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Production of

Phosphoric Acid
Process Selection/Narrative/Evaluation
Market Feasibility Study
Group 2
Balana, James
Barallas, Jomed
Carlos, Ralph
de Asis, Suzanne
Fajilan, Krizzanne
Langas, Jan Carlo
Saladaga, Maureen

Phosphoric Acid

Can be manufactured via 3


different processes:
1. Wet Process
2. Electric Furnace Process
3. Blast Furnace Process

3 Choices for Phosphoric


Acid Production:
via Wet Process using Swine Bones
via Electric Furnace Process using
Phosphate Rock
via Blast Furnace Process using Phosphate
Rock

Market Feasibility for


Phosphoric Acid
DEMAND vs SUPPLY

Historical Demand
Projected Demand for 10 Years

PROCESS 1
Manufacture of Phosphoric Acid
through Acid Hydrolysis

Availability of Raw Materials

Swine Bones
The availability of this raw material is based on the production data
of swine in the Philippines which produces a swine bone wastes
product of about 11.4% of a given amount of swine supplied. The
swine production is widely available in every region of the country. Out
of the total swine supply, 29% is being consumed by meat industry.
Swine bone wastes will be collected from San Miguel Pure foods
Company Inc. being the pioneer manufacturer of meat products in the
country that holds the 51% of the total process meat products supplied
across the country.
the corresponding swine bones produced from the average annual
swine supplied in San Miguel Pure foods Company Inc. amount to 31
892 MT.

Sulfuric Acid
There are a number of manufacturing plants of sulfuric acid in the
Philippines. One is Chemphil Manufacturing Corporation. Based on UN
Comtrade, the import and export of sulfuric acid have decreased in
the past year (UN Comtrade, 2015):
Total of almost 3 000 MT of Sulfuric Acid are in the Philippine Trading
market.

Reactions Involved
Acidulation Rxn:
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2+ 10 H2SO4 + 18 H2O 6 H3PO4 + 10
CaSO42H2O

Number Of Equipment
Materials Cost
12

TOTAL

Ball Mill

Screener

Grinder

Rotary Kiln

Water Cooler

DissolutionTank

Acid Reactor

Filter Press

Evaporator

Washing Tank

Raw
Swine Bones

8.22/kg

Sulfuric Acid
11.23/kg

Product Yield
Wet process phosphoric acid normally contains 26 to 30 percent P2O5.
In most cases, the acid must be further concentrated to meet phosphate
feed material specifications for fertilizer production. Depending on the
types of fertilizer to be produced, phosphoric acid is usually
concentrated to 40 to 55 percent P2O5 by using 2 or 3 vacuum
evaporators (EnvironmentalProtectionAgency).

By-product
The production of Phosphoric Acid via Wet Process has 1 by-product,
namely, gypsum (EssentialChemicalIndustry, 2013).

Process Capability
known to be the most economical way to produce
Phosphoric Acids mainly because 1 reactor and 1
evaporator is only needed;
energy consumption is low and operating temperatures
are low.
It is also known to be environmental friendly compared to
other processes such as Blast and Electric Furnaces.
By-product, gypsum, which can also be sold and add
profit to the company (Patel, Lecture 21: Phosphoric Acid)

PROCESS 2
Manufacture of Phosphoric Acid via
Blast furnace

Availability of Raw Materials


Phosphate Rock
The production of phosphate here in the
Philippines is fluctuating. Since there are only two
companies that produces phosphate rock, one of
them is APH Phosphate Fertilizers Inc. which is
located at Negros Occidental. Graphical
representation of import and export is as follows:
WEIGHT (KG)
(UN Comtrade)
90,000,000
80,000,000
70,000,000
60,000,000
50,000,000
40,000,000

Import

30,000,000

Export

20,000,000
10,000,000
0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

YEAR

Silica Sand
There are certain companies that manufacture silica sand
here in the Philippines, one of them is JFMF Retail &
Trading located at Lapu-lapu City. Graphical representation
of import and export
is as follows: (UN Comtrade)
200,000,000
180,000,000
160,000,000
140,000,000
120,000,000

WEIGHT (KG) 100,000,000

Import

80,000,000

Export

60,000,000
40,000,000
20,000,000
0
2006

2008

2010

YEAR

2012

2014

2016

Powder Coke
. The main importer and supplier here in the
Philippines is India Phil Minerals & Gen, Trade, Inc.
located at Binondo, Manila. China is the major
country the imports the Silica sand. Graphical
representation of the import of powder coke is as
follows:
70,000,000
60,000,000
50,000,000
40,000,000

WEIGHT (KG)

30,000,000

Import

20,000,000
10,000,000
0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

YEAR

Reactions Involved
Phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5, is being produced.
(The Essential Chemical Industry Online, 2013)
2P + 5CO + 5O2 P2O5 + 5CO2
The second process is the conversion of P2O5 to
Phosphoric acid by hydration.
P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4

Number Of Equipment
RawQuantity
Materials Cost
Equipment

Raw Material

Cost per Ton


Php 4,950

Blast Furnace

Dust Collector

Phosphate
rock
Silica sand

Boiler

Powder coke

Php 4,500

Hydrator

Php 22,050

Blast Stove

Charcoal
Briquette

Briquetic Press

Precipitator

Compressor

TOTAL

Php 1,575

Product Yield
75% to 85%P2O5. (Walton, 1993)

By-product
Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide

Process Capability
Phosporic Acid produced via thermal process is
highly concentrated and contains fewer to almost

Process Usage
Process was used by the Victor Chemical works
in 1929 to 1938, now Stauffer Chemical Company.
The plant was located at Nashville, Tennessee
(Gilmour, 2014)

PROCESS 3
Manufacture of Phosphoric Acid via
Electric Furnace

Availability of Raw Materials


Phosphate Rock
The production of phosphate here in the Philippines is
fluctuating. Since there are only two companies that
produces phosphate rock, one of them is APH Phosphate
Fertilizers Inc. which is located at Negros Occidental.
Graphical representation
of import and export is as follows:
90,000,000
(UN Comtrade)
80,000,000
70,000,000
60,000,000
50,000,000

WEIGHT (KG) 40,000,000

Import

30,000,000

Export

20,000,000
10,000,000
0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

YEAR

Silica Sand
There are certain companies that manufacture silica sand
here in the Philippines, one of them is JFMF Retail &
Trading located at Lapu-lapu City. Graphical representation
of import and export
is as follows: (UN Comtrade)
200,000,000
180,000,000
160,000,000
140,000,000
120,000,000

WEIGHT (KG) 100,000,000

Import

80,000,000

Export

60,000,000
40,000,000
20,000,000
0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

YEAR

Powder Coke
. The main importer and supplier here in the
Philippines is India Phil Minerals & Gen, Trade, Inc.
located at Binondo, Manila. China is the major
country the imports the Silica sand. Graphical
representation of the import of powder coke is as
follows:
70,000,000
60,000,000
50,000,000
40,000,000

WEIGHT (KG)

30,000,000

Import

20,000,000
10,000,000
0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

YEAR

Reactions Involved
Ca3(PO4)2 + 3SiO2 + 5C 2P + 5CO + 3CaSiO3
2P+5CO+5O2 P2O5 + 5CO2
P 2O 5 +

3H2O 2H3PO4

Number Of Equipment
Raw
Materials Cost
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11

Equipment
Roll
Compactor
Electric Furnace
Breaker
Screen
Grate Calciner
Rotary Kiln
Flourine Scrubber
Cooler
Dust Separator
Phosphorus Sump
Phosphorus
Condenser
Total

Raw material

Cost (Php)

Phosphate rock

4950 /ton

Silica sand

1575/ton

Powder coke

4500/ton

TOTAL cost

11025

Product Yield
87-92%. (Patel, Lecture 21: Phosphoric Acid)

By-product
-Carbon Monoxide

Process Capability
The electric current that is supplied to the
furnace through carbon or graphite electrodes
fuses the rock and silica, and the carbon in the
coke reduces the phosphate. (Center, 1998)

Process Usage
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FMC,
Monsanto, Occidental Chemical to produce
phosphoric acid. (Center, 1998)

DEMAND
ANALYSIS

Historical Demand of
Phosphoric Acid

According to DTI, majority of the imported phosphoric acid are


used
in technical industry (62.86% of the total phosphoric acid supply).

Historical Demand of
Phosphoric Acid

An average of
12.02% increase
in demand
annually.

Projected Demand for


10 Years
Arithmetic Straight Line Method (ASLM)

Arithmetic Geometric Curve Method (AGCM)


Statistical Straight Line Method (SSLM)

Projected Demand for


10 Years
Arithmetic Straight Line Method (ASLM)

Annual increase in
percent will be the
same in the future
although increase in
percent will decrease
with time.

Projected Demand for


10 Years
Arithmetic Geometric Curve Method (AGCM)

Rate of increase in
the projected values
is constant; however,
the amount of change
keeps on increasing.

Projected Demand for


10 Years
Statistical Straight Line Method (SSLM)

The
change
in
percentage
of
the
data for the year is
decreasing.

SUPPLY ANALYSIS

Historical Supply of
Phosphoric Acid
Local Supplier:

CAWC Inc. in Barrio Kalawaan, Pasig, Metro Manila


- produces an average of 1000 MT phosphoric acid
annually

An average of
10.33% increase
in supply annually.

Projected Supply for 10


Years
Arithmetic Straight Line Method (ASLM)

Arithmetic Geometric Curve Method (AGCM)


Statistical Straight Line Method (SSLM)

Projected Supply for 10


Years
Arithmetic Straight Line Method (ASLM)

Annual increase in
percent will be the
same in the future
although increase in
percent will decrease
with time.

Projected Supply for 10


Years
Arithmetic Geometric Curve Method (AGCM)

Rate of increase in
the projected values
is constant; however,
the amount of change
keeps on increasing.

Projected Supply for 10


Years
Statistical Straight Line Method (SSLM)

The
change
in
percentage
of
the
data for the year is
decreasing.

Conclusion of Historical
Demand and Supply

Conclusion of Projected
Demand and Supply

Conclusion of Projected
Demand and Supply

Final Conclusion
The projected supply and demand in the next ten
years show a constant increase. Therefore
marketing of phosphoric is plausible and
sustainable.

PROCESS
EVALUATION

The summary of the three processes available


in the production of aluminum sulfate and its
evaluation based on the criteria required is
presented in the table below: