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Integrated Approach for Solid

Waste Management
&
Lahore Waste Management
Company

Sequence of Presentation
Historical Background of Solid Waste Management
Urbanization and Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management and Integrated Solid Waste
Management
Existing SWM Practices & Issues
Role of informal sector
Institutional innovation
Achievements of Lahore Waste Management
Company

Historical Background of SWM


Timelin
e

Development

3000
B.C

Burning Landfill in Knossos, Cretan capital

2000
B.C

Composting in China

500 B.C Waste from Athens was transported at least a mile


1185

Throwing of waste from windows was forbidden in


Paris

1220

In Naples, Italy , anyone who deposited debris other


than designated place used to be whipped across
city

1388

English parliament banned disposal in public


waterways & ditches

1506

France decided to organize waste collection

1560

First cleanliness decree in Hamburg, Germany that


market squares will be cleaned four times a year

Historical Background of SWM


Timelin
e

Development

1842

Reports linked filthy environmental conditions to


diseases and age of Sanitation starts

1874

In England, garbage was burnt to produce


electricity

1885

First waste incinerator was built in U.S.A

1900

Use of waste bins spread widely in England,


Germany & France

1992

Basel Convention came into force

1995

Van Der Klundert and Lardinois used the term


Integrated Solid Waste Management for the
first time by which they mean waste management
hierarchy

Urbanization and Waste


Management
Over the next 25 years, the urban
population in Pakistan is likely to
increase by 140%
Factors of rapid increase in population
and economic activity coupled with
changing lifestyle, unplanned growth,
weak institutional capacities and poor
infrastructure have aggravated Solid
Waste Management issues.

What is Solid Waste


Management
Solid Waste Management encompasses
planning, designing, financing, construction
operation, collection, transportation,
processing, recycling, and final disposal of the
residual solid material.

What is Integrated Solid Waste


Management
The Integrated Solid Waste Management
(ISWM) involves selection and application of
appropriate techniques, technologies and
management programmes to solve the solid
waste problem in a;
Socially desirable;
Economically viable; and
Environmentally sound manner

Solid Waste
Management System

Households
Industries
Markets
Institutions
Hospitals etc.

Generation

Sweeping
& City
Cleaning

Storage

Collection

Transfer &
Transport

Resource
Recovery
Disposal

Existing SWM Practices


&
Issues

Basic Facts Lahore


District

Basic Facts Excluding


Cantt.

Sweeping System - Lahore

Sweeping System (Internationally)

Waste Storage System - Lahore

Waste Storage (Internationally)

Available Storage Capacity

Type of
Container

Nos.

Storage Capacity / Total Capacity


Container (Tons)
(Tons)

Small (5 cu. M)

829

2.5

2100

Large (10 cu. M)

370

6.0

2200

Skips

54

0.75

40

Total

App. 4300

Waste Storage Points

Transfer and
Transport
Infrastructure called as Transfer
Station
It is a major facility at which MSW from
collection vehicles is consolidated into
loads that are transported by larger
trucks or other means to more distant
final disposal facilities, typically landfill.
In Punjab there is no Waste Transfer
Station

Transfer Stations

Definition
Transportation of waste from
collection points to Dumpsites

Waste Collection System


- Lahore

Waste Collection System (Internationally)

Waste Collection Capacity

Type of Vehicle

Nos.

Cap. / Trip Daily Trips Total Collection


(Tons)
(Nos.)
Capacity (Tons)

Open Trucks

96

2.0

192

384

Compactors

5.0

45

Arm Roll (10 cu.M)

49

6.0

294

1750

Arm Roll (5 cu. M)

118

2.5

708

1800

Tractor Trolley

52

2.0

52

105

Total

App. 4100

Available Fleet

Gap in Waste Storage and


Collection

Composting
Composting is the breakdown of organic
material, by bacteria, fungi, and other
organisms in a controlled environment

Why Compost?
To avoid generation of methane at landfill site which
is highly explosive in nature and strong GHG

Composting can provide a rich soil


conditioner which increases vegetable,
flower, lawn and tree growth in any garden.

Lahore Compost under PPP


Accepting app. 500 600 tons of
MSW / day
Sales price: Rs. 140 /50kg - bag
Start March 2006
The project has been registered for
Carbon Credits
Lahore Compost has entered into
agreement with NFC for a supply of
compost of 150 tons/day.
Inorganic waste is being supplied to
DG-Khan

Waste Busters Private Sector


Collect MSW from Lahore
Cantonment & convert it into
Compost
Palletized process
Design Capacity: 200 tons per
day
Sales price: Rs. 250 /50kg-bag

Composting in Pakistan

Composting in Sweden

Sanitary Landfilling
An engineered method of disposing of
MSW on land, in a manner that meets
most of the standard specifications,
including sound siting, extensive site
preparation, proper leachate & and gas
collection, management & monitoring,
compaction & final cover.
In Multan one Sanitary Landfill has
been developed with the Technical
Assistance of JICA

Examples Of Unsafe Disposal

Details of Waste
Disposal
Sites
Officially Owned Site
Site
Mehmood
Booti

Waste
Receiving
Capacity
(Tons/day)

Status

2500

Operational Since
1995 (Life
Consumed)

Unofficially Owned Sites


Babu Sabu

800

Tibba Village

700

Needs to be
relocated to Properly
Designed Waste
Disposal Facility

Issues at Disposal Sites


Aesthetic Nuisance
Public Resistance
Air, Soil and Water Contamination
No Soil Cover
No Leachate Collection / Treatment
No Gas Control
Waste Pickers

Internationally

Resource Recovery by
Informal Sector
App. 15000 waste scavengers are
operating in Lahore
Approx: 10 % of daily waste
generation i.e. 500 tons / day
Economic activity of Rs. 1.90 Billion
per Year

Background
The CM Punjab, during his previous
tenure, endeavored to improve the
existing SWM system of Lahore as per the
international standards.
Efforts were made to privatize the SWM
services in Lahore to French, Chinese,
Korean and Iranian companies.
Efforts failed due to various reasons such
as lack of capacity within the CDGL, faulty
outsourcing model, political instability and
economic constraints.

Establishment of LWMC
Due to the deteriorating level of SWM service,
the CM Punjab envisaged establishment of a
company on the basis of Turkish Model.
The CM directed to establish a company
similar in approach and methodology of
Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality to
overcome the challenges of cleanliness
LWMC was established under section 42 of
the Companies Ordinance 1984 on March 19,
2010

Why we needed a
company????
Critical capacity gaps within CDGL as
indicated by the analytical work done
by World Bank
To gain financial and administrative
autonomy
Flexibility and independence in quick
decision making

Why we needed a
company????
Professional and entrepreneurial approach
Flexibility of hire fire, procurement, public
private partnership
Independent decision making through a
smart BoD
Accountability through professional
auditors
External accountability through SECP &
other clients and stake holders

Why we needed a
company????
Professionals to manage the company
Improved Human Resource Management
Ring fenced financing to assess & improve
efficiency
Speed of implementation
Seclusion from Political interference at
operational level
Well defined responsibility, authority, resources
and accountability The key to improved
performance

Agreement with ISTAC


Signed Between M/s. LWMC and M/s.
ISTAC, Turkey on 27th December, 2010;
Brief TORs:
1.Preparation of ISWM Plan;
2.Development of Infrastructure Projects
e.g. waste treatment and disposal
systems, transfer stations etc.
3.Rehabilitation of Existing dumpsites;
4.Preparation of Operational Plans;

Agreement with ISTAC


5.Development of Legal & Regulatory
Framework
6.Development of organizational structure
with job descriptions and required
qualifications
7.Waste Characterization Study
8.Fleet Management System
9.Awareness Strategy
10.Trainings to build institutional capacity

Major Achievements of LWMC


Sr. No.

Tasks Achieved

Development of model areas

Up scaling of Model Areas in rest of Lahore

Establishment of Complaint management


system

Start of Public awareness campaign

Removal of waste from open plots

Land Procurement for Waste disposal facility

Start of Vehicle tracking and monitoring


system

Development of six (06) Model Areas


Basic features:
Door-to-Door waste collection with
customized vehicles
Daily sweeping of roads and connecting
streets
Water sprinkling/washing

Development of six (06) Model Areas


Basic features:
Local Area Office for complaint redressal
Waste collection in commercial areas
Special arrangements after rains and storms

Development of six (06) Model Areas


Basic features:
Social Mobilization in the area
Cleanliness of areas around waste
containers
Transportation of waste to disposal site

Development of six (06) Model Areas


Appreciation from Independent media & Public

Development of six (06) Model Areas

Public Feedback for Model


Areas

Development of six (06) Model Areas

Documentary
on
Model Areas

Waste Management Services In


Commercial Areas
Outsourcing of waste collection in
Barkat Market
Special arrangements for cleanliness of
Liberty Market

Complaint
through
telephone

1139

Complaint
through
mail/email

The Resource
Group (TRG)

Complaint processing
Section (SI &
ADO/Contractor & Unit
In-charge

Complaint Resolution
Section
Redressal Fleet /Operational
Staff

Resolution of
Complaint by
concerned Field
Unit and
Feedback

LWMC
For Information
& VTMS and
feedback after
resolution

Planning For the


Future

Complaint Management System


Complaint Registration
Courteous
In

response to the customers

time transfer and tracking of complaints

Real

time recording of complaints

Complaint Management System


Complaint Redressal:
Launch

of dedicated complaint redressal fleet

by LWMC
Analysis
Each

of Real time Monitoring reports

complaint responded within 2 hours

Complaints Reporting Format

Procurement of Land for an Integrated Waste


Disposal Site
Lakhoder Site

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site
Features of the site
Length of approach road = approx. 3.0 Km
Distance from the nearest community = 2.2
Km
Total Area = approx. 140 Acres

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site

Footage
of
Lakhodehr

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site
Geo-technical investigations done:

The subsoil conditions are fairly uniform and consist of alluvial


deposits consisting of clayey silt / silty clay / sandy silt / silty
sand.

The groundwater was encountered at a depth ranging from


0.7 m to 7 m below the existing ground surface

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site
Approved by professionals from M/s. ISTAC
Environmental Impact Assessment in process
Total area of land ~ 140 Acres
Approximately 42 acres in Sheikhupura & remaining in Lahore

Price Evaluation:
Price has been evaluated through following independent
evaluators;
1. M/s. Asif associates
2. M/s. Iqbal a. Naji
Approximate cost determined is Rs. 20 Crore.

Social Awareness

Collaboration with schools has started


Work on formulation of Awareness Strategy
has been started by the Professionals from
M/s. ISTAC

Vehicle Tracking and Monitoring System

Agreement with PAKSAT (partners with


SUPARCO) signed
Real time vehicle tracking
Verification of achievements against set
parameters
Efficiency through optimal resource utilization
Completion Time: June 15, 2011

RFID System
RFID system introduced to identify
grey areas of efficiency
Verification of unitary performance
based on set parameters
Possibility to make fluid operational
planning based on statistical results

RFID System

Establishment of Integrated Waste Disposals


Two bidders (DG Cement and Waste Busters) declared
successful at the following rates
Name of Site

Bid Rate

Company

Saggian

Rs. 48 per tonne

DG Khan Cement

Mehmood Booti

Rs. 50 per tonne

DG Khan Cement

Nain Sundar

Rs. 40 per tonne

PNO Waste Management

Waste processing capacity of each plant 1000 tons / day


Agreement to be signed by end March
Completion time: 12 months after signing of the agreement

Establishment of Integrated Waste


Disposals
Expected Technologies include
Segregation
Composting or Energy from
Landfill Gas
RDF

Removal of Waste from Open Plots


Data regarding plots in 8 towns collected
AIT, ABT, DGBT, RT-A, RT-B, ST, WT, GT, NT
Through private sector and own resources
Expected Completion: July 30, 2011
Some of the plots have already been cleared

Removal of Waste from Open Plots

Nain Sukh Pind Nazd Masjad Ahal-Hadess, Ravi


Town-A

Before

After

Removal of Waste from Open Plots

Meraj Park Nazd Ufone Tower, Shahdra Ravi


Town-A

Before

After

Removal of Waste from Open Plots

Wandala Road Ravi Town-A

Before

After

Waste collection strategies


Division of Lahore into two zones Outsourcing of SWM Services

Major Areas In Each Zone


Waste
Pop.
Amount
Zone (Millio
(Tonnes/D
n)
ay)

Zone
1

3.40

2199

Zone
2

3.10

2042

Name of Important Areas


Shahdara, Walled City, Baghbanpura, Data
Nagar, Data Darbar, Gawalmandi, Anarkali,
Mozang, Bibipak Daman,
Shadbagh,Gujjarpura, Darogheywala,
Mominpura, Mughalpura, Harbanspura,
Tajpura, Youhanabad
Gulshan-e-Ravi, Samnabad, Ichra,
Shadman, Islampura, Yateem khana,
Sabzazar, Allama Iqbal Scheme, Gulberg,
Garden Town, Thokar niaz baig, Township,
Raiwind, Johar Town, Farid Colony, Ittefaq
Foundary

Start of Operations in core areas of


Zone 1 within 3 Months
Gradual Increase in Areas
Complete Take over within 2 years

Waste collection strategies


Turkish companies are ready to take over complete
package of waste collection, transportation, city cleaning,
washing, and placement of containers etc of each zone.
Initially tender documents will be designed for zone-I and
gradually the services will be spread all over the city.
LWMC is also working on zoning of Lahore to outsource
waste management services

Visits of Turkish experts


Three (03) Delegations from ISTAC have
already Visited for:Assessment of SWM system in Lahore;
This detailed assessment will lead to proper
designing of waste management systems, cost
estimates;
Division of Lahore into two (2) zones;
Each zone to be outsourced for road cleansing
(sweeping and washing), waste collection and
transportation gradually through sub-contracts
within each zone;
Turkish companies showing keen interest and
will operate in collaboration with local
companies

Visits of Turkish experts


Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste:
Three waste characterization studies
will be carried out during the year (one
in each season);
In the first study sixty six samples were
collected from various parts of the city;
Major component of the waste is
organic which is suitable for composting
and energy generation through landfill
gas capturing

Waste Characterization Work


Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste:
Weighting Solid Waste Collection
vehicle at weighbridge.
Waste coming from determined region.
Providing Training to Staff for collection
of waste.
Classification Work of Solid Waste.
Solid Waste Laboratory psychoanalysis

An outlook of categorization of Waste

Change of Waste Contents ratio according to income level


TYPE of REGION
COMPONENTS

LOW INCOME
MODE RAN
L
.

ALL

MIDDLE INCOME
MODE RAN
L
.

ALL

HIGH INCOME
MODE RAN
ALL
L
.

COMMERCIAL
MODE RAN
L
.

ALL

INSTITUTIONS
MODE RAN
ALL
L
.

OVER
ALL

1,36

1,03

1,25

2,35

1,10

1,94

1,28

1,23 1,26

1,96

1,75

1,86

48,20

15,2
2,89
5

Diaper

5,81

5,61

5,75

7,61

7,70

7,64

6,47

8,36 7,10

4,24

2,88

3,56

0,89

0,99 0,96

5,35

Elec.-Electro.

0,04

0,01

0,03

0,10

0,07

0,09

0,03

0,06 0,04

0,08

0,04

0,06

0,00

0,03 0,02

0,05

Glass

0,15

0,19

0,16

0,70

0,27

0,56

0,21

0,23 0,22

0,46

0,07

0,26

1,46

0,95 1,09

0,43

Hazerdous

0,12

0,58

78,44

0,17 0,14
74,8 77,2
9
6

71,54

0,01
76,0
2

0,04
73,7
8

0,10

72,06

0,45
71,6
3

0,06

Bodegredable

0,19
70,7
8

0,13

0,10 0,11
76,5
3
76,15

23,23

0,10 0,10 0,18


77,3 62,5
5
9
72,76

Metals

0,04

0,02

0,03

0,05

0,03

0,05

0,02

0,02 0,02

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,26

0,06 0,12

0,04

Non-Combust.

4,63

3,13

4,13

1,29

6,18

2,92

2,49

3,05 2,68

6,14

3,90

5,02

1,36

3,16 2,67

3,42

Paper-Card.

0,70

0,96

0,78

3,56

0,89

2,67

1,17

1,15 1,16

1,88

1,61

1,74

7,95

5,46 6,14

2,34

10 Pet

0,02

0,02

0,02

0,10

0,04

0,08

0,02

0,06 0,03

0,03

0,06

0,05

0,36

0,20 0,24

0,08

11 Nylon

4,64

5,53

4,93

6,48

5,81

6,26

5,05

5,85 5,32

5,87

6,70

6,29

6,59

4,78 5,27

5,58

12 Plastics

0,25

0,53

0,34

1,12

0,28

0,84

0,41

0,24 0,35

0,23

0,17

0,20

0,72

0,34 0,44

0,45

13 Tetrapak

0,21

0,35

0,26

0,61

0,24

0,49

0,39

0,21 0,33

0,46

0,27

0,37

7,05

1,26 2,84

0,77

14 Textile

6,07

6,02

6,05

3,37

6,41

4,39

3,90

4,50 4,10

7,03

6,52

6,77

1,83

2,44 2,27

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Combustibles

TOTAL

75,96

100

3,83

4,71
100,0
100
0

Visits of Turkish Experts

Third delegation is working


on zoning of the city and
formulation of awareness
strategy

Benchmarking of SWM Services


Benchmarking is a requirement for the agreement to
be signed between CDGL and LWMC
Some of the main indicators to be established in the
Benchmarking include
Sr.
No.
1

2
3

Indicator
Increase in
amount of waste
reaching at
disposal sites
Permanent
clearance of open
plots
Decrease in
waste storage

Existing
Level

Target Level

60 %

75 %

0%

20%

25%

15%

Benchmarking of SWM Services

Professional firms are being hired to carry out


benchmarking study
Proposals have been received and evaluated
Agreement to be signed by end March, 2011
and
Completion by: April 15, 2011

Preparation of Business Plan


Professional firms are being hired to
prepare business plan
Proposals have been received and
evaluated
Agreement to be signed by end March,
2011
Completion by: July 15, 2011

Operational improvements
Installation of 500 Specially Designed Waste Bins at
Public Places
Completion Time: 3 Months

Operational improvements
Replacement of 200 Worn Out Waste Containers
In house fabrication
Completion Time: 5 Months

Procurement of Land for an


Integrated Waste Disposal Site:
Fact Sheet:

After 30 Km on right side of


Multan Road.
Available area = 118 acres
CDGL acquired a land of 2375
Kanals through vide notification
no. LAC-284-01/12693 dated. 1306-2001.
A corrigendum was issued on June
13, 2007 and land was reduced to
941 Kanals and 14 Marlas.
Land acquisition was suspended on
26-01-10 by the orders of the High
Court case no.
WP2252/2008/CM:1/2010 on the
grounds that EIA was not
conducted according to the Section
12 of PEPA 1997.

Ro
n
ulta

ad

Sundar

Procurement of Land for an


Integrated Waste Disposal Site
Geo-technical investigations have been carried
out for Sundar as well;
The subsoil conditions are fairly uniform and
consist of alluvial deposits consisting of sandy
Silt / silty Sand.
The groundwater was encountered at a depth
of about 3.8 m below the natural surface level
EIA of Sundar site is also in progress

Procurement of Land for an Integrated


Waste Disposal Site

Footage
of
Sundar