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Lecture 26

Dr. P V Ramana

DCS-II Dr PVR

Prestress Loss

DCS-II Dr PVR

Introduction

In prestressed concrete applications, most important variable is

the prestress.

Prestress does not remain constant (reduces) with time.

Even during prestressing of tendons, and transfer of prestress,

there is a drop of prestress from the initially applied stress.

Reduction of prestress is nothing but the loss in prestress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

Prestress Loss

Early attempts to produce prestressed concrete was not successful due to loss

of prestress transferred to concrete after few years.

Prestress loss is nothing but the reduction of initial applied prestress to an

effective value.

In other words, loss in prestress is the difference between initial prestress and

the effective prestress that remains in a member.

Loss of prestress is a great concern since it affects the strength of member and

also significantly affects the members serviceability including Stresses in

Concrete, Cracking, Camber and Deflection.

DCS-II Dr PVR

1. Short-Term or Immediate Losses

immediate losses occur during prestressing of tendons, and

transfer of prestress to concrete member.

Time dependent losses occur during service life of structure.

DCS-II Dr PVR

i.

iii. Friction between tendon and tendon duct, and wobble Effect

i.

ii.

DCS-II Dr PVR

Prestress Losses

Time

Dependent

Immediate

Elastic

Shortening

Friction

Anchorage

Slip

Creep

DCS-II Dr PVR

Shrinkage

Relaxation

7

Type of Loss

Pre-tensioning

Post-tensioning

i.

simultaneously tensioned.

If the wires are tensioned in

stages loss will exist.

1. Elastic Shortening

Yes

2. Anchorage Slip

No

Yes

3. Friction Loss

No

Yes

of Concrete

Yes

Yes

5. Relaxation of Steel

Yes

Yes

DCS-II Dr PVR

ii.

Immediate Losses

Elastic Shortening of Concrete

In pre-tensioned concrete, when the prestress is transferred to

concrete, the member shortens and the prestressing steel also

shortens in it. Hence there is a loss of prestress.

In case of post-tensioning, if all the cables are tensioned

simultaneously there is no loss since the applied stress is recorded

after the elastic shortening has completely occurred.

If the cables are tensioned sequentially, there is loss in a tendon

during subsequent stretching of other tendons.

DCS-II Dr PVR

stress in concrete at the level of steel.

Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by drop in prestress

(fp) in a tendon due to change in strain in tendon (p).

The change in strain in tendon is equal to the strain in concrete

(c) at the level of tendon due to prestressing force.

This assumption is due to strain compatibility between concrete

and steel.

Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the

stress in concrete (fc) at the same level due to prestressing force.

DCS-II Dr PVR

10

Strain compatibility

Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by the drop in

prestress (fp) in a tendon due to change in strain in tendon

(p).

Change in strain in tendon is equal to strain in concrete (c) at

the level of tendon due to prestressing force, which is called

strain compatibility between concrete and steel.

Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the

stress in concrete (fc) at the same level due to the prestressing

force.

A linear elastic relationship is used to calculate the strain from

the stress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

11

Elastic Shortening

1. Pre-tensioned Members: When the tendons are cut and

the prestressing force is transferred to the member,

concrete undergoes immediate shortening due to

prestress.

2. Tendon also shortens by same amount, which leads to

the loss of prestress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

12

Elastic Shortening

1. Post-tensioned Members: If there is only one tendon,

there is no loss because the applied prestress is

recorded after the elastic shortening of the member.

2. For more than one tendon, if the tendons are stretched

sequentially, there is loss in a tendon during subsequent

stretching of the other tendons.

DCS-II Dr PVR

13

Elastic Shortening

Pre-tensioned Members: operation of pre-tensioning through

various stages by animation.

Prestressing

bed

Pre-tensioning of a member

DCS-II Dr PVR

14

Elastic Shortening

Post-tensioned Members: complete operation of post-tensioning

through various stages by animation

Duc

t

jack

Anchorag

e

Casting bed

Post-tensioning of a member

DCS-II Dr PVR

15

stress.

Quantification of the losses is explained below.

fp=Epp

=Epc

=Ep(fc/Ec)

fp= mfc

For simplicity, the loss in all the tendons can be calculated based

on the stress in concrete at the level of CGS.

This simplification cannot be used when tendons are stretched

sequentially in a post-tensioned member.

DCS-II Dr PVR

16

Anchorage Slip

In most Post-tensioning systems when the tendon force is

transferred from the jack to the anchoring ends, the friction

wedges slip over a small distance.

Anchorage block also moves before it settles on concrete.

Loss of prestress is due to the consequent reduction in the

length of the tendon.

Certain quantity of prestress is released due to this slip of wire

through the anchorages.

Amount of slip depends on type of wedge and stress in the wire.

DCS-II Dr PVR

17

The magnitude of slip can be known from the tests or from the

patents of the anchorage system.

Loss of stress is caused by a definite total amount of

shortening.

Percentage loss is higher for shorter members.

Due to setting of anchorage block, as the tendon shortens,

there develops a reverse friction.

Effect of anchorage slip is present up to a certain length,

called the setting length lset.

DCS-II Dr PVR

18

Anchorage loss can be accounted for at the site by overextending the tendon during prestressing operation by the

amount of draw-in before anchoring.

Loss of prestress due to slip can be calculated:

Es

P

L

A

where, = Slip of anchorage

L= Length of cable

A= Cross-sectional area of the cable

Es= Modulus of Elasticity of steel

P = Prestressing Force in the cable.

DCS-II Dr PVR

19

Frictional Loss

In Post-tensioned members, tendons are housed in

ducts or

sheaths.

If the profile of cable is linear, the loss will be due to

straightening or stretching of the cables called Wobble Effect.

If the profile is curved, there will be loss in stress due to friction

between tendon and the duct or between the tendons themselves.

DCS-II Dr PVR

20

Friction

Post-tensioned Members

component of the prestressing force.

(Courtesy: VSL International Ltd.)

DCS-II Dr PVR

21

Friction

Post-tensioned Members

P0

Px

DCS-II Dr PVR

22

the tensioning end follows an exponential function of the type,

Px Poe kx

where, Po= Prestressing force at the jacking end

Cumulative angle in radian through which

the tangent to the cable profile has turned

between any two points under consideration

k = Friction coefficient

DCS-II Dr PVR

23

Creep of Concrete

Time-dependent increase of deformation under sustained load.

Due to creep, the prestress in tendons decreases with time.

Factors affecting creep and shrinkage of concrete

Age

Applied Stress level

Density of concrete

Cement Content in concrete

Water-Cement Ratio

Relative Humidity and

Temperature

DCS-II Dr PVR

24

strength, the ultimate creep strain (cr,ult) is found to be

proportional to the elastic strain (el).

defined as the ultimate creep coefficient or simply creep

coefficient, .

cr,ult = el

IS: 1343 considers only the age of loading of the prestressed

concrete structure in calculating the ultimate creep strain.

DCS-II Dr PVR

25

fp = Ep cr, ult =Ep el

Since cr,ult = el

Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel

Curing the concrete adequately and delaying the application of

load provide long-term benefits with regards to durability, loss of

prestress and deflection.

In special situations detailed calculations may be necessary to

monitor creep strain with time.

Specialized literature or standard codes can provide guidelines

for such calculations.

DCS-II Dr PVR

26

due to creep.

Creep is due to sustained (permanent) loads only. Temporary

loads are not considered in calculation of creep.

Since the prestress may vary along the length of the member,

an average value of the prestress is considered.

Prestress changes due to creep, which is related to the

instantaneous prestress.

To consider this interaction, the calculation of creep can be

iterated over small time steps.

DCS-II Dr PVR

27

Shrinkage of Concrete

Time-dependent strain measured in an unloaded

unrestrained specimen at constant temperature.

and

fp = Ep sh

where Ep is the modulus of prestressing steel.

The factors responsible for creep of concrete will have influence

on shrinkage of concrete also except the loading conditions.

DCS-II Dr PVR

28

assumed as follows (IS 1383):

For pre-tensioning = 0.0003

For post-tensioning =

0.002

Log 10 (t 2)

DCS-II Dr PVR

29

Relaxation

strain.

decrease in the stress is due to the fact that some of the

initial elastic strain is transformed in to inelastic strain

under constant strain.

stress decreases according to the remaining elastic strain.

DCS-II Dr PVR

30

Time

Initial stress

Temperature and

Type of steel.

Relaxation loss can be calculated according to the IS 1343-1980

code.

DCS-II Dr PVR

31

Losses in Prestress

Notation

Geometric Properties

1. Commonly used Notations in prestressed member are

.

= Net c/s area of concrete excluding the area of prestressing steel.

DCS-II Dr PVR

32

= Area of member when steel area is replaced by an equivalent area

of concrete = Ac + mAp = A + (m 1)Ap

Here,

m

Ep = elastic modulus of steel.

DCS-II Dr PVR

33

DCS-II Dr PVR

34

CGC = Centroid of concrete = Centroid of gravity of section, may lie outside concrete

CGS = Centroid of prestressing steel = Centroid of the tendons.

CGS may lie outside the tendons or the concrete

I = MoI of prestressed member = Second moment of area of gross section about CGC.

It = Moment of inertia of transformed section = Second moment of area of the

transformed section about the centroid of the transformed section.

e = Eccentricity of CGS with respect to CGC = Vertical distance between CGC and

CGS. If CGS lies below CGC, e will be considered positive and vice versa

DCS-II Dr PVR

35

Load Variables

Pi = Initial prestressing force = force applied to tendons by jack.

P0 = Prestressing force after immediate losses = Reduced value of prestressing force

after elastic shortening, anchorage slip and loss due to friction.

force after the occurrence of creep, shrinkage and relaxation.

DCS-II Dr PVR

36

Strain compatibility

Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by the drop in prestress (fp) in a

tendon due to change in strain in tendon (p).

Change in strain in tendon is equal to strain in concrete (c) at the level of

tendon due to prestressing force, which is called strain compatibility

between concrete and steel.

Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the stress in

concrete (fc) at the same level due to the prestressing force.

A linear elastic relationship is used to calculate the strain from the stress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

37

For simplicity, the loss in all the tendons can be calculated based

on the stress in concrete at the level of CGS.

This simplification cannot be used when tendons are stretched

sequentially in a post-tensioned member.

DCS-II Dr PVR

38

Elastic Shortening

Pre-tensioned Axial Members

Original length of member at transfer of

prestress

shortening

Pi

P0

member

DCS-II Dr PVR

39

Elastic Shortening

The stress in concrete due to prestressing force after immediate

losses (P0/Ac) can be equated to the stress in transformed section

due to the initial prestress (Pi /At).

The transformed area At of the prestressed member can be

approximated to the gross area A.

The strain in concrete due to elastic shortening (c) is the

difference between the initial strain in steel (pi) and the residual

strain in steel (p0).

DCS-II Dr PVR

40

Elastic Shortening

Pre-tensioned Axial Members

Length of tendon before

stretching

pi

p0

Pi

c

P0

Dr PVR

Elastic shortening of aDCS-II

pre-tensioned

axial member

41

25

c = pi - p0

immediate losses (P0/Ac) can be equated to the stress in the

DCS-II Dr PVR

42

transformed section due to the initial prestress (P /A ).

Problem

method has a rectangular cross-section of 300mm 250 mm

(b h). It is prestressed with 9 numbers of straight 7mm

diameter wires at 0.8 times the ultimate strength of 1570

N/mm2. Estimate the percentage loss of stress due to elastic

shortening of concrete. Consider m = 6.

DCS-II Dr PVR

43

Solution

a)Approximate solution considering gross section

The sectional properties are.

) Area of a single wire, Aw = /4 72 = 38.48 mm2

) Area of total prestressing steel, Ap = 9 38.48 = 346.32 mm2

) Area of concrete section,

) Distance of centroid of steel area (CGS) from the soffit,

DCS-II Dr PVR

44

Eccentricity of prestressing force, e = (250/2) 115.5 = 9.5 mm

The stress diagrams due to Pi are shown.

Since the wires are distributed above and below the CGC, the

losses are calculated for the top and bottom wires separately.

DCS-II Dr PVR

45

DCS-II Dr PVR

46

= 6 4.9 (4 38.48)

= 4525.25 N

Loss of prestress in bottom wires = 6 6.7 (5 38.48)

= 7734.48 N

Total loss of prestress

= 4525 + 7735

= 12259.73 N 12.3 kN

Percentage loss

= (12.3 / 435) 100% = 2.83%

DCS-II Dr PVR

47

Transformed area of top steel,

A1 = (6 1) 4 38.48 = 769.6 mm2

Transformed area of bottom steel,

A2 = (6 1) 5 38.48 = 962.0 mm2

Total area of transformed section,

AT = A + A1 + A2 = 75000.0 + 769.6 + 962.0

= 76731.6 mm2

Centroid of the section (CGC)

DCS-II Dr PVR

48

IT = Ig + A(0.2)2 + A1(210 124.8)2 + A2(124.8 40)2

= 4.02 108mm4

Eccentricity of prestressing force,

e = 124.8 115.5

= 9.3 mm

Stress at the level of bottom wires,

DCS-II Dr PVR

49

= 4442 N

Loss of prestress in bottom wires = 6 6.52 (5 38.48)

= 7527 N

Total loss

12 kN

It can be observed that the accurate and approximate solutions

are close. Hence, the simpler calculations based on A and I is

acceptable.

DCS-II Dr PVR

50

shortening of a pre-tensioned bending member.

along length.

To have a conservative estimate of the loss, the maximum stress

at the level of CGS at the mid-span is considered.

DCS-II Dr PVR

51

result using At and It in place of A and I, respectively, is not

computationally warranted. In the above expression, the

eccentricity of the CGS (e) was assumed to be constant.

2. For a large member, the calculation of the loss can be refined

by evaluating the strain in concrete at the level of the CGS

accurately from the definition of strain. This is demonstrated

later for post-tensioned bending members.

DCS-II Dr PVR

52

For more than one tendon, if the tendons are stretched

sequentially, there is loss in a tendon during subsequent

stretching of the other tendons. The loss in each tendon can be

calculated in progressive sequence. Else, an approximation can

be used to calculate the losses.

The loss in the first tendon is evaluated precisely and half of that

value is used as an average loss for all the tendons.

Here,

Pi,j = initial prestressing force in tendon j

n = number of tendons

The eccentricity of individual tendon is

neglected

DCS-II Dr PVR

53

The calculation of loss for tendons stretched sequentially, is

similar to post-tensioned axial members. For curved profiles, the

eccentricity of the CGS and hence, the stress in concrete at the

level of CGS vary along the length. An average stress in concrete

can be considered.

For a parabolic tendon, the average stress (fc,avg) is given by the

following equation.

Here,

fc1 = stress in concrete at the end of the member

fc2 = stress in concrete at the mid-span of the member.

DCS-II Dr PVR

54

strain in concrete at the level of the CGS accurately from the

definition of strain. This is demonstrated for a beam with two

parabolic tendons post-tensioned sequentially.

In Fig. 7, Tendon B is stretched after Tendon A. The loss in Tendon

A due to elastic shortening during tensioning of Tendon B is given as

follows.

Here,

c is the strain at the level of Tendon A.

The component of c due to pure compression is represented as c1.

The component of c due to bending is represented as c2.

DCS-II Dr PVR

55

Here,

A = cross-sectional area of beam

PB = prestressing force in Tendon B

Ec = modulus of concrete

L = length of beam

eA(x) = eccentricities of Tendons A, at distance x from left end

eB(x) = eccentricities of Tendons B, at distance x from left end

I = moment of inertia of beam

L = change in length of beam

DCS-II Dr PVR

56

expressed as follows.

respectively.

eB1, eB2 = eccentricities of Tendon B at 1 and 2, respectively.

Substituting the expressions of the eccentricities in Eqn. (21.12), the second component of the strain is given as follows.

DCS-II Dr PVR

57

In the absence of test data, IS:1343 - 1980 provides guidelines for

the values of and k.

Type of interface

For steel moving on smooth concrete

0.55

0.30

0.25

the tendon depending on theDCS-II

type

of tendon.

Dr PVR

58

over 10 m is stressed by successive tensioning and anchoring of

3 cables A, B, and C respectively as shown in figure. Each

cable has cross section area of 200 mm2 and has initial stress of

1200 MPa. If the cables are tensioned from one end, estimate

the percentage loss in each cable due to friction at the

anchored end. Assume = 0.35, k = 0.0015 / m.

DCS-II Dr PVR

59

Solution

Prestress in each tendon at stretching end

= 1200 200

= 240 kN.

To know the value of (L), the equation for a parabolic profile is

required.

Here,

ym = displacement of the CGS at the centre of the beam from the ends

L = length of the beam

x = distance from the stretching end

Dr PVR

y = displacement of the CGS atDCS-II

distance

x from the ends.

60

the profile. The slope of the profile is given as follows.

proportional to x.

The expression of (x) can be written in terms of x as (x) = .x,

where,

= 8ym/L2.

DCS-II Dr PVR

61

The prestressing force Px at a distance x is given by

Px = P0e( + kx) = P0ex

where,

x = + kx

For cable A, ym = 0.1 m.

For cable B, ym = 0.05 m.

For cable C, ym = 0.0 m.

For all the cables, L = 10 m.

Substituting the values of ym and L

DCS-II Dr PVR

62

The maximum loss for all the cables is at x = L = 10, the anchored

end.

Percentage loss due to friction = (1 e L) 100%

The loss due to friction can be considerable for long tendons in

continuous beams with changes in curvature. The drop in the

prestress is higher around the intermediate supports where the

curvature is high. The remedy to reduce the loss is to apply the

DCS-II of

Dr PVR

63

stretching force from both ends

the member in stages.

Anchorage Slip

In a post-tensioned member, when the prestress is transferred to the

concrete, the wedges slip through a little distance before they get properly

seated in the conical space. The anchorage block also moves before it settles

on the concrete. There is loss of prestress due to the consequent reduction in

the length of the tendon.

The total anchorage slip depends on the type of anchorage system. Typical

values of anchorage slip

Anchorage System

Freyssinet system

12 - 5mm strands

12 - 8mm strands

4 mm

6 mm

Magnel system

8 mm

Dywidag system

1 mm

DCS-II Dr PVR

64

there is a reverse friction. Hence, the effect of anchorage slip is

present up to a certain length. Beyond this setting length, the

effect is absent. This length is denoted as lset.

DCS-II Dr PVR

65

The magnitude of the prestressing force varies along the length of a posttensioned member due to friction losses and setting of the anchorage block.

The diagram representing the variation of prestressing force is called the

force variation diagram.

Considering the effect of friction, the magnitude of the prestressing force at

a distance x from the stretching end is given as follows.

Here, x = + kx denotes the total effect of friction and wobble. The plot of

Px gives the force variation diagram.

DCS-II Dr PVR

66

The initial part of the force variation diagram, up to length lset is influenced

by the setting of the anchorage block. Let the drop in the prestressing force at

the stretching end be P. The determination of P and l set are necessary to

plot the force variation diagram including the effect of the setting of the

anchorage block.

Considering the drop in the prestressing force and the effect of reverse

friction, the magnitude of the prestressing force at a distance x from the

stretching end is given as follows.

Here, for reverse friction is analogous to for friction and wobble. At the

end of the setting length (x = lset), Px = Px

DCS-II Dr PVR

67

Substituting the expressions of Px and Px for x = lset

Since it is difficult to measure separately, is taken equal to .

The expression of P simplifies to the following.

PVR

P DCS-II

= 2PDr0l

set

68

Therefore,

The term P0 represents the loss of prestress per unit length due to

friction.

DCS-II Dr PVR

69

both the ends. The tendons are overstressed to counter the drop

due to anchorage slip. The stretching from both the ends can be

done simultaneously or in stages. The final force variation is

more uniform than the first stretching.

Force variation diagrams for stretching in stages

DCS-II Dr PVR

70

The force variation diagrams for the various stages are explained.

a) The initial tension at the right end is high to compensate for the

anchorage slip. It corresponds to about 0.8 fpk initial prestress. The

force variation diagram (FVD) is linear.

b) After the anchorage slip, the FVD drops near the right end till

DCS-II Dr PVR

71

the length lset.

c) The initial tension at the left end also corresponds to about 0.8

fpk initial prestress. The FVD is linear up to the centre line of the

beam.

d) After the anchorage slip, the FVD drops near the left end till

the length lset. It is observed that after two stages, the variation of

the prestressing force over the length of the beam is less than

after the first stage.

DCS-II Dr PVR

72

Example

A four span continuous bridge girder is post-tensioned with a

tendon consisting of twenty strands with fpk = 1860 MPa. Half

of the girder is shown in the figure below. The symmetrical

tendon is simultaneously stressed up to 75% f pk from both ends

and then anchored. The tendon properties are Ap = 2800 mm2, Ep

= 195,000 MPa, = 0.20, K = 0.0020/m. The anchorage slip s =

6 mm.

Calculate

a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching,

b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after

anchorage.

DCS-II Dr PVR

73

Solution

13.7

15.2

13.7

3.7

3.7

15.2

0.75fpk = 1395 MPa

P0 = 0.75fpk Ap

= 3906 kN

The continuous tendon is analysed as segments of parabola. The

segments are identified between the points of maximum eccentricity

DCS-II Dr PVR

74

and inflection points.

The inflection points are those where the curvature of the tendon

reverses. The different segments are as follows: 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5,

5-6, 6-7 and 7-8.

the parabola in the sketch below is used.

Y

L

e

0

X

DCS-II Dr PVR

75

The change in slope from the origin to the end of the parabola is

same as the slope at the end of the tendon which is = 2e/L,

where

L = length of the segment

e = vertical shift from the origin.

For segments 2-3 and 3-4 and subsequent pairs of segments, the

following property is used.

DCS-II Dr PVR

76

For the two parabolic segments joined at the inflection point as shown

in the sketch above, the slope at the inflection point

= 2(e1 + e2)/L.

Here,

e1 = eccentricities of the CGS at the span

e2 = eccentricities of the CGS at the support

L = length of the span

L = fractional length between the points of maximum

eccentricity

inflection point is also equal to .

The change in slope () for each segment of the tendon is calculated

using the above expressions.

DCS-II Dr PVR

77

given values of , k and x, the horizontal length of the segment.

Since the loss in prestress accrues with each segment, the force at

a certain segment is given as follows.

to the point in the segment under consideration. Hence, the value

of ( + kx) at the end of each segment is calculated to evaluate

the prestressing force at that point (Px, where x denotes the point).

DCS-II Dr PVR

78

the above values of Px. A linear variation of the force can be

assumed for each segment. Since the stretching is done at both the

ends simultaneously, the diagram is symmetric about the central

line.

a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching

First the product of the average force and the length of each

segment is summed up to the centre line.

DCS-II Dr PVR

79

b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after

anchorage

After anchorage, the effect of anchorage slip is present up to the

setting length lset. The value of lset due to an anchorage slip s = 6

mm is calculated as follows.

DCS-II Dr PVR

80

length in the first segment. P0 = (3906 3718) kN /13.7 m = 13.7

N/mm. The drop in the prestressing force (p) at each stretching

end is calculated as follows.

Thus the value of the prestressing force at each stretching end after

anchorage slip is 3906 424 = 3482 kN. The force variation

diagram for lset = 15.46 m is altered to show the drop due to

anchorage slip.

The force variation diagrams before and after anchorage are shown

below. Note that the drop of force per unit length is more over the

supports due to change in curvature over a small distance.

DCS-II Dr PVR

81

DCS-II Dr PVR

82

Creep of Concrete

Creep of concrete is defined as the increase in deformation with

time under constant load. Due to the creep of concrete, the prestress

in the tendon is reduced with time.

The creep of concrete is explained in Section 1.6, Concrete (Part

II). Here, the information is summarised. For stress in concrete less

than one-third of the characteristic strength, the ultimate creep

strain (cr,ult) is found to be proportional to the elastic strain ( el).

The ratio of the ultimate creep strain to the elastic strain is defined

as the ultimate creep coefficient or simply creep coefficient .

The ultimate creep strain is then given as follows.

DCS-II Dr PVR

83

strain in Section 5.2.5. It is a simplified estimate where only

one factor has been considered. The factor is age of loading of

the prestressed concrete structure. The creep coefficient is

provided for three values of age of loading.

Curing the concrete adequately and delaying the application of

load provide long term benefits with regards to durability, loss of

prestress and deflection. In special situations detailed calculations

may be necessary to monitor creep strain with time. Specialised

literature or international codes can provide guidelines for such

calculations.

DCS-II Dr PVR

84

fp = Ep cr, ult

Here, Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel.

The following considerations are applicable for calculating the

loss of prestress due to creep.

1) The creep is due to the sustained (permanently applied) loads

only. Temporary loads are not considered in the calculation of

creep.

2) Since the prestress may vary along the length of the member, an

average value of the prestress can be considered.

3) The prestress changes due to creep and the creep is related to

the instantaneous prestress. To consider this interaction, the

calculation of creep can be iterated over small time steps.

DCS-II Dr PVR

85

Shrinkage of Concrete

Shrinkage of concrete is defined as the contraction due to loss of

moisture. Due to the shrinkage of concrete, the prestress in the

tendon is reduced with time. The shrinkage of concrete was

explained in details in the Section 1.6, Concrete (Part II).

IS:1343 - 1980 gives guidelines to estimate the shrinkage strain

in Section 5.2.4. It is a simplified estimate of the ultimate

shrinkage strain (sh). Curing the concrete adequately and

delaying the application of load provide long term benefits with

regards to durability and loss of prestress. In special situations

detailed calculations may be necessary to monitor shrinkage

strain with time. Specialised literature or international codes can

provide guidelines for such calculations.

DCS-II Dr PVR

86

fp = Ep sh

Here, Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel.

Relaxation of Steel

Relaxation of steel is defined as the decrease in stress with

time under constant strain. Due to the relaxation of steel, the

prestress in the tendon is reduced with time. The relaxation

depends on the type of steel, initial prestress (fpi) and the

temperature. To calculate the drop (or loss) in prestress (fp), the

recommendations of IS:1343 - 1980 can be followed in absence of

test data.

DCS-II Dr PVR

87

Example

A concrete beam of dimension 100 mm 300 mm is posttensioned with 5 straight wires of 7mm diameter. The average

prestress after short-term losses is 0.7fpk = 1200 N/mm2 and the

age of loading is given as 28 days. Given that Ep = 200 103

MPa, Ec = 35000 MPa, find out the losses of prestress due to

creep, shrinkage and relaxation. Neglect the weight of the beam

in the computation of the stresses.

DCS-II Dr PVR

88

Solution

Area of concrete A

= 100 300

= 30000 mm2

Moment of inertia of beam section

I

= 100 3003 / 12

Area of prestressing wires,

Ap

= 5 (/4) 72

= 192.42 mm2

Prestressing force after short-term losses

P0

= Ap.fp0

= 192.4 1200

= 230880 N

DCS-II Dr PVR

89

Modular ratio m = Ep / Ec

= 2 105 / 35 103

= 5.71

= 7.69 2.56

= 10.25 N/mm2

(fp)cr = Ep cr, ult

= Ep el

= Ep (fc/Ec)

= m fc

= 5.71 10.25 1.6 = 93.64 N / mm2

DCS-II Dr PVR

90

5.2.5.1, IS:1343 - 1980).

Shrinkage strain from Clause 5.2.4.1, IS:1343 - 1980

sh = 0.0002 / log10(t + 2)

= 0.0002 / log10 (28 + 2)

= 1.354 10-4

Loss of prestress due to shrinkage

(fp)sh = Epsh

= 2 105 1.354 10-4

= 27.08 N/mm2

From Table 2c-2 (Table 4, IS:1343 - 1980)

Loss of prestress due to relaxation

(fp)rl = 70.0 N/mm2

DCS-II Dr PVR

91

= fp Ap

Therefore,

Loss of prestressing force due to creep

=93.64 192.42

= 18018 N

Loss of prestressing force due to shrinkage=27.08 192.42

= 5211 N

Loss of prestressing force due to relaxation= 70 192.42

= 13469 N

Total long-term loss of prestressing force (neglecting the interaction

of the losses and prestressing force)

= 36698 N

Percentage loss of prestress = 36698 / 230880 100%

= 15.9 %

DCS-II Dr PVR

92

The losses of prestress due to creep and shrinkage of concrete and

the relaxation of the steel are all time-dependent and inter-related

to each other. If the losses are calculated separately and added, the

calculated total time-dependent loss is over-estimated. To consider

the inter-relationship of the cause and effect, the calculation can be

done for discrete time steps. The results at the end of each time

step are used for the next time step. This step-by-step procedure

was suggested by the Precast / Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI)

committee and is called the General method (Reference: PCI

Committee, Recommendations for Estimating Prestress

Losses, PCI Journal, PCI, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1975, pp.

43-75).

DCS-II Dr PVR

93

are considered in the service life of a prestres

Step

Beginning

End

Post-tension: End of curing

Age of prestressing

End of Step 1

when subjected to

superimposed load

End of Step 2

1 year of service

End of Step 3

program, where the number of time steps can be increased.

There are also approximate methods to calculate lump sum

estimates of the total loss. Since these estimates are not given in

IS:1343 - 1980, they are notDCS-II

mentioned

here.

Dr PVR

94

In

pretensioning

system,

tendons

are

first

ground.

Concrete is subsequently placed and compacted

to the required shape and size.

Pretensioning

methods

rely

on

the

bond

concrete.

The tendons should be fully bonded over its

entire length.

After the concrete hardens, the tendons are

DCS-II Dr PVR

95

released from the pre-tensioning

bed and the

Post-tensioning

Concrete units are first cast by incorporating ducts or groves to

house the tendons.

When concrete attains sufficient strength, the high tensile wires are

tensioned by means of a jack bearing on the end face of the member

and the wires are anchored by wedges or nuts.

The forces are transmitted to concrete by means of the end

anchorages and also when the cable is curved, through the radial

pressure between the cable and the duct.

The space between the tendons and the duct is generally grouted

after the tensioning operation.

DCS-II Dr PVR

96

[g+q]

e

P

Direct Stress

Bending Stress

DCS-II Dr PVR

Resultant Stress

97

Combined action of prestressing force and the externally applied load results

in a distribution of concrete stresses that can be resolved into a single force.

different locations along the beam.

The line joining the locus of points of the resultant force in any structure is

termed as the Pressure or Thrust line.

carrying mechanism of a prestressed concrete section.

The location of the pressure line depends upon the magnitude and direction

of the moments applied at the cross-section and the magnitude and

distribution of stress due to the prestressing force.

DCS-II Dr PVR

98

in PSC members such that

the transverse component of

Straight Tendon

given type of external loads.

will be satisfied, if the cable

Bent Tendon

shape of the BMD resulting

from external loads.

DCS-II Dr PVR

99

100

DCS-II Dr PVR

Extra Information

DCS-II Dr PVR

101

induced to counteract

external stresses.

In 1904, Freyssinet

attempted to introduce

permanent acting force

in conc. to resist elastic

forces under loads and

was named

Pre stressing.

DCS-II Dr PVR

102

Introduction

In prestressed concrete applications, most important

variable is the prestress.

Prestress does not remain constant with time.

Even during prestressing of tendons, and transfer of

prestress, there is a drop of prestress from the initially

applied stress.

Reduction of prestress is nothing but the loss in

prestress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

103

Prestress Loss

loss in prestress is the difference between initial

prestress and the effective prestress.

Loss of prestress affects

the strength of member and

members serviceability [

Deflection ]

DCS-II Dr PVR

104

Types

Loss of prestress is classified into two types:

1. Immediate Losses

immediate losses occur during prestressing of tendons,

and transfer of prestress to concrete member.

Time dependent losses occur during service life of

structure.

DCS-II Dr PVR

105

Prestress Losses

Time

Dependent

Immediate

Elastic

Shortening

Friction

Anchorage

Slip

Creep

DCS-II Dr PVR

Shrinkage

Relaxation

106

Prestress Losses

Concrete

Elastic

Shortening

Creep

Steel

Shrinkage

Friction

DCS-II Dr PVR

Anchorage

Slip

Relaxation

107

I . Pre-tensioning:

In Pre-tension, the tendons are tensioned before the

concrete is place. After the concrete hardened, the

tension force is released.

II . Post tensioning:

In Post tension, the tendons are tensioned after the

concrete has hardened.

DCS-II Dr PVR

108

Example of Pre-tensioning

DCS-II Dr PVR

109

Example of Post-tensioning

DCS-II Dr PVR

110

Type of Loss

Pre-tensioning

Post-tensioning

i.

1. Elastic Shortening

Yes

simultaneously tensioned.

ii. If the wires are tensioned

in stages loss will exist.

2. Anchorage Slip

No

Yes

3. Friction Loss

No

Yes

of Concrete

Yes

Yes

5. Relaxation of Steel

Yes

Yes

DCS-II Dr PVR

111

Immediate Loss

DCS-II Dr PVR

112

Elastic Shortening

It is the shorten of concrete member, when the prestress is transferred to

concrete, the member shortens and the prestressing steel also shortens in it.

Hence there is a loss of prestress.

prestress

Pi

shortening

DCS-II Dr PVR

P0

113

Members

When

the

tendons

are

cut

and

the

member,

concrete

undergoes

immediate

DCS-II Dr PVR

114

Prestressing

bed

Pre-tensioning of a member

DCS-II Dr PVR

115

Members

If there is only one tendon, there is no loss

elastic shortening of the member.

during subsequent stretching of the other tendons.

DCS-II Dr PVR

116

Duc

t

jack

Anchorag

e

Casting bed

Post-tensioning of a member

DCS-II Dr PVR

117

Anchorage Slip

In most Post-tensioning systems when the prestress

force is transferred from the jack to the anchoring

ends, the wedges slip over a small distance.

in the length of the tendon.

Amount of slip depends on type of anchorage

system.

DCS-II Dr PVR

118

various stages

a) The initial tension at

the right end is high to

compensate for the

anchorage slip. It

corresponds to about initial

prestress. The force

variation diagram (FVD) is

linear.

b) After the anchorage slip,

the FVD drops near the

: Effect of anchorage slip is present

right end till the length lsetNote

.

up to a certain length, called the setting

length lset.

DCS-II Dr PVR

119

various stages

c) The initial tension at the

left end also corresponds to

about initial prestress. The

FVD is linear up to the

centre line of the beam.

d) After the anchorage slip,

the FVD drops near the left

end till the length lset. It is

observed that after two

stages, the variation of the

prestressing force over the

length of the beam is DCS-II

lessDr PVR

than after the first stage.

120

Anchorage System

Freyssinet system

12 - 5mm strands

12 - 8mm strands

4 mm

6 mm

Magnel system

8 mm

Dywidag system

1 mm

DCS-II Dr PVR

121

Frictional Loss

of concrete and steel during the

stretching of a curved tendon in a

post-tensioned member.

generally small.

More serious frictional loss occurs between the

tendon and its surrounding material .

DCS-II Dr PVR

122

Members

The loss due to friction does not occur in pretensioned members because there is no concrete

during the stretching of the tendons.

and vertical component of the prestressing force .

DCS-II Dr PVR

123

Frictional Loss

Frictional Loss is the summation of

Friction Loss Due to length Effect.

Friction Loss Due to Curvature Effect.

the cables.

Curvature Effect: If the profile is curved, there will

and the duct or between the tendons themselves.

DCS-II Dr PVR

124

DCS-II Dr PVR

125

frictional losses

1. Cables should pass through metal tubes.

2. The bends should be through as small an

angle as possible.

3. Radius of curvature for bends should be

large.

4. Prestressing the wire from both ends.

5. Over-tensioning the wires.

DCS-II Dr PVR

126

DCS-II Dr PVR

127

Creep of Concrete

The Continuous deformation of concrete with time

under sustained load.

Factors affecting creep of concrete

Age

Applied Stress level

Density of concrete

Cement Content in concrete

Water-Cement Ratio

Relative Humidity and

Temperature

DCS-II Dr PVR

128

prestress due to creep.

Temporary loads are not considered in calculation of

creep.

member, an average value of the prestress is

considered.

DCS-II Dr PVR

129

Shrinkage of Concrete

Shrinkage of concrete is

defined

as

the

contraction due to loss of

moisture.

concrete, the prestress in

the tendon is reduced

with time.

DCS-II Dr PVR

130

Shrinkage of Concrete

For pre-tensioned members, transfer

commonly takes place after 24 hours after

casting and nearly all shrinkage takes

place after that.

For post-tensioned members, stressing

may takes place after one day or much

later, thus a large percentage of shrinkage

may already taken place by them.

DCS-II Dr PVR

131

Relaxation

Relaxation is the reduction in stress with

time at constant strain.

decrease in the stress is due to the fact

that some of the initial elastic strain is

transformed in to inelastic strain under

constant strain.

Percentage of relaxation varies from 1 to 5%.

DCS-II Dr PVR

132

Time

Initial stress

Temperature and

Type of steel.

DCS-II Dr PVR

133

due to Relaxation

Choice of proper steel helps to reduce this

loss.

Prestressed wires have lesser creep.

Galvanised wires also have no creep.

overstressing steel about 10% above its

initial stress and then releasing it to the

initial stress

DCS-II Dr PVR

134

Loss

DCS-II Dr PVR

135

DCS-II Dr PVR

136

Initial Prestress

Deducting the loss due to anchorage take-up and

friction, initial prestress is obtained.

If prestress is measured at the time of pulling the

wire, the stress is termed as the jacking stress.

if jacketing stress is treated as the initial stress,

effective stress is jacketing stress minus all

losses.

DCS-II Dr PVR

137

Effective Prestress

Initial Prestress in steel minus the losses is

known as the effective or design prestress.

Effective prestress=Initial prestress-Losses

instead of losses.

For Post-Tension system , Post-Tension Losses are used

instead of losses.

DCS-II Dr PVR

138

Tensioning System

Total pretension losses=Loss due to creep

+ Elastic shortening + Shrinkage + Steel

Relaxation.

Total post-Tension Loss=Loss due to creep

+ Elastic shortening + Shrinkage + Steel

Relaxation +Anchorage slip +

Friction.

DCS-II Dr PVR

139

Total Losses

It is difficult to generalize the amount of

loss of prestress, because it is dependent

on so many Factors :

The properties of concrete & steel.

Curing & moisture condition.

Magnitude & time of application

prestress.

Process of prestress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

of

140

There are two methods that can be used to

estimate losses in prestressed concrete:

(a)lump sum approximations;

(b)refined estimations.

One should keep in mind that all estimates

for prestress loss are just that ESTIMATIONS .

DCS-II Dr PVR

141

Loss

First introduce by the ACI-ASCE Committee 423 in

1958.

Table : AASHTO Lump Sum Losses.

Total

Types of

prestressing

steel

Pretensioning

strand

Posttensionin

g wire or

strand

Bars

Loss

fc=28 MPa

fc=35 MPa

310 MPa

220 MPa

230 Mpa

150 MPa

160 Mpa

DCS-II Dr PVR

142

AASHTO-LRFD Specifications

For Lump-Sum estimates following conditions should met :

1. Members that are post-tensioned must be nonsegmental members with spans less than 160 feet and

concrete stressed an age of 10-30 days.

2. Members that are pretensioned must be stressed at

an age where the concrete strength is not less than

3,500-psi.

3. Members must be made from normal weight

concrete.

4. Members cannot be steam-cured, nor moist-cured.

5. The prestressing steel must be normal or lowrelaxation.

DCS-II Dr PVR

6. There must be Average

exposure conditions at the143

For average steel and concrete properties ,the tabulated

percentages may be taken as representative of the

average losses.

Pretensioning ,

%

4

Posttensioning

.%

1

Shrinkage of

concrete

Steel relaxation

25

20

Elastic shortening

& bending of

concrete

Creep of concrete

Total Loss

DCS-II Dr PVR

144

Prestress Concrete

DCS-II Dr PVR

145

Thank You

DCS-II Dr PVR

146

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