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President Fujimori of

Peru is an example of
what can happen when a
government has nothing
to limit its power.

There are many ways


that governments are
kept in check (limited)
so they wont have too
much power.

Constitution

Minority
Rights

Checks on
Government

Consent of the
Governed

Rule of
Law

Separation of
Power

A constitution is the rulebook


for a countrys government.

Heres how a constitution limits government:


Tells how laws are made
Sets rules for how the government functions
Lists the rights and responsibilities of citizens

Most countries have written constitutions

When President
Fujimori took
control of Perus
government,
what did he do
to Perus
constitution?

Quick
Review!

Constitutions limit government


by:
Telling howlaw
________ are
made
s
Setting rule
________ for the
government
s
Listing therigh
_________ and
responsibiliti
the
_______________
ts
of
es
citizens

Rule of law means that


nobody is above the law.

Heres how the rule of law limits government:


The law applies to everyone
Even the president must follow the law
The government cant take illegal actions

The rule of law is stronger


Check this
in
some countries than it is in others.
out:
Strongest (90100%)
Strong (75-90%)
Average (50-75%)
Weak (25-50%)
Weaker (10-25%)
Weakest/None(0-10%)

2005 Worldwide Governance Indicators

When President
Fujimori took
control of the
government, did
he follow the law?

Quick
Review!

The rule of law limits


government because:
The law applies to
everyon
____________
e
Even thePreside
___________ must
follow the
ntlaw
The government cannot
illega
take actions that
are
l
_________

Separation of power divides power


among different branches of government.

Heres how separation of power limits


government:
No branch has all the power
Each branch can check (limit) what the

other branches do
Responsibilities are balanced among the

branches

Check this out: Lots of countries


around the world separate power
into branches!
Canada
United
States

Mexico

Jamaic
a

Panam
a

Icelan
d

France

Hungary

AND
MORE!

Greec
e
Japan

Indonesi
a

Fiji

Pakista
n

Chile
Morocco

Egypt

Iran

Which branch
did President
Fujimori get rid
of when he took
control of
Perus
government?

Quick
Review!

Separation of power limits


government because:
No branch has all the
powe
_______
r
Each branch can check
________ what the other
branches do
Responsibilities are
balance
___________ amongdall the
branches

Consent of the governed means that


the citizens give their permission for
the government to operate.

Heres how consent of the governed limits


government:
Citizens have the right to vote
Citizens can use their vote to change how

the government is run


By voting, citizens could even change the

constitution

Check this out: Citizens in many


countries around the world have the
right to vote.

Election Posters from Around the World

When President
Fujimori took
control of the
government, did
the majority of
Perus citizens
support him?

Quick
Review!

Consent of the governed


limits government because:
Citizens have the rightvot
to________
e
Citizens can use their vote
chang
to
__________ how the
e
government
is run
By voting, citizens could
even change
the
Constituti
______________
on

Minority rights give protection of the law to


every group of people, no matter how small.

Heres how minority rights limit government:


Everyones rights are protected
Nobody is too unimportant to be treated

equally under the law


Even unpopular groups must be treated

fairly

When President
Fujimori took
control of the
government, was
he looking out for
the rights of all
people (even
suspected
terrorists)?

Quick
Review!

Minority rights limit


government because:
Everyones rights are
protecte
___________
d
Nobody is too
unimporta
_____________
to be treatednt
equally under
the law
Even unpopul
____________ groups
must ar
be treated fairly

Lets
review!

The rulebook for a


government is
called
A
constitution
!
Good Job!

Splitting a
government into
different branches is
called
Separation
of Power!
Keep it up!

Protecting even
small or unpopular
groups of people is
called
Minority
Rights!

Youre on a roll!

A country where
citizens show their
approval or disapproval
by voting has
Consent of
the
Governed!
Nice one!

A country where
nobody is above the
law has
Rule of Law!
Way to go!

Discuss It: Which limits did President Fujimori


have after he took control of the government?

Constitution
Rule of Law
Separating Power
Minority Rights
Consent of the Governed

What do you think?

Is it enough for a
government to have only
one limitation on its power?