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It is the systematic study of trend or even
t which involves careful collection, presen
tation, analysis and interpretation of qua
ntitative data or facts that relates mans t
hinking with reality.

Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical research is based on direct e
xperience or observation by the research
2. Logical research is based on valid proc
edures and principles.
3. Cyclical research starts with a problem
and ends with a problem.

Characteristics of Research
4. Analytical research utilizes proven analy
tical procedures in gathering data, whethe
r historical, descriptive, experimental, and
case study.
5. Critical research exhibits careful and pre

Characteristics of Research
6. Methodical research is conducted in a m
ethodical manner without bias using syste
matic method and procedures.
7. Replicability research design and proce
dures are repeated to enable the research
er to arrive at valid and conclusive results.

Qualities of a Good Researcher

Research Oriented

Characteristics of the Researcher

1. Intellectual Curiosity researcher under
takes deep thinking and inquiry of the thin
gs, problems, and situations around him.
2. Prudence researcher is careful to condu
ct his study at the right time and at the rig
ht place wisely, efficiently, and economical

Characteristics of the Researcher

3. Healthy Criticism the researcher is alwa
ys critical as to the result of the study.
4. Intellectual Honesty researcher is hone
st to collect or gather the data or facts in o
rder to arrive at honest results.

Characteristics of the Researcher

5. Intellectual creativity a resourceful inv
estigator always creates new researches.
He enjoys inventing unique, novel and orig
inal researches, and considers research as
his hobby. (creative researcher is innovativ

Mans Major Needs and Problems Demand

It includes:
how to reduce his burden of work;
how to relieve suffering;
how to increase satisfaction in fulfilling
his needs, cravings and aspirations.

Values of Research to Man

1. Research Improves quality of life It ha
s led man to search for ways for improving
processes and means which man love and
find interesting.

Values of Research to Man

2. Research improves instruction Moder
n teacher introduces innovations and inte
grates the 3Rs (rational thinking, right con
duct, and research) in all subject areas in h
is teaching.

Values of Research to Man

3. Research improves students achievem
ent The students achievement could be
improve if the modern teacher keeps hims
elf updated on issues and trends about th
e modern methods and strategies in teach

Values of Research to Man

4. Research improves teachers competen
ce research oriented teacher always conduct r

esearch to improve his competence and produce

graduates who respond to the socioeconomic de
velopment of the country and can compete with
other graduates of the world.

Values of Research to Man

5. Research satisfies mans needs moder
n facilities that satisfy mans needs are all
products of research.
6. Research reduces the burden of work

Values of Research to Man

7. Research has deep-seated psychologica
l aspects It challenges man to get rid of
the danger of stagnation. It is an open doo
r to a better tomorrow and it guides him i
n his efforts to obtain good results which c
ontribute to his satisfaction and self-fulfil

Values of Research to Man

8. Research trains graduates to become resp
onsive to the economic development of th
e country and compete globally.

1. Basic Research It seeks to discover basi
c truths or principles. It is intended to add
to the body of scientific knowledge by expl
oring the unknown to extend the boundari
es of knowledge as well as to discover new
facts, and learn more accurately the chara
cteristics of known without any particular t
hought as to immediate practical utility.

2. Applied Research involves seeking new
applications of scientific knowledge to the
solution of a problem such as the develop
ment of new system or procedure, new de
vice, or new method, in order to solve the
Produces knowledge of practical use to ma

3. Developmental research this is a decisi
on-oriented research involving the applica
tion of the steps of the scientific method i
n response to an immediate need to impr
ove existing practices.
If a researcher continues to find practical
applications from theoretical knowledge a
nd use this existing knowledge to produce
useful products.

1. Library Research this is done in the libr
ary where answers to specific questions or
problems of the study are available.
2. Field research research is conducted i
n a natural setting.

3. Laboratory research this is conducted i
n artificial or controlled conditions by isola
ting the study in a thoroughly specified an
d equipped area.

The Variable

defined as a quantity susceptible of fluctu

ation or change in value or magnitude und
er different conditions.

Types of Variable
1. Independent Variable this is the stimul
us variable which is chosen by the researc
her to determine its relationship to an obs
erved phenomenon.

Types of Variable

2. Dependent Variable this is the response

variable which is observed and measured t
o determine the effect of the independent
variable. It changes when independent var
iable changes.

Types of Variable
3. Moderator Variable this is a secondary
or special type of independent variable ch
osen by the researcher to determine if it c
hanges or modifies the relationships betw
een the independent and dependent varia

Types of Variable
4. Control Variable a variable controlled b
y the investigator in which the effects can
be neutralized by eliminating or removing
the variable.
5. Intervening Variable a variable which in
terferes with the independent and depend
ent variables, but its effects can either stre
ngthen or weaken the independent and de
pendent variables.

Components of the Research Process