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DIGITAL SIGNAL

PROCESSING
CHAPTER 7
DISCRETE FOURIER
TRANSFORM
(DFT)

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
DEFINATION

To perform frequency analysis on a discrete-time signal, x(n),


need to convert the time-domain to an equivalent frequencydomain representation. In order to this, need to use a powerful
computational tool to perform frequency analysis called
Discrete Fourier Transform or DFT .
The continuous Fourier Transform is defined as below:

However, this integral equation of Fourier Transform is not


suitable to perform frequency analysis due to this 2 reasons:
Continuous nature can be handled by Computer
The limits of integration cannot be from minus infinity to infinity.
There should be a finite length sequences that can be handled
by computer.

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
DEFINATION

Let x(n) be a finite length sequences.


Thus, the N-point DFT of x(n) defined as X(k) is :
N 1

X(k) = x(n) e-j2nk/N,

k = 0,1, , N-1

n 0

k represent the harmonic number of the transform


component.
n is the finite length sequence interval defined as
0 n N-1, N is the sequence length
Thus X(k) being complex and has real & imaginary
component, so that the kth harmonic of X(k) is:
X(k) = R(k) + jI(k)

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
PROPERTIES

The are 4 properties of DFT:


1. Periodicity
If X(k) is the N-point DFT of x(k),
x(n+N) = x(n), for all n
X(k+N) = X(k), for all k
It shows that DFT is periodic with period N, also
known
as Cyclic property of the DFT
2. Linearity
If X1(k) and X2(k) are the N-point DFT
of x1(n) and x2(n),
DFT
ax1(n) + bx2(n)
aX1(k) + bX2(k)

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
PROPERTIES
3. Circular Shifting
Let x(n) be a sequence of length N and X(k) is N
-point DFT, thus the sequence, x,(n) obtained from
x(n) by shifting x(n) cyclically by m units. Then,
x,(n)

DFT

X(k)e-j2km/N

4. Parsevals Theorem
if x(n)

y(n)
N 1

DFT
DFT

X(k) and
Y(k)
N 1

X (k )

thus, x(n) y*(n) = 1/N


k 0
n 0

Y*(k)

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
RELATIONSHIP WITH zTRANSFORM

The z-transform of the sequence, x(n) is given by:


X(z) =

x ( n) z

-n

, ROC include unit circle

by defining zk = ej2k/N, k = 0, 1, 2, , N-1


X(k) = X(z)| zk = ej2k/N , k = 0,1,2, , N-1

x ( n) e

-j2nk/N

where k = 2k/N, k = 0,1,2,,N-1

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
CONVOLUTION

To perform convolution for DFT, need to


do the following:
1. Find N-point DFT of the sequence h(n)
and
x(n).
2. Multiply DFT to form Y(k) = H(k)X(k)
3. Perform inverse DFT to obtain y(n).

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1:
Find the DFT for the following finite length sequence,
x(n) = { , , }
Solution :
1. Determine the sequence length, N
N = 3, k = 0,1,2
2. Use DFT formula to determine X(k)
X(k) =

N 1

-j2nk/N , k = 0, 1, 2
e-j2
x
(
n
)

0
X(0) = n +
+=
-j2/3 + e-j4
-j4/3
X(1) = + e-j2
= + [cos (2/3) jsin(2/3) + [cos (4/3)
jsin(4/3)
= + [-0.5 j0.866] + [ -0.5 + j0.866]
= + [-1] = 0

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
EXAMPLES

Continued from Examples 1:


X(2) = + e-j4/3 + e-j8/3
= + [cos (4/3) jsin(4/3)] +
[cos (8/3) jsin(8/3)]
= + [-0.5 +j0.866] + [-0.5
j0.866]
=0
Thus,
X(k) = { , 0, 0}

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
EXAMPLES

Examples 2:
Given the following the finite length sequences,
x(n) = {1,1,2,2,3,3}
Perform DFT for this sequences.
Solution :
1. Determine the sequence length, N = 6.
2. Use DFT formula to determine X(k).
X(k) = N 1

-j2nk/N , k = 0,1,2,3,4,5
e-j2

x ( n)

X(0) = 12, X(1) = -1.5 + j2.598


n 0+ j0.866, X(3) = 0
X(2) = -1.5
X(4) = -1.5 j0.866, X(5) = -1.5 j2.598
Thus,
X(k) = {12, -1.5 + j2.598, -1.5 + j0.866, 0, -1.5 j0.866,
-1.5 j2.598}

CHAPTER 7 : DFT
EXAMPLES

Examples 3:
Find the DFT for the convolution of 2 sequences :
x1(n) = {2, 1, 2, 1} & x2(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4}
Solution :
1. Determine the sequence length for each
sequence, N = 4. Thus, k = 0,1,2,3
2. Perform DFT for each sequences,
(i) X1(0) = 6, X1(1) = 0, X1(2) = 2, X2(3) = 0
X1(k) = {6,0,2,0}
(ii) X2(0) = 10, X2(1) = -2+j2, X2(2) = -2, X2(3) = -2-j2
X2(k) = {10,-2+j2,-2,-2-j2}
3. Perform Convolution by :
X3(k) = X1(k) X2(k)
= {60, 0, -4, 0}

CHAPTER 7 : IDFT
DEFINATION

IDFT is the inverse Discrete Fourier


Transform.
The finite length sequence can be
obtained from the Discrete Fourier
Transform by performing IDFT.
The IDFT is defined
as :
N 1
X (k ) e-j2nk/N,
x(n) = 1/N
k 0
where n = 0,1, , N-1

CHAPTER 7 : IDFT
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES 4:
Determine the IDFT for the following DFT sequence,
X(k) = {1, 2, 3, 4}
SOLUTION :
1. Determine the length of the sequence, N = 4
2. Calculate the IDFT by the IDFT formula:
x(n) = 1/4

e-j2nk/4,
X
(
k
)

k 0

x(0) = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4) = 5/2
x(1) = -0.5 j0.5, x(2) = -0.5
x(3) = -0.5 + j0.5
3. Thus the finite length sequence, x(n) is:
x(n) = {2.5, -0.5-j0.5, -0.5, -0.5+j0.5}

CHAPTER 7 : IDFT
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES 5:
Obtain the finite length sequence, x(n) from the DFT sequence in
Example 3.
Solution :
1. The sequence in Example 3 is :
X3(k) = {60, 0, -4, 0}
2. Use IDFT formula to obtain x(n):
x3(n) = 1/4
x3(0) = 14,

-j2nk/4,
e-j2

X (k )

x (1) = 16,
k3 0

x3(2) = 14, x3(3) = 16

Thus the finite length sequences are :


x3(k) = {14, 16, 14, 16}

CHAPTER 7 : DFT & IDFT


COMPLEXITY OF
DFT

A Large number of multiplications and


additions are required to compute
DFT.
To compute the 8-point of DFT of the
sequence, x(n),
The X(k) will be the summation of
x(0)e-j2(0)k/8 until x(7)e-j2(7)k/8
For the eight terms, there will be 64
multiplication (82) and 56 addition (8 x
(8-1))
Hence, for N-point DFT, there will be

CHAPTER 7 : DFT & IDFT


COMPLEXITY OF
DFT
Thus, need one algorithm to reduce the
number of calculation and speeds up the
computation of DFT. The algorithm is
called Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). It
utilizes special properties of the DFT to
construct a computational procedure that
requires Nlog2N complex multiplication
and Nlog2N complex addition to carry out
N-point DFT.

The MATLAB command use to perform DFT &


IDFT is:
1. fft2 () - for DFT
2. ifft2 () - for IDFT

CHAPTER 7 : FFT
DEFINATION

FFT is the algorithm that efficiently


computes the DFT.
In applying FFT, the DFT expression can
be written as :
N 1

x ( n)

X(k) =

n 0

WNnk , k = 0, 1,,N-1

where, WN = e-j2/N

CHAPTER 7 : IFFT
DEFINATION

The FFT for IDFT can be defined as:


N 1

x(n) = 1/N X (k ) WNnk


k 0

WN2 = (e-j2/N)2 = e-j22/N = WN/2

CHAPTER 7 : DFT & IDFT


SUMMARY

The DFT & IDFT can be summarized below:


1. It is a powerful method to perform frequency
analysis which are used widely in digital
image processing including blurring and enhancing.
2. Since the DFT & IDFT will become tedious
when the length of the sequence become
big, one algorithm is develop to overcome
this problem.
3. The algorithm can be found in MATLAB. The function
are :
1. FFT2 = to perform DFT
2. IFFT2 = to perform IDFT

DIGITAL SIGNAL
PROCESSING

THATS ALL.

I HOPE YOU CAN LEARN SOMETHING FROM THIS COURSE


ESPECIALLY FOR APPLICATIONS THAT RELATED TO DSP.

GOOD LUCK FOR CAREER AS GRADUATED ENGINEER.

DO NOT FORGET TO DO THE E-PAT.

GOOD LUCK FOR YOUR FINAL EXAM.

LETS DO THE PHOTOSHOOTING!!!!