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ACOUSTICS

 Acoustics
 The science of sound, including its
production, propagation and effects
 The objective study of the physical
behavior of sound in an enclosed space
 Sound
 A wave motion consisting of a series of
condensations and rarefactions in an
elastic medium produced by a vibrating
body
Requirements to Produce
Sound
Requirements to
Produce Sound
1. Presence of vibrating body
2. Presence of transmitting medium
3. Presence of receiving medium
AUDIBLE FREQUENCY RANGE

 Infrasonic/Subsonic
 frequencies below the audible range

 Ultrasonic/Supersonic
 frequencies above the audible range

Audible Range: 20 Hz– 20kHz


AUDIBLE FREQUENCY
RANGE
General Interpretations
of Sound
1. Physical phenomenon consisting of
wave motion in a transmitting
medium (objective)
2. Sensation due to outside simulation
(subjective)
Physical Properties of
Sound
Physical Properties of
Sound
1. Amplitude – magnitude of the vibration
(pressure, current, voltage)

2. Period – time it takes to complete a


vibration/cycle

3. Frequency – number of vibrations /


cycle per unit time
Physical Properties of
Sound
4. Wavelength – physical length of a
vibration

5. Velocity of Propagation
Vsound << VRF
(344 m/sec << 3 x 108 m/sec)
Velocity of Sound
Solids

Where:
E = Young’s Modulus of elasticity, dynes/cm3
d = density of the medium, g/cm3
Velocity of Sound
Liquids

Where:
E = Bulk’s Modulus of elasticity, dynes/cm3
d = density of the medium, g/cm3
Velocity of Sound
Gases

Where:
k = specific heat ratio = hsp/hsv
hsp = specific heat at constant pressure
hsv = specific heat at constant volume
p = gas pressure, dynes/cm2
d = density, g/cm3
Velocity of Sounds
Dry Air/Air (for TC ≤ 20 0C)
Velocity of Sounds
Dry Air/Air (for TC ≥ 20 0C)

where:
TK = temperature in Kelvin
Velocity of Sound
Velocity of Sounds
 Notes
 Sounds travel more slowly in gases than
in liquids, and more slowly in liquids
than in solids.
 Sounds travels slower with an increased

altitude (elevation if you are on solid


earth), primarily as a result and humidity
changes.
Possibilities when a
Propagated Sound is
Obstructed (3)
Possibilities when a
Propagated Sound is
Obstructed (3)
Possibilities when a
Propagated Sound is
Obstructed (3)
 Sound is Reflected
 Echo
 Becomes apparent to the listener only when the distance
from the source and the reflecting medium is great and
the difference between the original and reflected sound is
greater or equal to 1/17 of a second.
 Flutter
 Brought about by a series of reflections between two
parallel surfaces resulting to prolongation of sound
 Creates listening fatigue
 Interference
 Reflection caused by two parallel surfaces, producing
standing waves
Possibilities when a
Propagated Sound is
Obstructed
 Sound is absorbed
 Conversion of sound energy to heat energy
 Onward transmission through
obstruction
Physiological
Characteristics of Wave
Motion (3)
 Pitch
Physiological
Characteristics of Wave
Motion (3)
 Pitch
 Number of cycles a wave goes through in a
definite interval
 The higher the frequency, the higher the
pitch
 Mel – unit of pitch
 1000 mels – pitch of 1000Hz tone at 40dB
 Octave – pitch interval 2:1; frequency is
twice the given tone
Physiological
Characteristics of Wave
Motion (3)
 Tone
 Timbre quality of sound

 Pure Tone – a sound composed of only one frequency


in which the sound pressure varies sinusoidally with
time.

 Musical Sound – composed of the fundamental


frequency and its harmonics
Physiological
Characteristics of Wave
Motion (3)
 Loudness
 Fluctuation of air pressure created by sound waves
 Observer’s auditory impression of the strength of a
sound and is associated with the rate at which
energy is transmitted to the ear.
 Depends on the amplitude of the sound

Loudness Level – measured by the sound level of a


standard pure tone or specified frequency which is
assessed by normal observers as being equally loud
PHON
Phon is the unit of loudness level
when:
 The standard pure tone is produced by a
sensibly plane sinusoidal progressive sound
wave coming from directly in front of the
observer and having the frequency of 1kHz
 The sound pressure level in the free
progressive wave is expressed in dB above
2 x 10-5 N/m2
SONE
Sone is the unit of loudness of an
individual listener.

Phon = 40 + 10 log2 sone


Sound Levels
Sound Pressure (P) and
Sound Pressure Level (SPL)

Sound Pressure
 The alternating component of the pressure
at a particular point in a sound field
 Expressed in N/m2 or Pa
Sound Levels
Sound Pressure Level
 Equal to 20 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio
of the RMS sound pressure to the reference sound pressure

SPL = 20 log (P/Po)


Where:
P = rms sound pressure
Po = reference sound pressure
Po = 2 x 10-5 N/m2 or Pa or 2 x 10-4 dynes/cm2
Po = 0.0002 μbar or 2.089 lb/ft2
Sound Pressure Levels
Sound Pressure Levels
 Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at any unit
of pressure in dB

SPL = 20log(P+N)

Where:
PN = rms sound pressure expressed in any of
pressure in dB
N = SPL constant corresponding to the unit at
which sound pressure is expressed
Sound Pressure Levels
SPL Constants
Sound Levels
Sound Intensity (I) and
Sound Intensity Level (SIL)
Sound Intensity
 Defined as the acoustic power per unit area
 The basic units are W/m2 or W/cm2
 The average rate of transmission of sound
energy through a cross-sectional area of 1
m2 at right angles to a particular direction.
Sound Levels
Sound Levels
Sound Levels
For sound produced at ground level
Sound Levels
Sound Intensity

I = ρ2 / d v

Where: d – density of the medium (kg/m3)


v – velocity of sound in medium (m/sec)
ρ – rms pressure in Pa (N/m2)
Sound Levels
Sound Intensity in Air

I = ρ2 / 410

Where: dv – 410 ray/sec


ρ – rms pressure in Pa (N/m2)
Sound Levels
 Sound Intensity Level

Where:
I = sound intensity,
Io = threshold intensity,
Io = 10-12 W/m2 or 10-16 W/cm2
Sound Levels
Sound Power (W) and
Sound Power Level (PWL)

Sound Power (W)


 The total energy radiated per unit time.
Sound Levels
 Sound Power Level (PWL)

Where:
W = sound power , W
Wo = reference sound power
Wo = 10-12 w
Room Acoustics
 Room Acoustics
 Concerned with the behavior of sound
within an enclosed space with a view to
obtaining the optimum acoustic effect on
the occupants
Room Acoustics
Room Acoustics
 Requirements
 Adequate amount of sound must reach all
parts of the room.
 Even distribution of sound

 Noise must be reduced to an acceptable

level.
 Optimum Reverberation time, RT
60
Reverberation
 Reverberation
 Tendency for the sound to persist over a
definite period of time after it has been
produced originally and stopped at the
source.
Reverberation
 Reverberation
Reverberation
 Reverberation Time, RT60
 Time taken for the density of sound energy
in the room to drop to 1 millionth (60dB)
below of its initial value
Optimum Periods of
Reverberation
Factors Affecting
Reverberation Time

 Volume of the room


 Type of materials
 Surface area of
material
TYPES OF ROOM

LIVE ROOM
- Little absorption (RT60 > 1 sec)

DEAD ROOM
- Large absorption (RT60 < 1 sec)

ANECHOIC ROOM
- 100% absorption (free field conditions)
Room Acoustics
 Coefficient of absorption, α
 Ratio of incident sound and absorbed
sound
 Efficiency of sound absorption
Room Acoustics
Coefficient of Absorption
Room Acoustics
Coefficient of Absorption
Reverberation Time
Equations
a. Sabine’s Equation
 For actual reverberation time with average
absorption less than or equal to 0.2; (absorption
coefficient, α ≤ 0.2)

Where;
V = room volume,
m3
A = total absorption
units
Reverberation Time
Equations

Where;
V = room volume, ft3
A = total absorption units
Reverberation Time
Equations
Example:

Calculate the reverberation time of a broadcast studio 8 ft. high by 13 ft


wide by 20 ft. long. The material used has a total absorption of 180.75
sabines.
Reverberation Time
Equations
b. Norris – Eyring Equation
 For actual reverberation time with average
absorption greater than 0.2; ( α ≥ 0.2 )

Where;
V = room volume, m3
α = average
coefficient of
reflecting surfaces
Reverberation Time
Equations
Example:

A lecture room, 16 m. long, 12.5 m. wide and 5 m. high has a reverberation


time of 0.75 sec. Calculate the average absorption coefficient of the
surfaces using the Eyring formula.
Reverberation Time
Equations
c. Stephens and Bate Equation
 For ideal reverberation time computation

Where:
r = 4 for speech
r = 5 for orchestra
r = 6 for choir
Optimum Volume /
person
Concert Halls 7.1
Italian type opera houses 4.2 – 5.1
Churches 7.1 – 9.9
Cinemas 3.1
Rooms for Speeches 2.8
Reverberation Time
Equations
Example:

Suggest the optimum volume and reverberation time for a concert hall to
be used mainly for orchestral music and to hold 450 people.
MICROPHONES
 Microphone

 An acoustic device classified as a


transducer which converts sound waves
into their corresponding electrical impulses
 Transducer
 A device which when actuated by energy in
one transmission system, supplies energy
in the same form or in another form, to a
second transmission system
Classification of
Microphones
A. General Categories

1. Passive (Generator Type) Microphone


 Does not require external power source

1. Active (Amplifier Type) Microphone


 Needs an external power source for its operation
Classification of
Microphones
B. According to Impedance

1. High Impedance
 Greater than 1000 ohms

1. Low Impedance
 1000 ohms and below
Classification of
Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling

Pressure Type
- Actuated by the
pressure of sound
waves against
the diaphragm.
Classification of
Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling

Velocity Type
- actuated by
velocity of
sound waves
Classification of
Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling

Contact Type
Classification of
Microphones
D. According to Elements Used
1. Dynamic
 Uses the principle of electromagnetic
induction
 Electromagnetic moving coil microphone
 A medium-priced instrument of high
sensitivity
Classification of
Microphones
Classification of
Microphones
2. Ribbon
 Velocity microphone
 Ribbon moves as if it is a part of the air
that experiences rarefactions and
condensations
Classification of
Microphones
Classification of
Microphones
3. Capacitor
 Condenser type or electrostatic
microphone
Classification of
Microphones
4. Carbon
 Uses principle of variable resistance
Classification of
Microphones
5. Crystal
 Uses principle of piezoelectric effect
Classification of
Microphones
6. Magnetic
 Operated on the magnetic reluctance due
to the movable core
Classification of
Microphones
E. According to directional
Characteristics
 Unidirectional
Classification of
Microphones
E. According to directional
Characteristics
 Bidirectional
Classification of
Microphones
E. According to directional
Characteristics
 Omnidirectional
Classification of
Microphones
E. According to directional
Characteristics
 Cardioid
Characteristics of
Microphone
1. Frequency Response
 Frequency over which the microphone will
operate normally

Magnetic : 60 – 10 000Hz
Crystal : 50 – 10 000Hz
Condenser : 50 – 15 000Hz
Carbon : 200 – 3 000Hz
Characteristics of
Microphone
2. Sensitivity
 Ability that would be covered by the
microphone
3. Dynamic Range
 Range of sound intensity that would be
covered by the microphone
Special Types of
Microphones
 Line Microphone
 Capable of picking up sound from a great
distance at an angle of 45 degrees and is
highly sensitive
Special Types of
Microphones
Differential Microphone
 Used in noisy places; good up to 3-in
distance
LOUDSPEAKERS
Types of Loudspeakers
Direct Radiator Type
 Those in which the vibrating surface
(diaphragm) radiates sound directly into
the air

1. Dynamic or Moving Coil


Loudspeaker
 Makes use of a moving coil in a
magnetic field and a permanent magnet
Types of Loudspeakers
Dynamic or Moving Coil Loudspeaker
Types of Loudspeakers
Electrostatic Loudspeaker
 Operates on the same principle as a
condenser microphone
Types of Loudspeakers
Horn Type
 Those in which a horn is interposed between the
diaphragm and the air
 Used for efficient coupling of sound into the air

 Types:
 Conical Horn
 Parabolic Horn
 Exponential Horn
 Hyperbolic Horn
Types of Loudspeakers
 To cover the entire range of audible
frequencies, the following speakers
are used:
Types of Loudspeakers
 Woofer – for low frequencies
Types of Loudspeakers
Tweeter – for high frequencies
Types of Loudspeakers
Midrange – for normal range
Types of Loudspeakers
 Subwoofer – for very low frequencies
DIVIDING NETWORK
Loudspeaker Phasing
 When more than one speaker is used:
 Phasing must be uniform
 Polarities and voice coils are in phase such
that the cone of all the speakers move
inwards at the same instant.
Loudspeaker Enclosure
(Baffle)
 Loudspeaker mounting that is used to
prevent the sound waves from the
rear from interfering with the sound
waves in the front of speaker
QUESTIONS

1. Which best describe the sound wave?


a. It may be longitudinal
b. It is always transverse
c. It is always longitudinal
d. All of the above

2. Which of the following cannot travel through a vacuum?


a. Electromagnetic wave
b. Radio wave
c. Sound wave
d. Light wave
3. Through which medium does sound travel fastest?
a. Air
b. Water
c. Steel
d. Mercury

4. Speed that is faster than that of sound.


a. Ultrasonic
b. Supersonic
c. Subsonic
d. Transonic
5. What is the speed of sound in air at 20°C?
a. 1087 ft/s
b. 1100 ft/s
c. 1126 ft/s
d. 200 ft/s

6. Calculate a half wavelength sound for sound of 16000


Hz
a. 35 ft
b. 10 ft
c. 0.035 ft
d. 100 ft
7. The lowest frequency that a human ear can hear is
a. 5 Hz
b. 20 Hz
c. 30 Hz
d. 20 kHz

8. Sound that vibrates at frequency too high for the


human ear to hear (over 20 kHz)
a. Subsonic
b. Ultrasonic
c. Transonic
d. Stereo
9. The frequency interval between two sounds whose
frequency ratio is 2.
a. Octave
b. Half octave
c. Third-octave
d. Decade

10. A 16 KHz sound is how many octaves higher than a 500


Hz sound
a. 2
b. 5
c. 4
d. 8
11. Sound waves composed of but one frequency is a/an
a. Infra sound
b. Pure tone
c. Structure borne
d. Residual sound

12. Sound wave has two main characteristics which are


a. Highness and loudness
b. Tone and loudness
c. Pitch and loudness
d. Rarefactions and compressions
13. When waves bend away from straight lines of travel, it is
called
a. Reflection
b. Diffraction
c. Rarefaction
d. Refraction

14. The amplitude of sound waves, the maximum


displacement of each air particle, is the property which
perceive as _____ of a sound
a. Pitch
b. Intensity
c. Loudness
d. Harmonics
15. It is the weakest sound that average human hearing can
detect.
a. SPL = 0 dB
b. Threshold of hearing
c. Reference pressure = 2 x 10-5N/m2
d. A, b, c

16. What is a device that is used to measure the hearing


sensitivity of a person?
a. Audiometer
b. OTDR
c. SLM
d. Spectrum analyzer
17. What is the device used in measuring sound pressure
levels incorporating a microphone, amplification, filtering
and a display.
a. Audiometer
b. OTDR
c. SLM
d. Spectrum analyzer

18. It is the device used to calibrate an SLM?


a. Microphone
b. Pistonphone
c. Telephone
d. Filter
19. _____ is the sound power measured over the area upon
which is received.
a. Sound pressure
b. Sound energy
c. Sound intensity
d. Sound pressure level

20. A measure of the intensity of sound in comparison to


another sound intensity
a. Phon
b. Decibel
c. Pascal
d. Watts
21. Calculate the sound intensity level in dB of a sound whose
intensity is 0.007 W/m2.
a. 95 dB
b. 91 dB
c. 98 dB
d. 101 dB

22. What is the sound pressure level for a given sound whose
RMS pressure is 200 N/m2?
a. 200 dB
b. 20 dB
c. 140 dB
d. 14 dB
23. What is the sound intensity for an RMS pressure of 200
Pascal?
a. 90 W/m2
b. 98 W/m2
c. 108 W/m2
d. 88 W/m2

24. The sound pressure level is increased by _____ dB if the


pressure is doubled.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6
25. The sound pressure level is increased by _____ dB if the
intensity is doubled.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6

26. If four identical sounds are added what is the increase


in level in dB?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6
27. The transmission of sound from one room to an adjacent
room, via common walls, floors or ceilings.
a. Flanking transmission
b. Reflection
c. Refraction
d. Reverberation

28. _____ is the continuing presence of an audible sound after


the sound source has stop.
a. Flutter echo
b. Sound concentration
c. Sound shadow
d. Reverberation
29. Required time for any sound to decay to 60 dB
a. Echo time
b. Reverberation time
c. Delay time
d. Transient time

30. A room containing relatively little sound absorption


a. Dead room
b. Anechoic room
c. Live room
d. Free-field
31. A room in which the walls offer essentially 100%
absorption, therefore simulating free field conditions.
a. Dead room
b. Anechoic room
c. Live room
d. Closed room

32. Calculate the reverberation time of the room, which has a


volume of 8700 ft3 and total sound absorption 140 sabines.
a. 0.3 sec
b. 3.5 sec
c. 3 sec
d. 0.53 sec
33. It is an audio transducer that converts acoustic pressure in
air into its equivalent electrical impulses
a. Loudspeaker
b. Amplifier
c. Baffle
d. Microphone

34. _____ is a pressure type microphone with permanent coil


as a transducing element.
a. Dynamic
b. Condenser
c. Magnetic
d. Carbon
35. A microphone which has an internal impedance of 25
kΩ is _____ type.
a. High impedance
b. Low impedance
c. Dynamic
d. Magnetic

36. A microphone that uses the piezoelectric effect


a. Dynamic
b. Condenser
c. Crystal
d. Carbon
37. _____ is a type of loudspeaker driver with an effective
diameter of 5 inches used at midrange audio frequency.
a. Tweeter
b. Woofer
c. Mid-range
d. A or C

38. _____ is measure of how much sound is produced from the


electrical signal.
a. Sensitivity
b. Distortion
c. Efficiency
d. Frequency response
39. It describes the output of a microphone over a range of
frequencies.
a. Directivity
b. Sensitivity
c. Frequency response
d. All of the above

40. A loudspeaker radiates an acoustic power of 1 mW if the


electrical input is 10 W. What is its rated efficiency?
a. -10 dB
b. -20 dB
c. -30 dB
d. -40 dB
41. An amplifier can deliver 100 W to a loudspeaker. If the
rated efficiency of the loudspeaker is -60 dB. What is the
maximum intensity 300 ft from it?
a. 10 dB
b. 20 dB
c. 30 dB
d. 40 dB

42. Speaker is a device that


a. Converts sound waves into current and voltage
b. Converts current variations into sound waves
c. Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy
d. Converts electrical energy to electromagnetic energy
43. The impedance of most drivers is about _____ ohms at
their resonant frequency.
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 10

44. It is a transducer used to convert electrical energy to


mechanical energy.
a. Microphone
b. Baffle
c. Magnetic assemble
d. Driver
45. It is an enclosure used to prevent front and back wave
cancellation.
a. Loudspeaker
b. Driver
c. Baffle
d. Frame

46. A circuit that divides the frequency components into


separate bands in order to have individual feeds to the
different drivers.
a. Suspension system
b. Dividing network
c. Magnet assembly
d. Panel board
47. _____ is early reflection of sound.
a. Echo
b. Pure sound
c. Reverberation
d. Intelligible sound

48. Noise reduction system used for film sound in movie.


a. Dolby
b. DBx
c. dBa
d. dBk
49. Using a microphone at less than the recommended
working distance will create a _____ which greatly increases
the low frequency signals.
a. Roll-off
b. Proximity effect
c. Drop out
d. None of the choices

50. What is the unit of loudness of an individual listener?


a. Sone
b. Phon
c. Decibel
d. Mel
51. A unit of noisiness related to the perceived noise level
a. Noy
b. dB
c. Sone
d. Phon

52. What is the loudness level of a 1KHz tone if its intensity is


1 x 10-5W/cm2?
a. 100 phons
b. 105 phons
c. 110 phons
d. 100 phons
53. A transducer that converts acoustic signals into electrical
signals.
a. microphone
b. loudspeaker
c. both a and b
d. none of these

54. A characteristic of a microphone which indicates the


frequency range over which the microphone the frequency
range over which the microphone will operate normally.
a. sensitivity
b. frequency response
c. dynamic range
d. directional characteristic
55. An ability of the microphone to detect very slight changes
of sound.
a. sensitivity
b. frequency response
c. dynamic range
d. directional characteristic

56. The range of sound intensity that would be covered by the


microphone.
a. sensitivity
b. frequency response
c. dynamic range
d. directional characteristic
57. A special microphone characterized by a long perforated
tube and high sensitivity, suitable for TV applications.
a. line microphone
b. dynamic microphone
c. differential microphone
d. ribbon microphone

58. A sound intensity that could cause painful sensation to the


human ear.
a. threshold of sense
b. threshold of pain
c. hearing threshold
d. sensation intensity
59. What is the speed of sound in a material having a density
of 1000 kg/cu.m. and Young’s modulus of elasticity of 2.3 x
10exp 9 N/sq.m.?
a. 1517 m/sec
b. 1571 m/sec
c. 1715 m/sec
d. 1751 m/sec

60. In acoustics, the volume velocity component is a function


of the _____ of the material.
a. density
b. volume
c. diameter
d. Young’s modulus
61. If the sound source radiates 1 watt, what is its sound
power level?
a. 0 dB
b. 60 dB
c. 120 dB
d. 240 dB

62. If a note has a fundamental frequency of 100Hz, what is its


5th octave?
a. 6400 Hz
b. 3200 Hz
c. 500 Hz
d. 1600 Hz
63. A church has an internal volume of 2550 cu.m. When it
contains absorption of 186 metric sabines, what will be its
reverberation time in sec.?
a. 2
b. 2.2
c. 2.5
d. 3.0

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