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Secondary Storage

CIS 105

Topics

List the benefits of secondary


storage.
Identify and describe storage media
that are available for personal
computers.
Describe how data is stored on a
disk.
Lists the items that effect a hard
drives access time.

Information Processing Cycle


Input
Raw Data

Process
(Application)

Output from one process can


serve as input to another process.

Output
Information
Storage

Secondary Storage
Secondary storage is used to store programs and data
that are not currently being used.
Examples:

Hard drive, USB Flash Drives , CD, DVD

When programs and data are needed, they must be


retrieved from the storage device
and loaded into RAM (primary storage).
The CPU only executes commands and manipulates
data loaded in RAM.

Memory (RAM) vs. Storage


(Volatile)
Temporarily holds program
instructions to be executed and
data that is currently being
manipulated.

(Non-volatile)
Holds data, instructions,
and information that can
be retrieved and loaded
into RAM when needed.

Benefits of Secondary Storage

Benefits
Space
Reliability
Convenience
Economy

Programs and data can be saved and


retrieved when needed.
Referred to as Reading and Writing.

Multi-platter Drives

Hard Drives

Hard Disk Characteristics

Read and Write heads are used to store and retrieve data.
Read and Write heads do NOT touch the platters, if they do, it is
called a Head Crash.
Data is stored magnetically.
Access arms are used to
position the heads.
Multi-Platter - both sides of
platter are recordable.
Very large capacity.
Removable and External
hard drives are now available,
and are great for backups.
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Format Commands

Low Level Format software provided by vendor.


High Level Format performed by operating system.
Formatting is the process of preparing a storage device for
reading or writing.
Formatting erases all data on.
Partitions can be created during formatting, and a partition
is a logical division of a hard disk created so that you can
have different operating systems on the same hard disk or
to create the appearance of having separate hard drives for
file management, multiple users, or other purposes.
Format defines Tracks, Sectors, Cylinders, and File
Allocation Table (FAT) this items are defined in the next few slides.
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Tracks and Sectors


Formatting organizes the disk into storage
locations called tracks ( a band that forms
a circle on the disk).
Formatting breaks the tracks into sectors
which are small pie-shaped areas.
Data processed one or more sectors at a time
called clusters.
In a multi-platter hard disk, the same track on
multiple platters together form a cylinder
(next slide).

Tracks
Sectors

(Cluster: 1-8 sectors)

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Cylinders

In a multi-platter hard
disk, the same track on
multiple platters together
form a cylinder.

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MZR

With normal sectors,


there is a lot of wasted
space on the sectors
located on the outer
tracks.
Multiple Zone
Recording (MZR)
data is recorded at the
same density on all
tracks so that outer
tracks have more data.
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File Allocation Table (FAT)

FAT list of clusters and used to keep track of where files


are on the disk.
FAT includes Filename, File size, and the cluster

number of where a file begins and additional


directory info

When a file is deleted, the data on the disk is still there,


only the entry in the FAT is marked as deleted so another
file can eventually be saved in its location.
That is why data can still be recovered after you think it
has been deleted.
NTFS Windows New Technology File System is more
secured then FAT and uses MFT (Master File Table) to
track where files are stored.
FAT and MFT are stored on the actual storage device.

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Access Time

Access Time - the time required to locate data on


the storage device 3 things affect access time.
Seek Time the time it takes the access arm
with the read/write heads to get into position
over the track.
Head Switching the activation of a particular
read/write head.
Rotational Delay (latency) the time it takes
for the sector containing the data to rotate under
the read/write head.
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Data Transfer Rate


Data Transfer Rate the time it takes to
transfer the data to and from the disk to
RAM.
While the computer is running, the platters
spin at a constant high speed, 5400-15000
revolutions per minute (rpm).

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Hard Disk Controller

Hard disk controller transfers


data between the hard disk
and the system bus.
The controller may be part of
the hard disk, motherboard,
or a separate expansion card.
Common Interfaces:

SATA Serial Advanced Technology Attachment


Some external drives can use this interface (eSATA)
transfer rate: 1.5 or 3.0 gigabits per second (Gbit/s)
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (parallel)
Also know as ATA and PATA
transfer rate of last version ATA-7: 133 Mbits
USB 2.0 transfer rate: 480 Mbits per second (use eSATA)
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Fragmented
Disk

Fragmented disk occurs when files are stored in


non-contiguous clusters
How does fragmentation affect access time?
http://www.diskeeper.com/
Perfect Disk www.raxco.com

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Windows Disk Defragmenter

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RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)


There are
levels
Level 1 - Data is duplicated auto backup
andabout
fault 9tolerant
disk mirroring with no striping

(RAID LEVEL 0)

Level 0 - File saved across different drives


called striping.

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Optical Storage Technology

Compact Discs (CD)


CD-ROM Read Only Memory
CD-R Recordable Write Once
CD-RW ReWritable

Digital Versatile Discs (DVD)


DVD Read Only
DVD-R, DVR+R Recordable Write Once
DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, DVD-+RW ReWritable

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Compact Disc Drives

CD-ROM - drive can only read data


from CDs

CD-R - drive can write to disk once

CD-ROM stores up to 650 MB per disk


Disk can be read by CD-ROM or CD-R
drive

CD-RW - drive can erase and record


data multiple times on RW media

Some compatibility problems trying to read


CD-RW disks on CD-ROM drives

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Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)


Short wavelength laser can read densely packed
spots
DVD drive can read CD-ROMs
Capacity from 4.7GB (Single Layer-Single side)
up to 27GB (Dual Layer-Double Side)
Data store tighter on higher capacity discs.
Allows for full-length movies
High-Density DVD (HD-DVD) 15 - 60GB
Blu-ray discs 25 100GB
(2007 became industry standard)

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DVD-Dual Layer

(pcworld 4/2005)

Two layers, one disc: This side view shows the two dye-recording
layers of a double-layer DVD. When the laser writes to the disc, it
directs its beam to either layer one or layer two.
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Magnetic Tape Storage


Plastic tape with a magnetic coating.
Primarily used in large organizations.
There are small tape drives for small businesses
and home use, but not too common.
Need a tape drive

Erase head
Read/Write head

Used for backups.


Sequential access

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Flash Memory Cards

A flash memory card


is a removable storage
device.
Consists of circuits
with NO moving parts.
Used by PDAs, phones,
digital cameras, some
MP3 players.
Includes USB Flash Drives.
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Backup System
Need to backup data on storage devices.
Copies should be saved onsite and offsite.
Why?

Hard drives may fail (head crash)


Fire
Natural disasters
Thief
Vandalism
Government requirements
To save your job

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Summary

List the benefits of secondary storage.


Identify and describe storage media that
are available for personal computers.
Describe how data is stored on a disk.
Lists the items that effect a hard drives
access time.

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