Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 138

Spatial Analysis

What is it?
the purpose of geographic inquiry is to
examine relationships between geographic
features collectively and to use the relationships to
describe the real-world phenomena that map
features represent. (Clarke 2001, 182).
One Definition: the quantitative procedures
employed in the study of the spatial arrangement
of features (points, lines, polygons and surfaces)

Geographic Information Analysis


Geographic information analysis is
concerned with investigating the patterns
that arise as a result of processes that may
be operating in space (p. 3).
Techniques [that] enable the
representation, description, measurement,
comparison, and generation of spatial
patterns

How Do We Represent the World (in


Map or Digital Form?)
Raster Vector
A Higher Level of Abstraction? (p. 5)
Objects and Fields
The key distinction (according to your authors)
A slightly different conceptualization

How do we choose the best


representation(s)?

Spatial Analysis:
What is it?
What types of relationships exist between
geographic features, and how do we express
them?
Properties of spatial features and/or
relationships between them: size,
distribution, pattern, contiguity,
neighborhood, shape, scale, orientation

3 Fundamental Questions
Regarding Spatial Relationships
How can two (or more) spatial distributions be
compared with each other?
How can variations in geographic properties over
a single area or data set be described and/or
analyzed?
How can we use what we have learned from an
analysis(es) to predict future spatial distributions?
Spatial Analysis can cover the spectrum implied by these
questions!

What role does GIS play in


Spatial Analysis?
GIS is a tool with unique capabilities:

Can handle geographically-referenced data


Spatial/attribute data entry/update capabilities
Data conversion functions
Storage and organization of a variety of spatial and
attribute data
Manipulation of spatial and attribute data (encompasses
many different operations)
Presentation/display capabilities
Spatial analysis tools (many tools may be used in
combination)

Do you remember the 5


functional elements of a GIS?

Data acquisition
Preprocessing
Database Management
Manipulation/Analysis
Final product output

These elements are


all part of the spatial
analysis equation
(and a GIS
professionals
knowledge base).

Our framework this semester for


discussing GIS operations/procedures
that are useful for spatial analysis

The Pitfalls and Potential of Spatial Data


Maps as Outcomes of Processes
Point Pattern Analysis
Describing and Analyzing Fields
Statistical Analysis of Fields/Spatial Interpolation
Map Overlay Concepts and Procedures
Spatial Modeling
Network Analysis

How can we characterize Spatial


Analysis (what skills does it require)?
Spatial analysis is an artistic and a scientific endeavor (what
does this mean?)
It requires knowledge of the problem and/or question to be answered
It requires knowledge about the data (how it was collected, organized,
coded, etc.)
It requires knowledge of GIS capabilities
It may require knowledge of statistical techniques
It requires envisioning the results of any operationand the
combination of any operations
It is not completely objective, in fact some argue that it is completely
subjective
Many times there is more than one way to derive information that
answers a question

Are Spatial Data Special, and if


They Are, Why?
Spatial Data are Special
Why?
How?
What are the implications?
Pitfalls
Potential

Why They Need Us

The Pitfalls of Spatial Data


Most spatial samples are not random!!
This situation/problem is known as spatial
autocorrelation
The earths surface is not an isotropic plane
Positive autocorrelation, negative auto correlation, zero
autocorrelation

Describing the autocorrelation structure, is of


primary importance in spatial analysis. (p. 29)
First order, and second order spatial variation

The Pitfalls of Spatial Data


The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem
aggregation units used are arbitrary with
respect to the phenomena under investigation
If spatial unitswere specified differently, we
might observe very different patterns (p. 30)

The Ecological Fallacy


Rampant in media reporting

The Pitfalls of Spatial Data


Scale Issues
Examples

Nonuniformity of Space and Edge Effects


Space is not uniform
Edge Effects?

The Potential of Spatial Data


Quantification of Spatial Relationships
How? What kind of relationships matter?

Summarizing spatial relationships


How?

Spatial data are the building


blocks of any spatial analysis
Spatial data structures:
Raster: geographically-referenced matrix of
uniform size cellsadvantages and
disadvantages
Vector: features on the earths surface are
represented as geographically-referenced vector
objects (points, lines, polygons)advantages
and disadvantages

Representation of
vector spatial objects
Hierarchical nature of objects (points, lines,
polygons)
Points: different types
Entity, label, area, node

Lines:
Line, arc, link, etc.

Polygons:
Area, polygon, complex polygon

Basic elements of
spatial information required
to undertake spatial analysis
Location
X,Y coordinate or locational reference

Attribute data
Describing the (aspatial) characteristics of
locations

Topology
Describing the spatial relationships between
spatial features

Measurement of Location:
GIS Issues
A GIS suitable for spatial analysis must
have the necessary functions dealing with
coordinate systems
What are these functions?

What coordinate systems do we normally


see or work with in a GISand what are
their characteristics?

Measurement of Location:
GIS Issues
Basic measurement of spatial features:
Points are defined by x,y coordinates
Lines are represented by an ordered sequence of pointsthey
can be decomposed into sections of straight line segments
The distance between two points on a Cartesian plane is
derived through Euclidean distancethe length of a line
segment is the sum total of the Euclidean distances of all
segments that compose it (p. 105 Chou)
The area of any feature represented as a polygon an be
computed by constructing a trapezoid from every line segment
delineating the polygonthen systematically aggregating the
trapezoid areas (both positive and negative) (p. 106 Chou)

Attribute Data Measurement


Categories: Nominal and Ordinal data
Numeric: Interval and ratio data
Measures of Central Tendency (mode,
median, mean) and Dispersion (variance,
standard deviation)
Must be cognizant of spatial units and
geographic sampling techniques

Topology: What kinds of spatial


relationships between spatial features?
Adjacency: Which polygons are adjacent to
which? Often used in the spatial analysis of
areal data.
Containment: Which spatial features are
contained within which? Can be used for
selection or perhaps geocoding.
Connectivity: Which line segments are
connected? Often used for network analysis.

The Arc-node Data Model: a method


of expressing vector topology
Used for ARC/INFO coverages (we will use
this as our example)a proprietary ESRI
vector spatial data structure
Topological data is stored in attribute
tables: point attribute tables (PATs), arc
attribute tables (AATs), polygon attribute
tables (PATs)what is contained in these
tables?

Sample Attribute Tables


Arc Attribute Tables (AATs) - contain the
following data fields: arc-ID, Length, F-node, Tnode, L-poly, R-poly
Polygon Attribute Tables (PATs) contain the
following data fields: poly-ID, perimeter, area
Point Attribute Tables (PATs) the same fields as
above, but zero perimeter and area
** These tables store the topological data needed to
quantify the spatial relationships between features

Spatial Data Formats


Spatial data formats are the product of the private
sector working to create data files that allow users
to:
Create maps
Manipulate spatial data
Perform spatial analysis

Example ESRI spatial data formats (files):


shapefiles, coverages, GRIDs, geodatabases, TINs,
Routes

3 Major vector-based
datasets used in ArcGIS:
Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases
ESRI Shapefiles:

Spatial data is stored in binary files


Attribute data is stored in dBase tables
Contain one simple feature class
No topology is developed for spatial features
Types of shapefiles: point, line, polygon and
multi-point

3 Major vector-based
datasets used in ArcGIS:
Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases
ESRI ARC/INFO Coverages:
Spatial data is stored in binary files
Topological and attribute tables are stored in INFO tables
Contain topological features classes that define line or
polygon topology
Topology is built for lines and polygons - lines: arcs,
nodes and routes; polygons: arcs, label points, polygons,
regions
Primary coverage feature classes are: point, arc, polygon,
and node; secondary: tic, link, annotation; compound:
region, route

ARC/INFO Coverages
ARC coverage files: defined by header files, index
files, ARC, PAL, LAB, CNT, PRJ, LOG, TOL
ARC: arc definitions and vertices; PAL: contains
polygon definitions; LAB: contains label point
records; CNT: contains polygon centroid
information; PRJ: contains projection information;
TOL: contains the tolerance values to use when
processing a polygon coverage

ESRI GRID file


ESRIs proprietary raster file structure
Readable in ArcGIS without any extensions
The Spatial Analyst extension needed to
perform analysis on these files

Follow conventions we have learned about:


Uniform raster cell size
Single value per cell
Continuous data (including null values)

Special Spatial Data Structures:


TINs and Routes
Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs):
sample points are connected to form
triangles, with the relief inside each
represented as a plane or facet

VIPs (Very Important Points)


Delaunay Triangulation
3-dimensional surface description
ArcGIS can generate these through the 3-D
Analyst extension

Special Spatial Data Structures:


TINs and Routes
Routes are spatial data structures generated to
represent linear features
Used when the definition of linear features does not
meet the needs of a network-based application
Dynamic segmentation procedure
New line segments are defined
Based on the location of events
Measurements of offsets on segments

Network Analyst and ARC/INFO

3 Major vector-based
datasets used in ArcGIS:
Shapefiles, Coverages, Geodatabases
ESRI Geodatabase
All spatial, topological, and attribute data is stored in tables in
a relational database
A feature dataset in a geodatabase can contain simple or
topological feature classes
Many feature classes can be associated with a topological role
within the geodatabase
User-defined associations can be created between features in
different feature classes
Types of feature classes: point, line, polygon, annotation,
simple junction, complex junction, simple edge, complex edge

The Geodatabase Data Model: a


better way to associate behavior with
[spatial] features was needed
An object-oriented data model: data objects can
have rules, relationships, topology
Facilitates the creation of smart features that are
more complex than generic points, lines, or
polygons
All data is stored in a relational database ( as
opposed to separate spatial and attribute data)

Centralized management of data


Geodatabases organize data into a hierarchy of data
objects: object classes, feature classes, feature
datasets
Object class: a table in a geodatabase that stores non-spatial
data
Feature class: a collection of features with the same type of
geometry and the same attributes
Feature dataset: a collection of feature classes that have the
same spatial reference system
Simple feature classes can exist either within or outside a feature
dataset; topological feature classes must be contained within a
feature dataset

Maps as Outcomes of Processes


[Spatial] patterns provide clues to a
possible causal [spatial] process(es)
Usefulness of mapsremains in their
inherent ability to suggest patterns in the
phenomena they represent. p. 52
Conceptualizing spatial analysis as processes
and patterns

Types of Processes: Spatial Processes


and their Possible Realizations
Could the pattern we observe have been generated by this
particular process?
Deterministic processes:
Processes whose outcome can be predicted exactly from
knowledge of initial conditions
Many times can be mathematically described
Outcome always the same

Stochastic processes:
Processes whose outcome is subject to variation that cannot be
given precisely by a mathematical formula
Introduction of a random (stochastic) element to model the range
of potential solutions
Chance process with well-defined mechanisms p. 58

Predicting Patterns:
Expected Results
Assumptions
Example: independent random process (IRP) (or complete spatial
randomness (CSR))
Math used to predict frequency distribution under assumed
randomness
Observed vs. expected
What is this assumption called in the scientific method?

Real World usually not characterized by spatial


randomness
First-order effects: the earth is not an isotropic plane, and therefore
some areas will be more attractive of phenomena than others
Second-order effects: the assumption that events are independent
of each other is not realistici.e. the location of events will
influence the location of other events

Point Pattern Analysis


The spatial properties of the entire set of
points is analyzed (rather than individual
points)
Requirements/Assumptions according to
OSullivan and Unwin (pp.78-79)?
Descriptive statistics for point distributions
Frequency; density; geometric center; spatial
dispersion; spatial arrangement

Point Pattern Analysis


Thinking about point patterns
How can we describe and analyze them

The geographical properties of a point pattern are


characterized (described) by geometric center and
dispersion
Geometric (mean) center = mean x,y coordinates; dispersion =
standard distance of x and y distribution
Geometric (mean) center is not a reliable measure of central
tendency when either the x or y standard distance is large

What are these measures useful for?

Point Pattern Analysis


Density-based and distance-based measures
i.e. Point Density and Point Separation

Density: ratio of frequency to areaintensity of a


pattern
depending on distribution within a defined study area
may be misleading (pp. 81-82)

Quadrat Count Methods


Census or random methods
Issues?

Density-based measures
Quadrat Analysis based on the frequency of
occurrence of points within quadrat units
Requires overlaying quadrats onto a layer of point
features
Once quadrats are overlayed onto the point layer,
frequencies of points per quadrat can be counted
All quadrats are classified according to observed
frequency of points
Null hypothesis: point features are randomly distributed

Density-based Measures
Kernel Density Estimation
A pattern has a density at any location
Continous densities for defined kernels to
create a continous surface

Distance-based
Point Pattern Measures
The Logic of Distance Measures
Can be described using types (categories):
Clustered points are concentrated in one or more
groups/areas
Uniform points are regularly spaced with
relatively large interpoint distance
Random Neither the clustered or uniform pattern
is prevalent

Measuring Spatial Arrangement


Nearest Neighbor Analysis (Index)
Measures the degree of spatial dispersion in a point
distribution based on minimizing interpoint distances
Logic: in general the average distance between points in
a clustered pattern is less than in a uniform pattern\
Logic: a random pattern is associated with an avg.
interpoint distance larger than a clustered pattern but
smaller than a uniform pattern
The nearest neighbor for each point feature must be
determined, and the interpoint distance is computed

Measuring Spatial Arrangement


Nearest Neighbor Analysis (Index) cont
Observed average nearest neighbor distances compared
to expected average nearest distances assuming
complete spatial randomness [CSR] (1/2 sq.rt. A/n)
NNI = Ad/Ed p.100
NNI range: 0 to 2.1491where 0 indicates perfectly
clustered and 2.1491 indicates perfectly uniform (values
close to 1 indicate a random pattern)
To test the statistical significance of an NNI value, a
computed z value can be compared to a critical value
(1.96)

Measuring Spatial Arrangement


Nearest Neighbor Analysis: Pros and Cons
Pros: relatively simple; easy to compute;
straightforward logic
Cons: is not sensitive to complex patterns
unless extended to include more than just
nearest neighbors

The Concept of Spatial


Autocorrelation
Spatial Autocorrelation: measures the extent to which
the occurrence of one feature is influenced by the
distribution of similar features in the adjacent area Why
is this idea important in the context of classical statistical
analysis?

Captures some aspects of point spatial distribution not


reported by NNI or quadrat analysis
Spatial auto correlation is characterized as positive (the
existence of one feature tends to attract similar
features) or negative (the existence of one feature tends
to deter the location of similar features)

Types of Area Objects


Natural Areas vs. Command Regions
Who cares?

Issues with Command Regions?


Raster
Pros and Cons?

Planar-enforced areas
GIS-context?

Geometric Properties of Areas


Area
How is it calculated?

Shape
Comparison of a polygon to a known shape

Spatial pattern
Contact numbers
Fragmentation (FRAGSTATS)

Spatial Autocorrelation
Most common spatial autocorrelation statistic is
Morans I coefficient
Similar to a traditional correlation coefficient
The I coefficient for the most part ranges between 1 and
+1; larger negative values indicate a scattered pattern
positive values indicate a clustered pattern

Also Gearys C (Gearys Ratio)


The C coefficient tends to range between 0 and 2; values
approaching 0 imply similar values of a variable tend to
cluster (positive spatial autocorrelation)values
approaching 2 indicate that dissimilar values tend to cluster

Spatial Autocorrelation
Joins Count approach
Logic?

The Concept of Fields


phenomena are continously variable and
measureable across space. (p. 210)
Scalar fields: All locations are represented by a
valueone value per unit
Vector fields: values are not independent of
coordinates (magnitude and direction)

Describing and Analyzing Fields


Two steps in the recording and storage
process of fields (p. 213):
Sampling the real surface
The input data

Interpolation to derive a continuous surface


representation
Types of fields and how they are derived

Sampling the earths surface


Issues to consider:
The methodology used to obtain the sample
How would we find out?

The spatial resolution of the sample


In may cases, we may be stuck with scalar
field sample dataWhy?

Continuous Surface Description


Types of Fields (pp. 214-220):
Point Systems
Grid sampling (raster) , surface specific, surface
random

Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs)


Contours
Mathematical Functions

Data may need to be processed further to


derive usable fieldsinterpolation

Continuous Surface Description: The


Raster Data Structure
A cell (grid) data structure
Row, Column coordinates (all positive
values)
Uniform cell size
Every cell is assigned a value
Numeric (integer or floating point)
Categorical (usually in effect integer)

Continuous Surface Description: The


Raster Data Structure
Cell Value Assignment:

Centroid Method
Predominant Type
Most Important Type
Hierarchical

** In many cases, the data you are working


with may already have cell values assigned

Example Continuous Surface


Description: DEMs
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): a sample
of elevation data for a study area
represented as evenly-spaced points or
raster cells
Data from a DEMs is often used in land surface
analysis, as they are free and data quality can
be ascertained
In most GIS packages, DEMs are converted to
a raster format prior to analysis

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Raster Data Processing
Local Operations: raster layer is processed
on a cell-by-cell basis
Single layer
Multiple layer (raster overlay)
Examples

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Raster Data Analysis
Neighborhood Spatial Operations: cell data is
processed based on a focal cell and its neighboring
cells
Neighboring cells become part of an operation based on a
distance and/or directional relationship to the focus cell
Focus cell is usually assigned a value based on the values
of neighboring cells
Common neighborhoods: 3x3 window; circle;
Operations: sum, mean, standard deviation, minimum,
maximum
Examples

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Raster Data Processing
Zonal Operations: apply to groups of cells that
belong to the same zone or have a common
value
Single layer: geometry of zones (perimeter, area,
centroid, etc.)
Multiple layers (overlay): one layer defines the zones,
the other defines variables valuessummary statistics
are calculated by zone (mean, standard deviation, area,
min, max.)
Examples

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Raster Data Analysis
Global (Distance Measure) Operations: the output
value of each cell is calculated based on spatial
relationship to a source cell
Distance measurement in a raster layer is based on
nodes and links
Node = centroid
Link = lateral (1 cell) or diagonal (1.4142 cells) connections
to adjacent cells

Euclidean, Physical (buffer), and Cost Distance


Measurement

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Surface Analysis
Involves analyzing a phenomena that is 3dimensionalthe 3rd dimension can be
represented as a z-coordinate (in addition
to x,y coordinates)
The z-coordinate (or value) can represent
almost anything, although it is most often
employed to model topography

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Surface Analysis
Data Types for Surface Analysis
Irregularly-spaced point features
Regularly-spaced cells in a raster layer (for
example, DEMs)
Vector contour lines
Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs)

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Surface Analysis
Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs):
approximate a 3-dimensional surface using a
series of non-overlapping triangles
Based on an irregular distribution of points that have
x,y, and z coordinates
Sample points are used to generate triangles using
either the VIP or max z-tolerance algorithm
Triangles are generated using rules of Delaunay
Triangulationall nodes are connected to their nearest
neighbors, and triangles are as equi-angular as possible
Triangles have area and angles associated with them

Derived Measures on Surfaces:


Surface Analysis
Slope and Aspect: Calculated by determining the
amount and direction of tilt of a cells normal
vector
Surface Curvature: Used to determine if the
surface at a cell location is upwardly convex or
concave
Viewshed Analysis: Determining what areas are
visible and not visible from a vantage point
Watershed Analysis: Watershed delineation and
drainage characterization based on elevation data

Spatial Interpolation
Control points are points with known
valuesit is best if there is good
coverage of control points (how often does
this happen?)
Assumptions:
1. The surface of the Z variable is continuous
2. The Z variable is spatially dependent

Types of Spatial Interpolation


Global vs. Local
The difference is the number of control points used

Exact vs. Inexact


How control point values are used and re-estimated

Deterministic vs. Stochastic


Assessment of prediction errors (with estimated
variances)

Simple Spatial
Interpolation Techniques
Local Methods: The z value of an unknown
point location is estimated from known
local point neighbor locations
Interpolation procedures are used when we
have discontinuous datasets and we want
(or need) to process them into spatially
continuous datasets

Simple Deterministic Spatial


Interpolation Techniques
Usually used to derive field datasets for
further processing:

Inverse Distance Weighted Spatial Average


Proximity polygons
Local Spatial Averaging
Other Methods

Statistical Spatial Interpolation


A process of using locations with known
data values to estimate values at other
locations.
Global (Statistical) Methods: Use all available
data (control points) to perform estimation

A statistical surface is constructed by


interpolating unknown values from known
values

Spatial Interpolation
Global (Statistical) Methods: The z value of an
unknown point location is estimated from all known
point data
Polynomial Trend Surface Analysis (Inexact,
Deterministic): approximates points with known values
with a polynomial equation
The equation is used as an interpolator to estimate
values at other points
Computed by the least squares method and a goodness
of fit can be computed for each control point

Zx, y b0 b1 x b2 y

Spatial Interpolation
Local Methods
Inverse Distance Weighted (Exact,
Deterministic): enforces that the estimated
value of a point is influenced more by nearby
known points than those farther away
All predicted values are within the range of the
maximum and minimum values in the distribution

Spatial Interpolation
Local Methods
Splines (Exact, Deterministic): create a surface
that passes through the control points and has
the least possible change in slope at all points
(minimum curvature surface)

Spatial Interpolation
Local Methods
Kriging (Exact, Stochastic): a geostatistical
method for spatial interpolation where the mean
is estimated from the best linear unbiased
estimator or best linear weighted moving
average
Assumes that the spatial variation of an attribute is
neither totally random nor totally deterministic (a
correlated component, a drift, a random error term)

How do we Accomplish Spatial


Interpolation in ArcGIS?
Geostatistical Analyst:
An ArcGIS extension that provides tools to
perform statistically-based spatial interpolation
Exploratory Data Analysis
Calculation and Modeling of Surface Properties
(Structural Analysis)
Surface Prediction and Assessment of Results

Knowing the Unknowable:


The Statistics of Fields
Statistical spatial interpolation techniqueswhy
are they necessary or advantageous? (p. 246-247)
Control point data has error and varies over timewe
are not going to obtain an exact fit from deterministic
methods
If we have sample datasets, we have data pertaining to
the spatial distribution of phenomena that can be used
in spatial interpolation
We try to fit a mathematical model or function to the
semivariogram (Gaussian, linear, spherical, circular,
exponential) to be used as an interpolator

Geostatistical Spatial Interpolation


Kriging: Assumes that the estimation of surface
variations is based on the assumption that the
surface can be represented by 3 factors:
The residual of local fluctuationthe level of spatial
correlation locally estimated from a polynomial
function
The drift of regional tendencyrepresenting a spatial
trend
A random error estimate
There are different variations of kriging, based on the
the presence or absence of a drift factor and the
interpretation

Spatial Interpolation
Types of Kriging:
Ordinary:
the drift component is excluded
Focus on the degree of spatial dependence among sampled known
points (semivariance)
2
n
1
Semivariance = (h )
( z ( xi ) z ( x h ))

2n i 1
Semivariance values are plotted on a semivariogram where the
semivariance is recorded on the Y-axis and the distance between
known points on the X-axis (nugget, range, sill)
The semivariogram is fitted to a mathematical model (sherical,
circular, exponential, linear, Gaussian)s
Equation for estimating Z:
Z0
ZxWx

i 1

Spatial Interpolation
Types of Kriging:
Universal Kriging: assumes that the spatial
variation in z values has a drift or trend in
addition to the spatial correlation between
known points
Co-Kriging: Can be used to improve spatial
predictions by incorporating secondary
variables, provided they are spatially correlated
with the primary variable

Semivariogram

Covariance

Co-Kriging using multiple variables

Concept of Cross-correlation

Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Interpolation Techniques

Single Layer Operations


We might consider these operations the simplest
form of spatial analysis; although this might not
always be true
Single layer (horizontal) operations: procedures
that apply to only one data layer at a time
We are conceptualizing things in this way to simplify
our understanding of what analysis operations donot
because this is really how we utilize the operations

Operations that apply to a single feature type


Does this change with the geodatabase?

Single Layer Operations


Feature Identification and Selection
Identify, Select Feature, Attribute Query

Feature Classification
What type of distribution, how do we
determine? Uniform (equal interval, equal
frequency); Normal (standard deviation);
Multiple Cluster (natural breaks)

Single Layer Operations


Feature Manipulation
Boundary Operations
That ArcView can perform: Clip, Dissolve, Append?
That ArcView cannot perform (ARC/INFO
required): Erase, Update, Split, Mapjoin, Eliminate

Proximity Analysis
ArcView: Buffer
ArcView cannot: Thiessen polygons

Map Overlay
(Multiple Layer) Operations
arguably, the most important feature of
any GIS is its ability to combine spatial
datasets (p. 285)
10 Possible types of Map Overlay

Map Overlay Operations


Polygon Overlay operations
Simplest Form: Boolean Overlay (Sieve mapping)

4 Steps (pp. 288-302):


Determining the Inputs
Getting the Data
Getting the Spatial Data into the Same Coordinate
System
Overlaying the Maps

Map Overlay Operations


Overlay Operations (in ArcGIS)
Union
Intersect
Identity
Results?

Erase (Coverage)

Identity Overlay

Intersect Overlay

Symmetrical Difference

Union Overlay

Update Overlay

Spatial Modeling
According to Chou (1997), a Spatial Model:
1. Analyzes phenomena by identifying
explanatory variables that are significant to the
distribution of the phenomenon and providing
information about the relative weight of each
variable
2. Is useful for predicting the probable impact
of a potential change in control factors
(independent variables)

Spatial Modeling:
Thinking About Models
Models can be:

Descriptive or Prescriptive
Deterministic or Stochastic
Static or Dynamic
Deductive or Inductive

Spatial Modeling
General Types of (Spatial) Models
Descriptive: characterization of the distribution of
spatial phenomena
Explanatory: deal with the variables impacting the
distribution of a phenomena
Predictive: once explanatory variables are identified,
predictive models can be constructed
Normative: models that provide optimal solutions to
problems with quantifiable objective functions and
constraints

Spatial Modeling
More specific types of spatial models:
Binary models (descriptive): use logical expressions to identify or
select map features that do or do not meet certain criteriaHow?
Index models (descriptive): use index values calculated for
variables to produce a ranked spatial surfaceHow?
Weighted Linear Combination Model

Regression models (explanatory or predictive): a dependent


variable is related or explained by independent variables in an
equationHow?
Linear and logistic regression

Process (explanatory or predictive): integrate existing knowledge


about environmental processes into a set of relationships and
equations for quantifying those processesHow?

Spatial Modeling
Steps in the Modeling Process

Define the goals of the model


Break down the model into elements
Implementation and calibration of the model
Model validation
Sometimes difficult or not feasible

The Role of GIS in Spatial Modeling


How can GIS enable spatial modeling?
GIS is a tool that can integrate a myriad of data sources
GIS can incorporate raster and/or vector data into
modeling schemes
Modeling may take place within a GIS, or require
linking to other computer programs
Loose coupling
Tight coupling
Embedded System

Spatial Modeling
Important Issues in Conducting Spatial Analysis:
Delineation of geographic units of analysis
How do you choose geographic units of analysis so that spatial
analyses are valid?

Identification of structural and spatial factors that


impact spatial analysis
Structural impact site
Spatial impact situation (absolute and relative location,
neighborhood effects)

Stormwater modeling
project logic
Based on TR-55

First issued by the US SCS in 1975, today


Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS)
Presents simplified procedures for addressing
stormwater during initial overland flow (runoff,
peak discharge, hydrographs, and storage
volumes for detention ponds)

Stormwater modeling
project logic
TR-55

Stormwater runoff calculation


based on Runoff Curve Number (CN) method
CN - empirically derived number
Product of hydrologic soil group, cover type,
treatment, hydrologic condition, and antecedent
runoff condition
Also Percent impervious surface

Network Analysis
Network analysis: the spatial analysis of linear (line)
features
Your text distinguishes between several different types of
lines

Network analysis involves 2 types of problems:


analyzing structure (connectivity pattern) of networks
analyzing movement (flow) over the network system

Network analysis is often a major part of subfields that


are related to transportation: transportation geography,
transportation planning, civil engineering, etc.

Linear Regression Models: Logic


and Assumptions
Assumptions (predicted vs. actual values):
Errors have the expected mean value of zero
Errors are independent of each other
Correlations among independent variables
should not be high

Network Analysis
Concepts:

Network
Line segment(s)/Links
Nodes (and vertices)
Impedance
Topology
Dynamic Segmentation

Network Analysis:
Network Structure
Evaluation of Network Structure:

Index: the ratio of the actual number of links


to the maximum possible
number of links 3(n
2) (n = # of nodes)range between 0-1
Index: the ratio of the actual number of
circuits to the maximum number of circuits (c/
(2n-5))evaluation in terms of the number of
ways to get from one node to another

Network Analysis:
Network Structure
Network Diameter: the maximum number of steps
required to move from any node to any other node
using shortest possible routes over as connected
network
Network Connectivity: an evaluation of nodal
connectivity over a network based on direct and
indirect connections (expressed through the
construction of matrices c1, c2, c3)

Network Analysis:
Network Structure
Network Accessibility: can be evaluated based on
nodes or the entire networkthe accessibility
network is many times called the T matrix
T matrix is the sum of all connectivity matrices up to
the level equal to the network diameter (i.e. c3 or c4)
Logically this makes sense if you are trying to evaluate
total connectivity of a node or the entire network
How do we read the matrix?

Network Analysis:
Network Structure
Network Structure in a Valued Graph
The previously discussed measures of network
structure are based on either counting links and/or
nodes.what element are we missing with these?
Q. What is a valued graph? A. A matrix is constructed
in which every link (line segment) in a network is
coded with an impedance measure (such as what?)
An often-used type of valued graph is the minimal spanning
treesatisfies 3 criteria:
Can a GIS construct a minimal spanning tree?

Network Analysis:
Normative Models of Network Flow
Normative models are those that are designed to
determine a best or optimal solution based on
specific criteria
Simple Shortest Path Algorithm:
Involves finding the path or route with the minimum
cumulative impedance between nodes on a network
Requires an impedance matrix (such as a valued graph)
and a set of interative procedures:
GIS must know which nodes are connected to whichmultistep evaluation of connectivity and least cumulative impedance
(distance, time, cost, etc.)

Network Analysis:
Normative Models of Network Flow
The Traveling Salesman Problem:
2 constraints 1) the salesman must stop at each location
once 2) the salesman must return to the origin of travel
(there can be variations)
The objective is to determine the path or route that the
salesman can take to minimize the total impedance value
of the trip
Often a heuristic method is usedbeginning with an initial
random tour, a series of locally optimal solutions is run by
swapping stops that cause a reduction in cumulative
impedance (an iterative procedure is also described in your
book on pp. 236-244).

Network Analysis:
Normative Models of Network Flow
Various Types of Network Problems:
Shortest Path Analysis (Best Route)
Simple shortest path
Traveling Salesman
Closest Facility

Allocation (Define Service Area)


Location-Allocation: solves problems matching supply
and demand by using sets of objectives and constraints
P-median, max covering, max equity

Network Analysis:
Normative Models of Network Flow
Dynamic Segmentation Data Model: The ability to
derive the locations of events in relation to linear
features dynamicallynot reliant upon the existing
topology of a network
Models linear features using routes and events
Routes: represent dynamic linear features
Events: phenomena that occur at locations along line
segments

Dynamic segmentation is used to operationalize


network analysis in ArcInfo/ArcGIS

Spatial Interpolation

Y
X

Ordinary Kriging Comparison


With Anisotopy

Mean= .01694
RMS = 2.862
Avg. Stan Error = 3.441
Mean Stan. = .004232
RMS Stan. = .8324

Without Anisotopy

Mean= .0002331
RMS = 2.857
Avg. Stan Error = 3.424
Mean Stan. = .0006747
RMS Stan. = .8347

Universal Kriging Comparison


With Anisotopy

Mean= .04253
RMS = 2.595
Avg. Stan Error = 2.354
Mean Stan. = .01806
RMS Stan. = 1.102

Without Anisotopy

Mean= .0001592
RMS = 3.054
Avg. Stan Error = .8181
Mean Stan. = .001031
RMS Stan. = 3.731

Regression Equations
TWOYR = -3.538 + 0.06031 * AVGCURV
+ 0.03331 * PERCIMPV
TENYR = -4.156 + 0.07806 * AVGCURV +
0.04368 * PERCIMPV