PREVENTION IS BASICALLY BY:

Avoiding mosquito bites (by using mosquito


repellents)
Eliminating pockets of stagnant water that
serve as mosquito breeding sites at home,
workplaces and their vicinity,
Not storing water in open containers.
Covering all water containers with lids.
Preventing mosquito entry by keeping
doors closed and windows screened.
Wearing protective clothing like longsleeved shirts, long pants, socks and shoes
when outdoors.

Using mosquito nets at home.


Scrubbing and cleaning margins of
containers used for water (to dislodge the
eggs of Aedes aegypti)
Covering overhead tank to prevent
access to mosquitoes.
Aedes mosquitoes usually bite during the
day; therefore, special precautions should
be taken during early morning hours
before day break and in the late
afternoon before dark.
There is no commercially available
dengue vaccine

MARAMING
SALAMAT
PO!!!