Spatial Analysis Lecture

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Spatial Analysis Lecture

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What is it?

the purpose of geographic inquiry is to

examine relationships between geographic

features collectively and to use the relationships to

describe the real-world phenomena that map

features represent. (Clarke 2001, 182).

One Definition: the quantitative procedures

employed in the study of the spatial arrangement

of features (points, lines, polygons and surfaces)

Geographic information analysis is

concerned with investigating the patterns

that arise as a result of processes that may

be operating in space (p. 3).

Techniques [that] enable the

representation, description, measurement,

comparison, and generation of spatial

patterns

Map or Digital Form?)

Raster Vector

A Higher Level of Abstraction? (p. 5)

Objects and Fields

The key distinction (according to your authors)

A slightly different conceptualization

representation(s)?

Spatial Analysis:

What is it?

What types of relationships exist between

geographic features, and how do we express

them?

Properties of spatial features and/or

relationships between them: size,

distribution, pattern, contiguity,

neighborhood, shape, scale, orientation

3 Fundamental Questions

Regarding Spatial Relationships

How can two (or more) spatial distributions be

compared with each other?

How can variations in geographic properties over

a single area or data set be described and/or

analyzed?

How can we use what we have learned from an

analysis(es) to predict future spatial distributions?

Spatial Analysis can cover the spectrum implied by these

questions!

Spatial Analysis?

GIS is a tool with unique capabilities:

Spatial/attribute data entry/update capabilities

Data conversion functions

Storage and organization of a variety of spatial and

attribute data

Manipulation of spatial and attribute data (encompasses

many different operations)

Presentation/display capabilities

Spatial analysis tools (many tools may be used in

combination)

functional elements of a GIS?

Data acquisition

Preprocessing

Database Management

Manipulation/Analysis

Final product output

all part of the spatial

analysis equation

(and a GIS

professionals

knowledge base).

discussing GIS operations/procedures

that are useful for spatial analysis

Maps as Outcomes of Processes

Point Pattern Analysis

Describing and Analyzing Fields

Statistical Analysis of Fields/Spatial Interpolation

Map Overlay Concepts and Procedures

Spatial Modeling

Network Analysis

Analysis (what skills does it require)?

Spatial analysis is an artistic and a scientific endeavor (what

does this mean?)

It requires knowledge of the problem and/or question to be answered

It requires knowledge about the data (how it was collected, organized,

coded, etc.)

It requires knowledge of GIS capabilities

It may require knowledge of statistical techniques

It requires envisioning the results of any operationand the

combination of any operations

It is not completely objective, in fact some argue that it is completely

subjective

Many times there is more than one way to derive information that

answers a question

They Are, Why?

Spatial Data are Special

Why?

How?

What are the implications?

Pitfalls

Potential

Most spatial samples are not random!!

This situation/problem is known as spatial

autocorrelation

The earths surface is not an isotropic plane

Positive autocorrelation, negative auto correlation, zero

autocorrelation

primary importance in spatial analysis. (p. 29)

First order, and second order spatial variation

The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

aggregation units used are arbitrary with

respect to the phenomena under investigation

If spatial unitswere specified differently, we

might observe very different patterns (p. 30)

Rampant in media reporting

Scale Issues

Examples

Space is not uniform

Edge Effects?

Quantification of Spatial Relationships

How? What kind of relationships matter?

How?

blocks of any spatial analysis

Spatial data structures:

Raster: geographically-referenced matrix of

uniform size cellsadvantages and

disadvantages

Vector: features on the earths surface are

represented as geographically-referenced vector

objects (points, lines, polygons)advantages

and disadvantages

Representation of

vector spatial objects

Hierarchical nature of objects (points, lines,

polygons)

Points: different types

Entity, label, area, node

Lines:

Line, arc, link, etc.

Polygons:

Area, polygon, complex polygon

Basic elements of

spatial information required

to undertake spatial analysis

Location

X,Y coordinate or locational reference

Attribute data

Describing the (aspatial) characteristics of

locations

Topology

Describing the spatial relationships between

spatial features

Measurement of Location:

GIS Issues

A GIS suitable for spatial analysis must

have the necessary functions dealing with

coordinate systems

What are these functions?

see or work with in a GISand what are

their characteristics?

Measurement of Location:

GIS Issues

Basic measurement of spatial features:

Points are defined by x,y coordinates

Lines are represented by an ordered sequence of pointsthey

can be decomposed into sections of straight line segments

The distance between two points on a Cartesian plane is

derived through Euclidean distancethe length of a line

segment is the sum total of the Euclidean distances of all

segments that compose it (p. 105 Chou)

The area of any feature represented as a polygon an be

computed by constructing a trapezoid from every line segment

delineating the polygonthen systematically aggregating the

trapezoid areas (both positive and negative) (p. 106 Chou)

Categories: Nominal and Ordinal data

Numeric: Interval and ratio data

Measures of Central Tendency (mode,

median, mean) and Dispersion (variance,

standard deviation)

Must be cognizant of spatial units and

geographic sampling techniques

relationships between spatial features?

Adjacency: Which polygons are adjacent to

which? Often used in the spatial analysis of

areal data.

Containment: Which spatial features are

contained within which? Can be used for

selection or perhaps geocoding.

Connectivity: Which line segments are

connected? Often used for network analysis.

of expressing vector topology

Used for ARC/INFO coverages (we will use

this as our example)a proprietary ESRI

vector spatial data structure

Topological data is stored in attribute

tables: point attribute tables (PATs), arc

attribute tables (AATs), polygon attribute

tables (PATs)what is contained in these

tables?

Arc Attribute Tables (AATs) - contain the

following data fields: arc-ID, Length, F-node, Tnode, L-poly, R-poly

Polygon Attribute Tables (PATs) contain the

following data fields: poly-ID, perimeter, area

Point Attribute Tables (PATs) the same fields as

above, but zero perimeter and area

** These tables store the topological data needed to

quantify the spatial relationships between features

Spatial data formats are the product of the private

sector working to create data files that allow users

to:

Create maps

Manipulate spatial data

Perform spatial analysis

shapefiles, coverages, GRIDs, geodatabases, TINs,

Routes

3 Major vector-based

datasets used in ArcGIS:

Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases

ESRI Shapefiles:

Attribute data is stored in dBase tables

Contain one simple feature class

No topology is developed for spatial features

Types of shapefiles: point, line, polygon and

multi-point

3 Major vector-based

datasets used in ArcGIS:

Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases

ESRI ARC/INFO Coverages:

Spatial data is stored in binary files

Topological and attribute tables are stored in INFO tables

Contain topological features classes that define line or

polygon topology

Topology is built for lines and polygons - lines: arcs,

nodes and routes; polygons: arcs, label points, polygons,

regions

Primary coverage feature classes are: point, arc, polygon,

and node; secondary: tic, link, annotation; compound:

region, route

ARC/INFO Coverages

ARC coverage files: defined by header files, index

files, ARC, PAL, LAB, CNT, PRJ, LOG, TOL

ARC: arc definitions and vertices; PAL: contains

polygon definitions; LAB: contains label point

records; CNT: contains polygon centroid

information; PRJ: contains projection information;

TOL: contains the tolerance values to use when

processing a polygon coverage

ESRIs proprietary raster file structure

Readable in ArcGIS without any extensions

The Spatial Analyst extension needed to

perform analysis on these files

Uniform raster cell size

Single value per cell

Continuous data (including null values)

TINs and Routes

Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs):

sample points are connected to form

triangles, with the relief inside each

represented as a plane or facet

Delaunay Triangulation

3-dimensional surface description

ArcGIS can generate these through the 3-D

Analyst extension

TINs and Routes

Routes are spatial data structures generated to

represent linear features

Used when the definition of linear features does not

meet the needs of a network-based application

Dynamic segmentation procedure

New line segments are defined

Based on the location of events

Measurements of offsets on segments

3 Major vector-based

datasets used in ArcGIS:

Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases

ESRI Geodatabase

All spatial, topological, and attribute data is stored in tables in

a relational database

A feature dataset in a geodatabase can contain simple or

topological feature classes

Many feature classes can be associated with a topological role

within the geodatabase

User-defined associations can be created between features in

different feature classes

Types of feature classes: point, line, polygon, annotation,

simple junction, complex junction, simple edge, complex edge

better way to associate behavior with

[spatial] features was needed

An object-oriented data model: data objects can

have rules, relationships, topology

Facilitates the creation of smart features that are

more complex than generic points, lines, or

polygons

All data is stored in a relational database ( as

opposed to separate spatial and attribute data)

Geodatabases organize data into a hierarchy of data

objects: object classes, feature classes, feature

datasets

Object class: a table in a geodatabase that stores non-spatial

data

Feature class: a collection of features with the same type of

geometry and the same attributes

Feature dataset: a collection of feature classes that have the

same spatial reference system

Simple feature classes can exist either within or outside a feature

dataset; topological feature classes must be contained within a

feature dataset

[Spatial] patterns provide clues to a

possible causal [spatial] process(es)

Usefulness of mapsremains in their

inherent ability to suggest patterns in the

phenomena they represent. p. 52

Conceptualizing spatial analysis as processes

and patterns

and their Possible Realizations

Could the pattern we observe have been generated by this

particular process?

Deterministic processes:

Processes whose outcome can be predicted exactly from

knowledge of initial conditions

Many times can be mathematically described

Outcome always the same

Stochastic processes:

Processes whose outcome is subject to variation that cannot be

given precisely by a mathematical formula

Introduction of a random (stochastic) element to model the range

of potential solutions

Chance process with well-defined mechanisms p. 58

Predicting Patterns:

Expected Results

Assumptions

Example: independent random process (IRP) (or complete spatial

randomness (CSR))

Math used to predict frequency distribution under assumed

randomness

Observed vs. expected

What is this assumption called in the scientific method?

randomness

First-order effects: the earth is not an isotropic plane, and therefore

some areas will be more attractive of phenomena than others

Second-order effects: the assumption that events are independent

of each other is not realistici.e. the location of events will

influence the location of other events

The spatial properties of the entire set of

points is analyzed (rather than individual

points)

Requirements/Assumptions according to

OSullivan and Unwin (pp.78-79)?

Descriptive statistics for point distributions

Frequency; density; geometric center; spatial

dispersion; spatial arrangement

Thinking about point patterns

How can we describe and analyze them

characterized (described) by geometric center and

dispersion

Geometric (mean) center = mean x,y coordinates; dispersion =

standard distance of x and y distribution

Geometric (mean) center is not a reliable measure of central

tendency when either the x or y standard distance is large

Density-based and distance-based measures

i.e. Point Density and Point Separation

pattern

depending on distribution within a defined study area

may be misleading (pp. 81-82)

Census or random methods

Issues?

Density-based measures

Quadrat Analysis based on the frequency of

occurrence of points within quadrat units

Requires overlaying quadrats onto a layer of point

features

Once quadrats are overlayed onto the point layer,

frequencies of points per quadrat can be counted

All quadrats are classified according to observed

frequency of points

Null hypothesis: point features are randomly distributed

Density-based Measures

Kernel Density Estimation

A pattern has a density at any location

Continous densities for defined kernels to

create a continous surface

Distance-based

Point Pattern Measures

The Logic of Distance Measures

Can be described using types (categories):

Clustered points are concentrated in one or more

groups/areas

Uniform points are regularly spaced with

relatively large interpoint distance

Random Neither the clustered or uniform pattern

is prevalent

Nearest Neighbor Analysis (Index)

Measures the degree of spatial dispersion in a point

distribution based on minimizing interpoint distances

Logic: in general the average distance between points in

a clustered pattern is less than in a uniform pattern\

Logic: a random pattern is associated with an avg.

interpoint distance larger than a clustered pattern but

smaller than a uniform pattern

The nearest neighbor for each point feature must be

determined, and the interpoint distance is computed

Nearest Neighbor Analysis (Index) cont

Observed average nearest neighbor distances compared

to expected average nearest distances assuming

complete spatial randomness [CSR] (1/2 sq.rt. A/n)

NNI = Ad/Ed p.100

NNI range: 0 to 2.1491where 0 indicates perfectly

clustered and 2.1491 indicates perfectly uniform (values

close to 1 indicate a random pattern)

To test the statistical significance of an NNI value, a

computed z value can be compared to a critical value

(1.96)

Nearest Neighbor Analysis: Pros and Cons

Pros: relatively simple; easy to compute;

straightforward logic

Cons: is not sensitive to complex patterns

unless extended to include more than just

nearest neighbors

Autocorrelation

Spatial Autocorrelation: measures the extent to which

the occurrence of one feature is influenced by the

distribution of similar features in the adjacent area Why

is this idea important in the context of classical statistical

analysis?

reported by NNI or quadrat analysis

Spatial auto correlation is characterized as positive (the

existence of one feature tends to attract similar

features) or negative (the existence of one feature tends

to deter the location of similar features)

Natural Areas vs. Command Regions

Who cares?

Raster

Pros and Cons?

Planar-enforced areas

GIS-context?

Area

How is it calculated?

Shape

Comparison of a polygon to a known shape

Spatial pattern

Contact numbers

Fragmentation (FRAGSTATS)

Spatial Autocorrelation

Most common spatial autocorrelation statistic is

Morans I coefficient

Similar to a traditional correlation coefficient

The I coefficient for the most part ranges between 1 and

+1; larger negative values indicate a scattered pattern

positive values indicate a clustered pattern

The C coefficient tends to range between 0 and 2; values

approaching 0 imply similar values of a variable tend to

cluster (positive spatial autocorrelation)values

approaching 2 indicate that dissimilar values tend to cluster

Spatial Autocorrelation

Joins Count approach

Logic?

phenomena are continously variable and

measureable across space. (p. 210)

Scalar fields: All locations are represented by a

valueone value per unit

Vector fields: values are not independent of

coordinates (magnitude and direction)

Two steps in the recording and storage

process of fields (p. 213):

Sampling the real surface

The input data

representation

Types of fields and how they are derived

Issues to consider:

The methodology used to obtain the sample

How would we find out?

In may cases, we may be stuck with scalar

field sample dataWhy?

Types of Fields (pp. 214-220):

Point Systems

Grid sampling (raster) , surface specific, surface

random

Contours

Mathematical Functions

derive usable fieldsinterpolation

Raster Data Structure

A cell (grid) data structure

Row, Column coordinates (all positive

values)

Uniform cell size

Every cell is assigned a value

Numeric (integer or floating point)

Categorical (usually in effect integer)

Raster Data Structure

Cell Value Assignment:

Centroid Method

Predominant Type

Most Important Type

Hierarchical

with may already have cell values assigned

Description: DEMs

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): a sample

of elevation data for a study area

represented as evenly-spaced points or

raster cells

Data from a DEMs is often used in land surface

analysis, as they are free and data quality can

be ascertained

In most GIS packages, DEMs are converted to

a raster format prior to analysis

Raster Data Processing

Local Operations: raster layer is processed

on a cell-by-cell basis

Single layer

Multiple layer (raster overlay)

Examples

Raster Data Analysis

Neighborhood Spatial Operations: cell data is

processed based on a focal cell and its neighboring

cells

Neighboring cells become part of an operation based on a

distance and/or directional relationship to the focus cell

Focus cell is usually assigned a value based on the values

of neighboring cells

Common neighborhoods: 3x3 window; circle;

Operations: sum, mean, standard deviation, minimum,

maximum

Examples

Raster Data Processing

Zonal Operations: apply to groups of cells that

belong to the same zone or have a common

value

Single layer: geometry of zones (perimeter, area,

centroid, etc.)

Multiple layers (overlay): one layer defines the zones,

the other defines variables valuessummary statistics

are calculated by zone (mean, standard deviation, area,

min, max.)

Examples

Raster Data Analysis

Global (Distance Measure) Operations: the output

value of each cell is calculated based on spatial

relationship to a source cell

Distance measurement in a raster layer is based on

nodes and links

Node = centroid

Link = lateral (1 cell) or diagonal (1.4142 cells) connections

to adjacent cells

Measurement

Surface Analysis

Involves analyzing a phenomena that is 3dimensionalthe 3rd dimension can be

represented as a z-coordinate (in addition

to x,y coordinates)

The z-coordinate (or value) can represent

almost anything, although it is most often

employed to model topography

Surface Analysis

Data Types for Surface Analysis

Irregularly-spaced point features

Regularly-spaced cells in a raster layer (for

example, DEMs)

Vector contour lines

Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs)

Surface Analysis

Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs):

approximate a 3-dimensional surface using a

series of non-overlapping triangles

Based on an irregular distribution of points that have

x,y, and z coordinates

Sample points are used to generate triangles using

either the VIP or max z-tolerance algorithm

Triangles are generated using rules of Delaunay

Triangulationall nodes are connected to their nearest

neighbors, and triangles are as equi-angular as possible

Triangles have area and angles associated with them

Surface Analysis

Slope and Aspect: Calculated by determining the

amount and direction of tilt of a cells normal

vector

Surface Curvature: Used to determine if the

surface at a cell location is upwardly convex or

concave

Viewshed Analysis: Determining what areas are

visible and not visible from a vantage point

Watershed Analysis: Watershed delineation and

drainage characterization based on elevation data

Spatial Interpolation

Control points are points with known

valuesit is best if there is good

coverage of control points (how often does

this happen?)

Assumptions:

1. The surface of the Z variable is continuous

2. The Z variable is spatially dependent

Global vs. Local

The difference is the number of control points used

How control point values are used and re-estimated

Assessment of prediction errors (with estimated

variances)

Simple Spatial

Interpolation Techniques

Local Methods: The z value of an unknown

point location is estimated from known

local point neighbor locations

Interpolation procedures are used when we

have discontinuous datasets and we want

(or need) to process them into spatially

continuous datasets

Interpolation Techniques

Usually used to derive field datasets for

further processing:

Proximity polygons

Local Spatial Averaging

Other Methods

A process of using locations with known

data values to estimate values at other

locations.

Global (Statistical) Methods: Use all available

data (control points) to perform estimation

interpolating unknown values from known

values

Spatial Interpolation

Global (Statistical) Methods: The z value of an

unknown point location is estimated from all known

point data

Polynomial Trend Surface Analysis (Inexact,

Deterministic): approximates points with known values

with a polynomial equation

The equation is used as an interpolator to estimate

values at other points

Computed by the least squares method and a goodness

of fit can be computed for each control point

Zx, y b0 b1 x b2 y

Spatial Interpolation

Local Methods

Inverse Distance Weighted (Exact,

Deterministic): enforces that the estimated

value of a point is influenced more by nearby

known points than those farther away

All predicted values are within the range of the

maximum and minimum values in the distribution

Spatial Interpolation

Local Methods

Splines (Exact, Deterministic): create a surface

that passes through the control points and has

the least possible change in slope at all points

(minimum curvature surface)

Spatial Interpolation

Local Methods

Kriging (Exact, Stochastic): a geostatistical

method for spatial interpolation where the mean

is estimated from the best linear unbiased

estimator or best linear weighted moving

average

Assumes that the spatial variation of an attribute is

neither totally random nor totally deterministic (a

correlated component, a drift, a random error term)

Interpolation in ArcGIS?

Geostatistical Analyst:

An ArcGIS extension that provides tools to

perform statistically-based spatial interpolation

Exploratory Data Analysis

Calculation and Modeling of Surface Properties

(Structural Analysis)

Surface Prediction and Assessment of Results

The Statistics of Fields

Statistical spatial interpolation techniqueswhy

are they necessary or advantageous? (p. 246-247)

Control point data has error and varies over timewe

are not going to obtain an exact fit from deterministic

methods

If we have sample datasets, we have data pertaining to

the spatial distribution of phenomena that can be used

in spatial interpolation

We try to fit a mathematical model or function to the

semivariogram (Gaussian, linear, spherical, circular,

exponential) to be used as an interpolator

Kriging: Assumes that the estimation of surface

variations is based on the assumption that the

surface can be represented by 3 factors:

The residual of local fluctuationthe level of spatial

correlation locally estimated from a polynomial

function

The drift of regional tendencyrepresenting a spatial

trend

A random error estimate

There are different variations of kriging, based on the

the presence or absence of a drift factor and the

interpretation

Spatial Interpolation

Types of Kriging:

Ordinary:

the drift component is excluded

Focus on the degree of spatial dependence among sampled known

points (semivariance)

2

n

1

Semivariance = (h )

( z ( xi ) z ( x h ))

2n i 1

Semivariance values are plotted on a semivariogram where the

semivariance is recorded on the Y-axis and the distance between

known points on the X-axis (nugget, range, sill)

The semivariogram is fitted to a mathematical model (sherical,

circular, exponential, linear, Gaussian)s

Equation for estimating Z:

Z0

ZxWx

i 1

Spatial Interpolation

Types of Kriging:

Universal Kriging: assumes that the spatial

variation in z values has a drift or trend in

addition to the spatial correlation between

known points

Co-Kriging: Can be used to improve spatial

predictions by incorporating secondary

variables, provided they are spatially correlated

with the primary variable

Semivariogram

Covariance

Concept of Cross-correlation

We might consider these operations the simplest

form of spatial analysis; although this might not

always be true

Single layer (horizontal) operations: procedures

that apply to only one data layer at a time

We are conceptualizing things in this way to simplify

our understanding of what analysis operations donot

because this is really how we utilize the operations

Does this change with the geodatabase?

Feature Identification and Selection

Identify, Select Feature, Attribute Query

Feature Classification

What type of distribution, how do we

determine? Uniform (equal interval, equal

frequency); Normal (standard deviation);

Multiple Cluster (natural breaks)

Feature Manipulation

Boundary Operations

That ArcView can perform: Clip, Dissolve, Append?

That ArcView cannot perform (ARC/INFO

required): Erase, Update, Split, Mapjoin, Eliminate

Proximity Analysis

ArcView: Buffer

ArcView cannot: Thiessen polygons

Map Overlay

(Multiple Layer) Operations

arguably, the most important feature of

any GIS is its ability to combine spatial

datasets (p. 285)

10 Possible types of Map Overlay

Polygon Overlay operations

Simplest Form: Boolean Overlay (Sieve mapping)

Determining the Inputs

Getting the Data

Getting the Spatial Data into the Same Coordinate

System

Overlaying the Maps

Overlay Operations (in ArcGIS)

Union

Intersect

Identity

Results?

Erase (Coverage)

Identity Overlay

Intersect Overlay

Symmetrical Difference

Union Overlay

Update Overlay

Spatial Modeling

According to Chou (1997), a Spatial Model:

1. Analyzes phenomena by identifying

explanatory variables that are significant to the

distribution of the phenomenon and providing

information about the relative weight of each

variable

2. Is useful for predicting the probable impact

of a potential change in control factors

(independent variables)

Spatial Modeling:

Thinking About Models

Models can be:

Descriptive or Prescriptive

Deterministic or Stochastic

Static or Dynamic

Deductive or Inductive

Spatial Modeling

General Types of (Spatial) Models

Descriptive: characterization of the distribution of

spatial phenomena

Explanatory: deal with the variables impacting the

distribution of a phenomena

Predictive: once explanatory variables are identified,

predictive models can be constructed

Normative: models that provide optimal solutions to

problems with quantifiable objective functions and

constraints

Spatial Modeling

More specific types of spatial models:

Binary models (descriptive): use logical expressions to identify or

select map features that do or do not meet certain criteriaHow?

Index models (descriptive): use index values calculated for

variables to produce a ranked spatial surfaceHow?

Weighted Linear Combination Model

variable is related or explained by independent variables in an

equationHow?

Linear and logistic regression

about environmental processes into a set of relationships and

equations for quantifying those processesHow?

Spatial Modeling

Steps in the Modeling Process

Break down the model into elements

Implementation and calibration of the model

Model validation

Sometimes difficult or not feasible

How can GIS enable spatial modeling?

GIS is a tool that can integrate a myriad of data sources

GIS can incorporate raster and/or vector data into

modeling schemes

Modeling may take place within a GIS, or require

linking to other computer programs

Loose coupling

Tight coupling

Embedded System

Spatial Modeling

Important Issues in Conducting Spatial Analysis:

Delineation of geographic units of analysis

How do you choose geographic units of analysis so that spatial

analyses are valid?

impact spatial analysis

Structural impact site

Spatial impact situation (absolute and relative location,

neighborhood effects)

Stormwater modeling

project logic

Based on TR-55

Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS)

Presents simplified procedures for addressing

stormwater during initial overland flow (runoff,

peak discharge, hydrographs, and storage

volumes for detention ponds)

Stormwater modeling

project logic

TR-55

based on Runoff Curve Number (CN) method

CN - empirically derived number

Product of hydrologic soil group, cover type,

treatment, hydrologic condition, and antecedent

runoff condition

Also Percent impervious surface

Network Analysis

Network analysis: the spatial analysis of linear (line)

features

Your text distinguishes between several different types of

lines

analyzing structure (connectivity pattern) of networks

analyzing movement (flow) over the network system

are related to transportation: transportation geography,

transportation planning, civil engineering, etc.

and Assumptions

Assumptions (predicted vs. actual values):

Errors have the expected mean value of zero

Errors are independent of each other

Correlations among independent variables

should not be high

Network Analysis

Concepts:

Network

Line segment(s)/Links

Nodes (and vertices)

Impedance

Topology

Dynamic Segmentation

Network Analysis:

Network Structure

Evaluation of Network Structure:

to the maximum possible

number of links 3(n

2) (n = # of nodes)range between 0-1

Index: the ratio of the actual number of

circuits to the maximum number of circuits (c/

(2n-5))evaluation in terms of the number of

ways to get from one node to another

Network Analysis:

Network Structure

Network Diameter: the maximum number of steps

required to move from any node to any other node

using shortest possible routes over as connected

network

Network Connectivity: an evaluation of nodal

connectivity over a network based on direct and

indirect connections (expressed through the

construction of matrices c1, c2, c3)

Network Analysis:

Network Structure

Network Accessibility: can be evaluated based on

nodes or the entire networkthe accessibility

network is many times called the T matrix

T matrix is the sum of all connectivity matrices up to

the level equal to the network diameter (i.e. c3 or c4)

Logically this makes sense if you are trying to evaluate

total connectivity of a node or the entire network

How do we read the matrix?

Network Analysis:

Network Structure

Network Structure in a Valued Graph

The previously discussed measures of network

structure are based on either counting links and/or

nodes.what element are we missing with these?

Q. What is a valued graph? A. A matrix is constructed

in which every link (line segment) in a network is

coded with an impedance measure (such as what?)

An often-used type of valued graph is the minimal spanning

treesatisfies 3 criteria:

Can a GIS construct a minimal spanning tree?

Network Analysis:

Normative Models of Network Flow

Normative models are those that are designed to

determine a best or optimal solution based on

specific criteria

Simple Shortest Path Algorithm:

Involves finding the path or route with the minimum

cumulative impedance between nodes on a network

Requires an impedance matrix (such as a valued graph)

and a set of interative procedures:

GIS must know which nodes are connected to whichmultistep evaluation of connectivity and least cumulative impedance

(distance, time, cost, etc.)

Network Analysis:

Normative Models of Network Flow

The Traveling Salesman Problem:

2 constraints 1) the salesman must stop at each location

once 2) the salesman must return to the origin of travel

(there can be variations)

The objective is to determine the path or route that the

salesman can take to minimize the total impedance value

of the trip

Often a heuristic method is usedbeginning with an initial

random tour, a series of locally optimal solutions is run by

swapping stops that cause a reduction in cumulative

impedance (an iterative procedure is also described in your

book on pp. 236-244).

Network Analysis:

Normative Models of Network Flow

Various Types of Network Problems:

Shortest Path Analysis (Best Route)

Simple shortest path

Traveling Salesman

Closest Facility

Location-Allocation: solves problems matching supply

and demand by using sets of objectives and constraints

P-median, max covering, max equity

Network Analysis:

Normative Models of Network Flow

Dynamic Segmentation Data Model: The ability to

derive the locations of events in relation to linear

features dynamicallynot reliant upon the existing

topology of a network

Models linear features using routes and events

Routes: represent dynamic linear features

Events: phenomena that occur at locations along line

segments

network analysis in ArcInfo/ArcGIS

Spatial Interpolation

Y

X

With Anisotopy

Mean= .01694

RMS = 2.862

Avg. Stan Error = 3.441

Mean Stan. = .004232

RMS Stan. = .8324

Without Anisotopy

Mean= .0002331

RMS = 2.857

Avg. Stan Error = 3.424

Mean Stan. = .0006747

RMS Stan. = .8347

With Anisotopy

Mean= .04253

RMS = 2.595

Avg. Stan Error = 2.354

Mean Stan. = .01806

RMS Stan. = 1.102

Without Anisotopy

Mean= .0001592

RMS = 3.054

Avg. Stan Error = .8181

Mean Stan. = .001031

RMS Stan. = 3.731

Regression Equations

TWOYR = -3.538 + 0.06031 * AVGCURV

+ 0.03331 * PERCIMPV

TENYR = -4.156 + 0.07806 * AVGCURV +

0.04368 * PERCIMPV

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