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Summer School Regents

Prep
Homeostasis
(Body Systems, Cells,
Organic Compounds)

Aim:
How does the body maintain homeostasis?
How is the earth formed?
ENTRANCE TICKET:
What are the four types or organic
macromolecules?
What are their building blocks?
What are enzymes? What type of molecule
are they?
What is a hypothesis? How should it be
phrased?
What is diffusion?

CELLS
Cells are the basic unit of life. This
means that cells are the smallest
things that can carry out all the
functions of living things?
Stop, think and share: What are
some of the things that all living
things do?

Microscope

Which should
you use first the
High power or
low power
objective?

Which
adjustment
should be used
when in high
power objective
(course or fine?)

Observations

Low Power

High Power

Image gets close in High power, but you see


fewer cells!

The first
thing
you
need to
know
about
cells

Cells are surrounded by a


membrane.
The cell membrane is a
double layer made of
phospholipids.
The cell membrane controls
what goes into and out of
the cell.

Check for understanding


What does the cell membrane do?
What is the cell membrane made of?

Two cells with molecules moving in or out


Low concentration

Low concentration
High concentration

High concentration

v
v

Active Transport

Diffusion

Which requires ATP (energy)?

ATP is a molecule that releases energy


when it breaks up.

How do things move through


the cell?
Small molecules, like
water or glucose can
pass through the gaps
in the cell membrane.
Large molecules can
move through protein
channels in the
membrane.
Active transport uses
proteins that use
energy to pump things
in and out of the cell.

Remember that molecules will move


from an area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration

Diffusion and the Onion Cell


Cell wall

Cell membrane

Cell wall

Treated with
distilled water

Cell membrane

Treated with
salt water

What happened in this experiment?


When salt water was added the cell membrane of Cell A
shrivels up because water diffuses OUT of the cell (it wants to
make both sides balanced)
Cell B swells up because water diffuses INTO the cell (water
wants to be balanced on both sides)

There are two types of cells


Prokaryotes

Have a membrane
Have DNA
Have ribosomes
Very, very small
Only single celled
organisms

Eukaryotes
Have a membrane
Have DNA in a nucleus
Have ribosomes
Have lots and lots of
organelles
Much bigger than
prokaryotes
Are found in single
celled or multicellular
organisms

There are two types of


Eukaryotes
Contrast and compare these two cells. What do you
observe?

Parts of the cell that you absolutely


must know.

Cell membrane: surrounds and protects the cell


Ribosome: makes proteins
Nucleus: protects the cells DNA
Mitochondria: makes ATP, produces energy for the cell
DNA: contains genetic information
RNA: carries genetic information from DNA
Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll, responsible for
photosynthesis
Cell wall: surrounds and supports plant cells
Central vacuole: large vacuole full of water, supports
the cell

Most living things are unicellular,


some are multicellular.

STOP!
TIME TO PRACTICE!

Check for understanding


What are the two types of cells?
What are their similarities and
differences?
What are the two types of
eukaryotes?
What three organelles are only found
in plant cells?

Cells and organisms maintain


homeostasis through their organelles
and organ systems
Homeostasis is
maintained
through negative
feedback loops.
What does that
mean?!

Think about it!


What negative feedback loops would
you observe:
When it is very cold?
If you are performing heavy exercise?

Take a short break.


After the break, we will talk about
organ systems.

Human Body Systems

1
Endocrine

2
Digestive

Reproductive
6

3
Nervous

7
Respiratory

4
Skeletal

8
Circulatory

5
Muscular

9
Excretory

Digestive system

Digestive system
What happens in the mouth?
Saliva has enzymes that break down starch.
Food moves through the esophagus to the
stomach.
The stomach contains a very strong acid
(pH of 1.5-3).
Turn and talk: What happens to proteins in
very acidic environments? Why is the
stomach so acidic?

After the stomach, food moves to


the small intestine

Check for understanding


What happens in the small intestine?
Why does the small intestine have
folds and microvilli?
How do nutrients move from the
small intestine into the bloodstream?

After passing through the small


intestine, the digested food moves to
the large intestine.
Water is absorbed in the large
intestine.
After most of the water is removed,
the digested food moves into the
rectum, ready to be expelled, as
feces.

The Respiratory System

How does oxygen pass from the


alveoli into the bloodstream?
Diffusion!
Oxygen is transported by red blood
cells to all parts of the body.
Oxygen goes into cells and into
mitochondria.
How does oxygen move into cells?
Diffusion!

Cellular respiration

The carbon dioxide produced in respiration is


carried by blood to the lungs

Circulatory System (like the cytoplasm of our body)


What does Blood carry?:
oxygen
carbon dioxide
nutrients
hormones
Parts of the blood:
red blood cells carry?
- carry oxygen (hemoglobin)
Includes:
blood
heart
blood vessels

white blood cells.?


- fight infection

Heart and lungs

EXIT TICKET