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Review 11-2 Reflection &

Refraction of Light
 What happens to light waves that strike an object?
 Light waves that strike objects can be absorbed, reflected, or
 What is the difference between refraction and reflection?
 Refraction occurs if a light wave changes speed in moving from one
material to another. Reflection occurs when light waves are returned
or thrown back from a surface.
 __________ material only absorbs and reflects light; no light
passes through.
A. Transparent
B. Translucent
C. Opaque
D. Mirage
 A mirror is any surface that produces a
regular reflection
 Can have 3 types
1. plane mirror – flat surface
2. concave mirrors – surface curves inward
3. convex mirrors – surface curves outward
Plane Mirrors
• Light rays from a light
source strike you.
• Every point that is struck
by the light rays reflects
these rays so they travel
outward in all directions.
• Light rays are reflected
from the mirror back to
your eyes.
Virtual and Real Images
• A virtual image is produced
when rays of light reach our eyes
that appear to come from a real
object, but there is in fact no
object at the apparent source of
the light.
• Image appears to be there
• Plane mirrors always
form virtual images.
• Cannot be projected
Virtual and Real Images
• If real light rays from an object pass through
the location of the image, the image is called
the real image.
• A real image is produced on a screen (or some
other detector) when all of the rays from a
single point on an object strike a single point
on the screen
• Real images are ALWAYS inverted
Virtual and Real Images
• If the surface of a mirror is curved inward, it is
called a concave mirror.

• The image formed by a concave mirror depends

on the location of the object relative to the focal
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object between f and the mirror, a
virtual image is formed behind the mirror. The
image is upright and larger than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object between C and f, a real image
is formed outside of C. The image is inverted
and larger than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object at C, the real image is formed
at C. The image is inverted and the same size
as the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object close to the mirror but outside
of the center of curvature, the real image is
formed between C and f. The image is inverted
and smaller than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 What size image is formed if the real
object is placed at the focal point f?
 For a real object at f, no image is formed.
The reflected rays are parallel and never
Virtual and Real Images
• An object between one and two focal lengths
from a concave mirror is real, inverted, and
larger than the object.
• An object closer than one focal length from a
concave mirror produces a virtual image that
is upright and larger than the object.
Convex Mirrors
• A mirror that curves outward like the back
of a spoon,
• Reflected rays diverge and never meet,
so a convex mirror
forms only a
virtual image.
• The image also
is upright and
smaller than the
actual object is.
CAUTION! Objects are closer than
they appear!
• A lens is a transparent object with at
least one curved surface that causes
light rays to refract.
• 2 types of lenses
1. Convex lens- thicker in the middle
than at the edges.
2. Concave lens- thinner in the middle
than at edgess
Convex Lenses
• Light rays are refracted toward
the center of the lens.
• All light rays
are refracted
so they pass
through a
single point,
which is the
focal point of
the lens.
• Lenses with flatter sides have longer focal
Concave Lenses
• A concave lens is thinner in the middle
and thicker at the edges.
• Light rays that pass through a concave
lens bend away from the optical axis.
The Human Eye
• Light enters your eye through a transparent
covering on your eyeball called the cornea.
• The cornea
causes light
rays to bend
so that they
• Light then
passes through
the pupil.
The Human Eye
• Behind the pupil is a flexible convex lens.
• The retina is the inner lining of your eye,
light sensitive
cells that
convert an
image into
Brightness and Intensity
• The human eye can adjust to the brightness
of the light that strikes it.
• Light intensity is the amount of light energy
that strikes a certain area each second.
• Brightness is the human perception of light
• Eyes respond to bright light by decreasing
the size of your pupil.
orrecting Vision Problems
• If you can see distant objects clearly but can’t
bring nearby objects into focus, then you are
orrecting Vision Problems
• The eyeball might be too short or the lens
isn’t curved enough to form a sharp image of
nearby objects on the retina.
• Image is focused behind the retina.
• Eyes cannot form a sharp image on the
retina of an object that is far away.
• The eye is too long andtThe image is formed
in front of the retina.
11-3 Review
1. A __________ mirror curves inward.
A. concave
B. convex
C. obtuse
D. Plane
1. What type of lens refracts light rays away from the optical axis?

3. In nearsightedness, the image forms _______ the retina and a

_______ lens can be used to correct it.
A. behind, concave
B. behind, convex
C. in front of, concave
D. in front of, convex
1. The answer is A. A concave mirror curves
inward and forms a real image. A convex mirror
curves outward and forms a virtual image.

2. Concave lenses are thicker at the edges and

refract light rays away from the optical axis.

3. The answer is C. The image forms in front of

the retina and a concave lens corrects it.
Color of Objects
• White light is a blend of all colors of visible
• Black is the absence of visible light.
Colored Filters
• A filter is a transparent material that transmits
one or more colors of light but absorbs all
• The color
of a filter is
the color of
the light
that it
Seeing Color
• The retina is made up of two types of cells
that absorb light.
1. Cones - A cone enables you to distinguish
colors and detailed shapes of objects.
2. Rods - A rod is sensitive to dim light and
enables you to see at night.
• Your eyes have three types
of cones.
1. Red cones - respond to
mostly red and yellow
2. Green cones respond to
mostly yellow and green.
3. Blue cones respond to
mostly blue and violet
• six million in the human
• Not very responsive to light
• Rods require less light to function
than cones, they are therefore the
primary source of visual
information at night.
• Rod cells do not enable you to see
• Make peripheral vision very
sensitive to movement, (i.e seeing
something vague occur out of the
corner of his or her eye)
• On average, there are
approximately 92 million rod cells
in the human retina
Color Blindness
• color blindness – condition caused by
improper function of cone cells.

• Only certain colors may

not be distinguished.

• The most common form

of color blindness makes
it difficult to distinguish
between red and green.
Mixing Colors
• A pigment is a colored material that is used
to change the color of other substances.
• Red, green, and blue are the primary colors
of light.
• Mixing the primary colors in different
proportions can produce the colors you see
and the primary pigments (yellow, cyan,
• You can make any pigment color by mixing
different amounts of the three primary pigments—
magenta, cyan, and yellow.

• Pigments both absorb

and reflect a range of
• The area where the colors
overlap appears to be
black b/c absorb all the
primary colors of light
Section Check
Question 1
An object’s color depends on the __________
it reflects.

An object’s color depends on the wavelengths
of light it reflects. If an object absorbs all
wavelengths of visible light except green, the
object appears green.
Section Check
Question 2
What are the two types of light-detecting cells
in the eye?

The two types of light-detecting cells that
make up the retina are the rods and cones.

FL: SC.F.1.4.2
Section Check
Question 3
What is the appearance of the three primary
colors of pigment when they are mixed?

A. black
B. brown
C. gray
D. white
Section Check
The answer is A. The three primary colors of
pigment are magenta, cyan and yellow, and
appear black when they are mixed.