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What is Education

‘’Educationis they process of development which

of the passage of human being from infancy to
,the process where by he adapts himself
gradually in
various ways to his physical &spiritual
environment ‘’

Meaning of Education

Educatum: To train, Act of teaching

Educere: To lead out, to draw
Educare: to bring up,
Definitions of Education
 “By education ,I mean the all round drawing out of
the best in child & man-body, mind & soul “ –

 “Education is the perfection already reached in man”


 Education is the natural, harmonious & progressive

development of man’s innate powers “ -Pestalozzi
Education as

As dynamic process

As development of child’s innate power
As a bipolar process
As a tri polar process

Education Instruction
All round development Lope sided development
Child centered Teacher centered
Acc to child's abilities Neglects abilities
Prepares for real life To pass examinations
All learning is self learning Cramming is encouraged
Types of Education
 Formal & Informal Education

 Direct & Indirect Education

 General & Specific Education

 Individual & Collective Education

1 Meaning Instruction Development

2 Aims Knowledge Development of total personality

& Social efficiency

3 Curriculum Subject centered Activity centered

4 Methods Rote Memory Learning by doing

5 Discipline Rigid,Repressionistic Self discipline

6 Examination Essay types Objective type

7 Agencies School Formal & In formal

8 Teacher Instructor Friend,Philosopher,Guide

9 child passive active

10 School Teaching shops Miniature of society

Aims of Education



Universal Aims
 Livelihood
 Development of personality
 Intellectual development
 Physical development
 Moral development
 Aesthetic development
 Social development
 Cultural development
 Spiritual development
 Total development
 Training for civic life
 Training in international living
Social Aims
 Inculcation of social feelings
Social reforms
Promotion of social efficiency
Modification of environment
Individual Aims
 Preservation of culture
 National security
 Training for leadership
 National development
 National Integration
 National Discipline
 Priority to national interest
 Emotional Integration
Narrower meaning

• “In the narrower sense, education may be taken to mean any

consciously directed effort to develop and cultivate our
-S.S Mackenzi.

• “Education is a process in which and by which knowledge,

character and behavior of the young are shaped and molded.”
-Prof Drever.

• “The influence of the environment of the individual with a view

to producing a permanent change in his habits of behaviour,of
thoughts and attitude.”
Wider meaning

• “In the wider sense, it is a process that goes throughout

life, and is promoted by almost every experience in life.”
“By education I mean the alround drawing out of the best in
the child and man-body, mind and soul.”
“Education in its widest sense includes all the influences which
act upon an individual during his passage from cradle to
Objectives of education in relation to
General objs (U.K)

• To raise standards at all the ability level.

• To give parents a wider choice of schools and improve the

relationship between the schools and parents.

• To make further and higher education more economically

relevant and available to larger numbers.

• To obtain good value for the money from the education

service as whole.
Objectives of school education
• To improve school mgt.
• To improve a broader and balanced curriculum. To ensure that examinations
support curriculum objectives.
• To implement schemes for local mgt.of schools and delegate responsibilities
(budget) and decisions to the primary and secondary schools.
• To give every school an oppournity to opt out of the local authority level and
operate autonomously with the direct funding from the central govt.
• To establish city technology colleges in urban areas( free edn)& with a strong
basis for sci & technology.
• To improve teaching quality & to supply of suitably qualified trs.
• To see that the school governors properly handle their responsibilities.
• To support the extension of technical & vocational educational institutes.
• To broaden the curriculum for16-8 yrs old.
• To improve the response of the schools for the multiethnic society.
• To improve the levels of attendance& help schools maintain an orderly
atmosphere for teaching & learning process.
Objs of school education in soviet
• The 27th congress of CPU (1986) placed the individual with
all his requirements ,needs, problems as the central figure
of every plan of concern.

• According to Gennadi yagodin ,(USSR minister of higher

and higher and secondary special education)Social
humanisms of no use if the realization of potentials of every
individual& development of the individual’s spiritual growth.

• He visualized two imp aims-

• Edn must mold the personality.
• It must encourage initiavitive
Objectives of U.S.A
The education policies commission issued the purpose of
education in 1938 as follows—
• Self realization

• Human relationship

• Economic efficiency

• Civic responsibility
• They have traditionally regarded education as a means of
improving themselves van the society.

• The basic American value respect for the individual has

lead to major changes which the American people have
placed in their schools, to foster the development of
individual capacities which will enable each human being
to become the best person he is capable of becoming.

• The purpose which runs and strengthens all the

educational purposes in the common thread of education is
the development of the individual to think.
Objectives of education in India

According to the preamble of our constitution the objectives of national

policy are:

Justice: Economical,Social,Polotical.

Liberty: Thought, Believe,Expression,Faith& Worship.

Equality: Status & Opportunity.

Fraternity: To maintain dignity of Individuals & Unity of the nation.

Education must orient itself to attain these goals.
Objectives acc. to time
Ancient Medieval British Free India
To lead a Religious Aim to create All round
prosperous training, Indian (in color development of
&varied life. Training in & blood) into nation &
Total others skills of English in individual
development. life.
Salvation to be terms of To promote
Spread of intelligence,int nation’s
the ideal of life
,hence salvation religion. erest,opinions, interest.
was educative, morality for Synthesis
Spiritual white color between the
development. jobs. individual and
Development of Instill the the social good.
personality, respect for
workshop of God, their religious
character dev., Laws &
civic & social tradition.
n of national

Aim of education: According to him" the natural ,progressive and

harmonious development of all powers and capacities of human being.

Methods of instruction: Acc to him a child should be thoroughly& thereafter

the teaching method should be decided upon.

sense perception: He was a believer of sense perception

Use of object lesson: Teach him nothing by words that you can teach him
by things themselves
Nature as an educator: Nature teaches better than man.
Discipline: He forced nothing on his students but guided them to control

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