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Design of Concrete Structures-II

Lecture 26

Dr. P V Ramana
DCS-II Dr PVR

Prestress Loss

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Introduction
In prestressed concrete applications, most important variable is
the prestress.
Prestress does not remain constant (reduces) with time.
Even during prestressing of tendons, and transfer of prestress,
there is a drop of prestress from the initially applied stress.
Reduction of prestress is nothing but the loss in prestress.

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Prestress Loss
Early attempts to produce prestressed concrete was not successful due to loss
of prestress transferred to concrete after few years.
Prestress loss is nothing but the reduction of initial applied prestress to an
effective value.
In other words, loss in prestress is the difference between initial prestress and
the effective prestress that remains in a member.
Loss of prestress is a great concern since it affects the strength of member and
also significantly affects the members serviceability including Stresses in
Concrete, Cracking, Camber and Deflection.
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Loss of prestress is classified into two types:


1. Short-Term or Immediate Losses
immediate losses occur during prestressing of tendons, and
transfer of prestress to concrete member.

2. Long-Term or Time Dependent Losses


Time dependent losses occur during service life of structure.

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1. Immediate Losses include


i.

Elastic Shortening of Concrete

ii. Slip at anchorages immediately after prestressing and


iii. Friction between tendon and tendon duct, and wobble Effect

2. Time Dependent Losses include


i.

Creep and Shrinkage of concrete and

ii.

Relaxation of prestressing steel

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Prestress Losses

Time
Dependent

Immediate

Elastic
Shortening

Friction

Anchorage
Slip

Creep
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Shrinkage

Relaxation
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Losses in Various Prestressing Systems


Type of Loss

Pre-tensioning

Post-tensioning
i.

No, if all the cables are


simultaneously tensioned.
If the wires are tensioned in
stages loss will exist.

1. Elastic Shortening

Yes

2. Anchorage Slip

No

Yes

3. Friction Loss

No

Yes

4. Creep and Shrinkage


of Concrete

Yes

Yes

5. Relaxation of Steel

Yes

Yes

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ii.

Immediate Losses
Elastic Shortening of Concrete
In pre-tensioned concrete, when the prestress is transferred to
concrete, the member shortens and the prestressing steel also
shortens in it. Hence there is a loss of prestress.
In case of post-tensioning, if all the cables are tensioned
simultaneously there is no loss since the applied stress is recorded
after the elastic shortening has completely occurred.
If the cables are tensioned sequentially, there is loss in a tendon
during subsequent stretching of other tendons.

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Loss of prestress mainly depends on modular ratio and average


stress in concrete at the level of steel.
Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by drop in prestress
(fp) in a tendon due to change in strain in tendon (p).
The change in strain in tendon is equal to the strain in concrete
(c) at the level of tendon due to prestressing force.
This assumption is due to strain compatibility between concrete
and steel.
Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the
stress in concrete (fc) at the same level due to prestressing force.
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Strain compatibility
Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by the drop in
prestress (fp) in a tendon due to change in strain in tendon
(p).
Change in strain in tendon is equal to strain in concrete (c) at
the level of tendon due to prestressing force, which is called
strain compatibility between concrete and steel.
Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the
stress in concrete (fc) at the same level due to the prestressing
force.
A linear elastic relationship is used to calculate the strain from
the stress.
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Elastic Shortening
1. Pre-tensioned Members: When the tendons are cut and
the prestressing force is transferred to the member,
concrete undergoes immediate shortening due to
prestress.
2. Tendon also shortens by same amount, which leads to
the loss of prestress.

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Elastic Shortening
1. Post-tensioned Members: If there is only one tendon,
there is no loss because the applied prestress is
recorded after the elastic shortening of the member.
2. For more than one tendon, if the tendons are stretched
sequentially, there is loss in a tendon during subsequent
stretching of the other tendons.

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Elastic Shortening
Pre-tensioned Members: operation of pre-tensioning through
various stages by animation.

Prestressing
bed
Pre-tensioning of a member
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Elastic Shortening
Post-tensioned Members: complete operation of post-tensioning
through various stages by animation

Duc
t
jack

Anchorag
e

Casting bed
Post-tensioning of a member
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Linear elastic relationship is used to calculate the strain from the


stress.
Quantification of the losses is explained below.
fp=Epp
=Epc
=Ep(fc/Ec)
fp= mfc
For simplicity, the loss in all the tendons can be calculated based
on the stress in concrete at the level of CGS.
This simplification cannot be used when tendons are stretched
sequentially in a post-tensioned member.
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Anchorage Slip
In most Post-tensioning systems when the tendon force is
transferred from the jack to the anchoring ends, the friction
wedges slip over a small distance.
Anchorage block also moves before it settles on concrete.
Loss of prestress is due to the consequent reduction in the
length of the tendon.
Certain quantity of prestress is released due to this slip of wire
through the anchorages.
Amount of slip depends on type of wedge and stress in the wire.

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The magnitude of slip can be known from the tests or from the
patents of the anchorage system.
Loss of stress is caused by a definite total amount of
shortening.
Percentage loss is higher for shorter members.
Due to setting of anchorage block, as the tendon shortens,
there develops a reverse friction.
Effect of anchorage slip is present up to a certain length,
called the setting length lset.

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Anchorage loss can be accounted for at the site by overextending the tendon during prestressing operation by the
amount of draw-in before anchoring.
Loss of prestress due to slip can be calculated:

Es
P


L
A
where, = Slip of anchorage
L= Length of cable
A= Cross-sectional area of the cable
Es= Modulus of Elasticity of steel
P = Prestressing Force in the cable.
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Frictional Loss
In Post-tensioned members, tendons are housed in

ducts or

sheaths.
If the profile of cable is linear, the loss will be due to
straightening or stretching of the cables called Wobble Effect.
If the profile is curved, there will be loss in stress due to friction
between tendon and the duct or between the tendons themselves.

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Friction
Post-tensioned Members

Friction is generated due to curvature of tendon, and vertical


component of the prestressing force.

A typical continuous post-tensioned member


(Courtesy: VSL International Ltd.)

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Friction
Post-tensioned Members

P0

Px

Variation of prestressing force after stretching


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The magnitude of prestressing force, Px at any distance, x from


the tensioning end follows an exponential function of the type,

Px Poe kx
where, Po= Prestressing force at the jacking end

= Coeficient of friction between cable and the duct


Cumulative angle in radian through which
the tangent to the cable profile has turned
between any two points under consideration
k = Friction coefficient

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Time Dependent Losses

Creep of Concrete
Time-dependent increase of deformation under sustained load.
Due to creep, the prestress in tendons decreases with time.
Factors affecting creep and shrinkage of concrete
Age
Applied Stress level
Density of concrete
Cement Content in concrete
Water-Cement Ratio
Relative Humidity and
Temperature

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For stress in concrete less than one-third of the characteristic


strength, the ultimate creep strain (cr,ult) is found to be
proportional to the elastic strain (el).

The ratio of the ultimate creep strain to the elastic strain is


defined as the ultimate creep coefficient or simply creep
coefficient, .

cr,ult = el
IS: 1343 considers only the age of loading of the prestressed
concrete structure in calculating the ultimate creep strain.

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The loss in prestress (fp ) due to creep is given as follows.


fp = Ep cr, ult =Ep el
Since cr,ult = el
Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel
Curing the concrete adequately and delaying the application of
load provide long-term benefits with regards to durability, loss of
prestress and deflection.
In special situations detailed calculations may be necessary to
monitor creep strain with time.
Specialized literature or standard codes can provide guidelines
for such calculations.
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Following are applicable for calculating the loss of prestress


due to creep.
Creep is due to sustained (permanent) loads only. Temporary
loads are not considered in calculation of creep.
Since the prestress may vary along the length of the member,
an average value of the prestress is considered.
Prestress changes due to creep, which is related to the
instantaneous prestress.
To consider this interaction, the calculation of creep can be
iterated over small time steps.

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Shrinkage of Concrete
Time-dependent strain measured in an unloaded
unrestrained specimen at constant temperature.

and

Loss of prestress (fp ) due to shrinkage is as follows.


fp = Ep sh
where Ep is the modulus of prestressing steel.
The factors responsible for creep of concrete will have influence
on shrinkage of concrete also except the loading conditions.

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The approximate value of shrinkage strain for design shall be


assumed as follows (IS 1383):
For pre-tensioning = 0.0003
For post-tensioning =

0.002
Log 10 (t 2)

Where t = age of concrete at transfer in days.

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Relaxation

Relaxation is the reduction in stress with time at constant


strain.
decrease in the stress is due to the fact that some of the
initial elastic strain is transformed in to inelastic strain
under constant strain.
stress decreases according to the remaining elastic strain.

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Factors effecting Relaxation :


Time
Initial stress
Temperature and
Type of steel.
Relaxation loss can be calculated according to the IS 1343-1980
code.

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Losses in Prestress
Notation
Geometric Properties
1. Commonly used Notations in prestressed member are
.

Ac = Area of concrete section


= Net c/s area of concrete excluding the area of prestressing steel.

Ap = Area of prestressing steel = Total c/s area of tendons.

= Area of prestressed member

= Gross c/s area of prestressed member = Ac + Ap

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At = Transformed area of prestressed member


= Area of member when steel area is replaced by an equivalent area
of concrete = Ac + mAp = A + (m 1)Ap
Here,
m

= the modular ratio = Ep/Ec

Ec = short-term elastic modulus of concrete


Ep = elastic modulus of steel.

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Areas for prestressed members

CGC, CGS and eccentricity of typical prestressed members

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CGC = Centroid of concrete = Centroid of gravity of section, may lie outside concrete
CGS = Centroid of prestressing steel = Centroid of the tendons.
CGS may lie outside the tendons or the concrete
I = MoI of prestressed member = Second moment of area of gross section about CGC.
It = Moment of inertia of transformed section = Second moment of area of the
transformed section about the centroid of the transformed section.

e = Eccentricity of CGS with respect to CGC = Vertical distance between CGC and
CGS. If CGS lies below CGC, e will be considered positive and vice versa

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Load Variables
Pi = Initial prestressing force = force applied to tendons by jack.
P0 = Prestressing force after immediate losses = Reduced value of prestressing force
after elastic shortening, anchorage slip and loss due to friction.

Pe = Effective prestressing force after time-dependent losses = Final prestressing


force after the occurrence of creep, shrinkage and relaxation.

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Strain compatibility
Loss due to elastic shortening is quantified by the drop in prestress (fp) in a
tendon due to change in strain in tendon (p).
Change in strain in tendon is equal to strain in concrete (c) at the level of
tendon due to prestressing force, which is called strain compatibility
between concrete and steel.
Strain in concrete at the level of tendon is calculated from the stress in
concrete (fc) at the same level due to the prestressing force.
A linear elastic relationship is used to calculate the strain from the stress.

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The quantification of the losses is explained below

For simplicity, the loss in all the tendons can be calculated based
on the stress in concrete at the level of CGS.
This simplification cannot be used when tendons are stretched
sequentially in a post-tensioned member.

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Elastic Shortening
Pre-tensioned Axial Members
Original length of member at transfer of
prestress

Length after elastic


shortening

Pi

P0

Elastic shortening of a pre-tensioned axial


member
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Elastic Shortening
The stress in concrete due to prestressing force after immediate
losses (P0/Ac) can be equated to the stress in transformed section
due to the initial prestress (Pi /At).
The transformed area At of the prestressed member can be
approximated to the gross area A.
The strain in concrete due to elastic shortening (c) is the
difference between the initial strain in steel (pi) and the residual
strain in steel (p0).
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Elastic Shortening
Pre-tensioned Axial Members
Length of tendon before
stretching

pi

p0

Pi

c
P0

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Elastic shortening of aDCS-II
pre-tensioned
axial member

41

25

The following equation relates the strain variables.


c = pi - p0

The strains can be expressed in terms of the prestressing forces.

Substituting the expressions of the strains

Thus, the stress in concrete due to the prestressing force after


immediate losses (P0/Ac) can be equated to the stress in the
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transformed section due to the initial prestress (P /A ).

Problem

1. A prestressed concrete sleeper produced by pre-tensioning


method has a rectangular cross-section of 300mm 250 mm
(b h). It is prestressed with 9 numbers of straight 7mm
diameter wires at 0.8 times the ultimate strength of 1570
N/mm2. Estimate the percentage loss of stress due to elastic
shortening of concrete. Consider m = 6.

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Solution
a)Approximate solution considering gross section
The sectional properties are.
) Area of a single wire, Aw = /4 72 = 38.48 mm2
) Area of total prestressing steel, Ap = 9 38.48 = 346.32 mm2
) Area of concrete section,

A = 300 250 = 75 103 mm2

) Moment of inertia of section, I = 300 2503/12 = 3.91 108 mm4


) Distance of centroid of steel area (CGS) from the soffit,

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Prestressing force, Pi = 0.8 1570 346.32 N = 435 kN


Eccentricity of prestressing force, e = (250/2) 115.5 = 9.5 mm
The stress diagrams due to Pi are shown.

Since the wires are distributed above and below the CGC, the
losses are calculated for the top and bottom wires separately.
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Stress at level of top wires (y = yt = 125 40)

Stress at level of bottom wires (y = yb = 125 40),

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Loss of prestress in top wires = mfcAp (in terms of force)


= 6 4.9 (4 38.48)
= 4525.25 N
Loss of prestress in bottom wires = 6 6.7 (5 38.48)
= 7734.48 N
Total loss of prestress
= 4525 + 7735
= 12259.73 N 12.3 kN
Percentage loss
= (12.3 / 435) 100% = 2.83%

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b) Accurate solution considering transformed section.


Transformed area of top steel,
A1 = (6 1) 4 38.48 = 769.6 mm2
Transformed area of bottom steel,
A2 = (6 1) 5 38.48 = 962.0 mm2
Total area of transformed section,
AT = A + A1 + A2 = 75000.0 + 769.6 + 962.0
= 76731.6 mm2
Centroid of the section (CGC)

= 124.8 mm from soffit of beam


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Moment of inertia of transformed section,


IT = Ig + A(0.2)2 + A1(210 124.8)2 + A2(124.8 40)2
= 4.02 108mm4
Eccentricity of prestressing force,
e = 124.8 115.5
= 9.3 mm
Stress at the level of bottom wires,

Stress at the level of top wires,

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Loss of prestress in top wires = 6 4.81 (4 38.48)


= 4442 N
Loss of prestress in bottom wires = 6 6.52 (5 38.48)
= 7527 N
Total loss

= 4442 + 7527 = 11969 N


12 kN

Percentage loss = (12 / 435) 100% = 2.75 %


It can be observed that the accurate and approximate solutions
are close. Hence, the simpler calculations based on A and I is
acceptable.

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Pre-tensioned Bending Members

Changes in length and the prestressing force due to elastic


shortening of a pre-tensioned bending member.

Due to the effect of self-weight, the stress in concrete varies


along length.
To have a conservative estimate of the loss, the maximum stress
at the level of CGS at the mid-span is considered.
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1. Here, Msw is the moment at mid-span due to self-weight. Precise


result using At and It in place of A and I, respectively, is not
computationally warranted. In the above expression, the
eccentricity of the CGS (e) was assumed to be constant.
2. For a large member, the calculation of the loss can be refined
by evaluating the strain in concrete at the level of the CGS
accurately from the definition of strain. This is demonstrated
later for post-tensioned bending members.
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Post-tensioned Axial Members


For more than one tendon, if the tendons are stretched
sequentially, there is loss in a tendon during subsequent
stretching of the other tendons. The loss in each tendon can be
calculated in progressive sequence. Else, an approximation can
be used to calculate the losses.
The loss in the first tendon is evaluated precisely and half of that
value is used as an average loss for all the tendons.
Here,
Pi,j = initial prestressing force in tendon j
n = number of tendons
The eccentricity of individual tendon is
neglected
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Post-tensioned Bending Members


The calculation of loss for tendons stretched sequentially, is
similar to post-tensioned axial members. For curved profiles, the
eccentricity of the CGS and hence, the stress in concrete at the
level of CGS vary along the length. An average stress in concrete
can be considered.
For a parabolic tendon, the average stress (fc,avg) is given by the
following equation.

Here,
fc1 = stress in concrete at the end of the member
fc2 = stress in concrete at the mid-span of the member.
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A more rigorous analysis of the loss can be done by evaluating the


strain in concrete at the level of the CGS accurately from the
definition of strain. This is demonstrated for a beam with two
parabolic tendons post-tensioned sequentially.
In Fig. 7, Tendon B is stretched after Tendon A. The loss in Tendon
A due to elastic shortening during tensioning of Tendon B is given as
follows.

Here,
c is the strain at the level of Tendon A.
The component of c due to pure compression is represented as c1.
The component of c due to bending is represented as c2.
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The two components are calculated as follows.

Here,
A = cross-sectional area of beam
PB = prestressing force in Tendon B
Ec = modulus of concrete
L = length of beam
eA(x) = eccentricities of Tendons A, at distance x from left end
eB(x) = eccentricities of Tendons B, at distance x from left end
I = moment of inertia of beam
L = change in length of beam

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The variations of the eccentricities of the tendons can be


expressed as follows.

eA1, eA2 = eccentricities of Tendon A at 1 (end) and 2 (centre),


respectively.
eB1, eB2 = eccentricities of Tendon B at 1 and 2, respectively.
Substituting the expressions of the eccentricities in Eqn. (21.12), the second component of the strain is given as follows.

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Variation of prestressing force after stretching


In the absence of test data, IS:1343 - 1980 provides guidelines for
the values of and k.
Type of interface
For steel moving on smooth concrete

0.55

For steel moving on steel fixed to duct

0.30

For steel moving on lead

0.25

The value of k varies from 0.0015 to 0.0050 per meter length of


the tendon depending on theDCS-II
type
of tendon.
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1. A post-tensioned beam 100 mm 300 mm (b h) spanning


over 10 m is stressed by successive tensioning and anchoring of
3 cables A, B, and C respectively as shown in figure. Each
cable has cross section area of 200 mm2 and has initial stress of
1200 MPa. If the cables are tensioned from one end, estimate
the percentage loss in each cable due to friction at the
anchored end. Assume = 0.35, k = 0.0015 / m.

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Solution
Prestress in each tendon at stretching end

= 1200 200

= 240 kN.
To know the value of (L), the equation for a parabolic profile is
required.

Here,
ym = displacement of the CGS at the centre of the beam from the ends
L = length of the beam
x = distance from the stretching end
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y = displacement of the CGS atDCS-II
distance
x from the ends.

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An expression of (x) can be derived from the change in slope of


the profile. The slope of the profile is given as follows.

At x = 0, the slope dy/dx = 4ym/L. The change in slope (x) is


proportional to x.
The expression of (x) can be written in terms of x as (x) = .x,
where,
= 8ym/L2.

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The total subtended angle over the length L is 8ym/L.


The prestressing force Px at a distance x is given by
Px = P0e( + kx) = P0ex
where,
x = + kx
For cable A, ym = 0.1 m.
For cable B, ym = 0.05 m.
For cable C, ym = 0.0 m.
For all the cables, L = 10 m.
Substituting the values of ym and L

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The maximum loss for all the cables is at x = L = 10, the anchored
end.
Percentage loss due to friction = (1 e L) 100%

Variation of prestressing forces


The loss due to friction can be considerable for long tendons in
continuous beams with changes in curvature. The drop in the
prestress is higher around the intermediate supports where the
curvature is high. The remedy to reduce the loss is to apply the
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stretching force from both ends
the member in stages.

Anchorage Slip
In a post-tensioned member, when the prestress is transferred to the
concrete, the wedges slip through a little distance before they get properly
seated in the conical space. The anchorage block also moves before it settles
on the concrete. There is loss of prestress due to the consequent reduction in
the length of the tendon.
The total anchorage slip depends on the type of anchorage system. Typical
values of anchorage slip

Anchorage System
Freyssinet system
12 - 5mm strands
12 - 8mm strands

Anchorage Slip (s)


4 mm
6 mm

Magnel system

8 mm

Dywidag system

1 mm
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Due to the setting of the anchorage block, as the tendon shortens,


there is a reverse friction. Hence, the effect of anchorage slip is
present up to a certain length. Beyond this setting length, the
effect is absent. This length is denoted as lset.

Variation of prestressing force after anchorage slip

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Force Variation Diagram


The magnitude of the prestressing force varies along the length of a posttensioned member due to friction losses and setting of the anchorage block.
The diagram representing the variation of prestressing force is called the
force variation diagram.
Considering the effect of friction, the magnitude of the prestressing force at
a distance x from the stretching end is given as follows.

Here, x = + kx denotes the total effect of friction and wobble. The plot of
Px gives the force variation diagram.

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The initial part of the force variation diagram, up to length lset is influenced
by the setting of the anchorage block. Let the drop in the prestressing force at
the stretching end be P. The determination of P and l set are necessary to
plot the force variation diagram including the effect of the setting of the
anchorage block.
Considering the drop in the prestressing force and the effect of reverse
friction, the magnitude of the prestressing force at a distance x from the
stretching end is given as follows.

Here, for reverse friction is analogous to for friction and wobble. At the
end of the setting length (x = lset), Px = Px

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Force variation diagram near the stretching end


Substituting the expressions of Px and Px for x = lset
Since it is difficult to measure separately, is taken equal to .
The expression of P simplifies to the following.

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P DCS-II
= 2PDr0l
set

68

The following equation relates lset with the anchorage slip s.

Transposing the terms,

Therefore,

The term P0 represents the loss of prestress per unit length due to
friction.
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The force variation diagram is used when stretching is done from


both the ends. The tendons are overstressed to counter the drop
due to anchorage slip. The stretching from both the ends can be
done simultaneously or in stages. The final force variation is
more uniform than the first stretching.
Force variation diagrams for stretching in stages

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The force variation diagrams for the various stages are explained.
a) The initial tension at the right end is high to compensate for the
anchorage slip. It corresponds to about 0.8 fpk initial prestress. The
force variation diagram (FVD) is linear.
b) After the anchorage slip, the FVD drops near the right end till
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the length lset.

c) The initial tension at the left end also corresponds to about 0.8
fpk initial prestress. The FVD is linear up to the centre line of the
beam.
d) After the anchorage slip, the FVD drops near the left end till
the length lset. It is observed that after two stages, the variation of
the prestressing force over the length of the beam is less than
after the first stage.

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Example
A four span continuous bridge girder is post-tensioned with a
tendon consisting of twenty strands with fpk = 1860 MPa. Half
of the girder is shown in the figure below. The symmetrical
tendon is simultaneously stressed up to 75% f pk from both ends
and then anchored. The tendon properties are Ap = 2800 mm2, Ep
= 195,000 MPa, = 0.20, K = 0.0020/m. The anchorage slip s =
6 mm.
Calculate
a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching,
b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after
anchorage.

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Solution

13.7
15.2

13.7
3.7

3.7

15.2

Initial force at stretching end


0.75fpk = 1395 MPa
P0 = 0.75fpk Ap
= 3906 kN
The continuous tendon is analysed as segments of parabola. The
segments are identified between the points of maximum eccentricity
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and inflection points.

The inflection points are those where the curvature of the tendon
reverses. The different segments are as follows: 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5,
5-6, 6-7 and 7-8.

The following properties of parabolas are used. For segment 1-2,


the parabola in the sketch below is used.
Y
L

e
0

X
DCS-II Dr PVR

75

The change in slope from the origin to the end of the parabola is
same as the slope at the end of the tendon which is = 2e/L,
where
L = length of the segment
e = vertical shift from the origin.
For segments 2-3 and 3-4 and subsequent pairs of segments, the
following property is used.

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76

For the two parabolic segments joined at the inflection point as shown
in the sketch above, the slope at the inflection point
= 2(e1 + e2)/L.
Here,
e1 = eccentricities of the CGS at the span
e2 = eccentricities of the CGS at the support
L = length of the span
L = fractional length between the points of maximum

eccentricity

The change in slope between a point of maximum eccentricity and


inflection point is also equal to .
The change in slope () for each segment of the tendon is calculated
using the above expressions.
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77

The value of + kx for each segment is calculated using the


given values of , k and x, the horizontal length of the segment.
Since the loss in prestress accrues with each segment, the force at
a certain segment is given as follows.

The summation is for the segments from the stretching end up


to the point in the segment under consideration. Hence, the value
of ( + kx) at the end of each segment is calculated to evaluate
the prestressing force at that point (Px, where x denotes the point).

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The force variation diagram before anchorage can be plotted with


the above values of Px. A linear variation of the force can be
assumed for each segment. Since the stretching is done at both the
ends simultaneously, the diagram is symmetric about the central
line.
a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching
First the product of the average force and the length of each
segment is summed up to the centre line.

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79

The elongation () at each stretching end is calculated as follows.

b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after
anchorage
After anchorage, the effect of anchorage slip is present up to the
setting length lset. The value of lset due to an anchorage slip s = 6
mm is calculated as follows.

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80

The quantity P0 is calculated from the loss of prestress per unit


length in the first segment. P0 = (3906 3718) kN /13.7 m = 13.7
N/mm. The drop in the prestressing force (p) at each stretching
end is calculated as follows.

Thus the value of the prestressing force at each stretching end after
anchorage slip is 3906 424 = 3482 kN. The force variation
diagram for lset = 15.46 m is altered to show the drop due to
anchorage slip.
The force variation diagrams before and after anchorage are shown
below. Note that the drop of force per unit length is more over the
supports due to change in curvature over a small distance.
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82

Creep of Concrete
Creep of concrete is defined as the increase in deformation with
time under constant load. Due to the creep of concrete, the prestress
in the tendon is reduced with time.
The creep of concrete is explained in Section 1.6, Concrete (Part
II). Here, the information is summarised. For stress in concrete less
than one-third of the characteristic strength, the ultimate creep
strain (cr,ult) is found to be proportional to the elastic strain ( el).
The ratio of the ultimate creep strain to the elastic strain is defined
as the ultimate creep coefficient or simply creep coefficient .
The ultimate creep strain is then given as follows.

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IS:1343 - 1980 gives guidelines to estimate the ultimate creep


strain in Section 5.2.5. It is a simplified estimate where only
one factor has been considered. The factor is age of loading of
the prestressed concrete structure. The creep coefficient is
provided for three values of age of loading.
Curing the concrete adequately and delaying the application of
load provide long term benefits with regards to durability, loss of
prestress and deflection. In special situations detailed calculations
may be necessary to monitor creep strain with time. Specialised
literature or international codes can provide guidelines for such
calculations.

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The loss in prestress (fp ) due to creep is given as follows.


fp = Ep cr, ult
Here, Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel.
The following considerations are applicable for calculating the
loss of prestress due to creep.
1) The creep is due to the sustained (permanently applied) loads
only. Temporary loads are not considered in the calculation of
creep.
2) Since the prestress may vary along the length of the member, an
average value of the prestress can be considered.
3) The prestress changes due to creep and the creep is related to
the instantaneous prestress. To consider this interaction, the
calculation of creep can be iterated over small time steps.
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85

Shrinkage of Concrete
Shrinkage of concrete is defined as the contraction due to loss of
moisture. Due to the shrinkage of concrete, the prestress in the
tendon is reduced with time. The shrinkage of concrete was
explained in details in the Section 1.6, Concrete (Part II).
IS:1343 - 1980 gives guidelines to estimate the shrinkage strain
in Section 5.2.4. It is a simplified estimate of the ultimate
shrinkage strain (sh). Curing the concrete adequately and
delaying the application of load provide long term benefits with
regards to durability and loss of prestress. In special situations
detailed calculations may be necessary to monitor shrinkage
strain with time. Specialised literature or international codes can
provide guidelines for such calculations.
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86

The loss in prestress (fp ) due to shrinkage is given as follows.


fp = Ep sh
Here, Ep is the modulus of the prestressing steel.
Relaxation of Steel
Relaxation of steel is defined as the decrease in stress with
time under constant strain. Due to the relaxation of steel, the
prestress in the tendon is reduced with time. The relaxation
depends on the type of steel, initial prestress (fpi) and the
temperature. To calculate the drop (or loss) in prestress (fp), the
recommendations of IS:1343 - 1980 can be followed in absence of
test data.

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Example
A concrete beam of dimension 100 mm 300 mm is posttensioned with 5 straight wires of 7mm diameter. The average
prestress after short-term losses is 0.7fpk = 1200 N/mm2 and the
age of loading is given as 28 days. Given that Ep = 200 103
MPa, Ec = 35000 MPa, find out the losses of prestress due to
creep, shrinkage and relaxation. Neglect the weight of the beam
in the computation of the stresses.

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Solution
Area of concrete A

= 100 300

= 30000 mm2
Moment of inertia of beam section
I

= 100 3003 / 12

= 225 106 mm4


Area of prestressing wires,
Ap

= 5 (/4) 72

= 192.42 mm2
Prestressing force after short-term losses
P0

= Ap.fp0

= 192.4 1200
= 230880 N

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Modular ratio m = Ep / Ec
= 2 105 / 35 103

= 5.71

Stress in concrete at the level of CGS

= 7.69 2.56

= 10.25 N/mm2

Loss of prestress due to creep


(fp)cr = Ep cr, ult
= Ep el
= Ep (fc/Ec)
= m fc
= 5.71 10.25 1.6 = 93.64 N / mm2
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90

Here, = 1.6 for loading at 28 days, from Table 2c-1 (Clause


5.2.5.1, IS:1343 - 1980).
Shrinkage strain from Clause 5.2.4.1, IS:1343 - 1980
sh = 0.0002 / log10(t + 2)
= 0.0002 / log10 (28 + 2)
= 1.354 10-4
Loss of prestress due to shrinkage
(fp)sh = Epsh
= 2 105 1.354 10-4
= 27.08 N/mm2
From Table 2c-2 (Table 4, IS:1343 - 1980)
Loss of prestress due to relaxation
(fp)rl = 70.0 N/mm2

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91

Loss of prestressing force

= fp Ap

Therefore,
Loss of prestressing force due to creep

=93.64 192.42

= 18018 N
Loss of prestressing force due to shrinkage=27.08 192.42
= 5211 N
Loss of prestressing force due to relaxation= 70 192.42
= 13469 N
Total long-term loss of prestressing force (neglecting the interaction
of the losses and prestressing force)

= 18018 + 5211 + 13469

= 36698 N
Percentage loss of prestress = 36698 / 230880 100%
= 15.9 %

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92

Total Time-dependent Loss


The losses of prestress due to creep and shrinkage of concrete and
the relaxation of the steel are all time-dependent and inter-related
to each other. If the losses are calculated separately and added, the
calculated total time-dependent loss is over-estimated. To consider
the inter-relationship of the cause and effect, the calculation can be
done for discrete time steps. The results at the end of each time
step are used for the next time step. This step-by-step procedure
was suggested by the Precast / Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI)
committee and is called the General method (Reference: PCI
Committee, Recommendations for Estimating Prestress
Losses, PCI Journal, PCI, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1975, pp.
43-75).
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93

In the PCI step-by-step procedure, a minimum of four time steps


are considered in the service life of a prestres
Step

Beginning

End

Pre-tension: Anchorage of steel


Post-tension: End of curing

Age of prestressing

End of Step 1

30 days after prestressing or


when subjected to
superimposed load

End of Step 2

1 year of service

End of Step 3

End of service life

The step-by-step procedure can be implemented by a computer


program, where the number of time steps can be increased.
There are also approximate methods to calculate lump sum
estimates of the total loss. Since these estimates are not given in
IS:1343 - 1980, they are notDCS-II
mentioned
here.
Dr PVR
94

In

pretensioning

system,

tendons

are

first

tensioned between rigid anchor blocks cast in the


ground.
Concrete is subsequently placed and compacted
to the required shape and size.
Pretensioning

methods

rely

on

the

bond

developed between steel and the surrounding


concrete.
The tendons should be fully bonded over its
entire length.
After the concrete hardens, the tendons are
DCS-II Dr PVR
95
released from the pre-tensioning
bed and the

Post-tensioning
Concrete units are first cast by incorporating ducts or groves to
house the tendons.
When concrete attains sufficient strength, the high tensile wires are
tensioned by means of a jack bearing on the end face of the member
and the wires are anchored by wedges or nuts.
The forces are transmitted to concrete by means of the end
anchorages and also when the cable is curved, through the radial
pressure between the cable and the duct.
The space between the tendons and the duct is generally grouted
after the tensioning operation.
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96

[g+q]

e
P

Direct Stress

Bending Stress

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Resultant Stress

97

Pressure line or Thrust line

Combined action of prestressing force and the externally applied load results
in a distribution of concrete stresses that can be resolved into a single force.

The resultant force will occupy different locations in the cross-section at


different locations along the beam.

The line joining the locus of points of the resultant force in any structure is
termed as the Pressure or Thrust line.

The concept of pressure line is very useful in understanding the load


carrying mechanism of a prestressed concrete section.

The location of the pressure line depends upon the magnitude and direction
of the moments applied at the cross-section and the magnitude and
distribution of stress due to the prestressing force.
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Load Balancing Concept

The cable profile is selected


in PSC members such that
the transverse component of
Straight Tendon

the cable force balances the


given type of external loads.

In general, the requirement


will be satisfied, if the cable
Bent Tendon

profile coincides with the


shape of the BMD resulting
from external loads.

Reaction of cable curved Tendon and Beam

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100

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Extra Information

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101

What is Pre-stressed Concrete?

Internal stresses are


induced to counteract
external stresses.
In 1904, Freyssinet
attempted to introduce
permanent acting force
in conc. to resist elastic
forces under loads and
was named
Pre stressing.
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Introduction
In prestressed concrete applications, most important
variable is the prestress.
Prestress does not remain constant with time.
Even during prestressing of tendons, and transfer of
prestress, there is a drop of prestress from the initially
applied stress.
Reduction of prestress is nothing but the loss in
prestress.
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Prestress Loss
loss in prestress is the difference between initial
prestress and the effective prestress.
Loss of prestress affects
the strength of member and
members serviceability [

Stresses in Concrete, Cracking, Camber and

Deflection ]

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Types
Loss of prestress is classified into two types:
1. Immediate Losses
immediate losses occur during prestressing of tendons,
and transfer of prestress to concrete member.

2. Time Dependent Losses


Time dependent losses occur during service life of
structure.
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Types According To Time


Prestress Losses

Time
Dependent

Immediate

Elastic
Shortening

Friction

Anchorage
Slip

Creep
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Shrinkage

Relaxation
106

Types According To Material


Prestress Losses

Concrete

Elastic
Shortening

Creep

Steel

Shrinkage

Friction
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Anchorage
Slip

Relaxation
107

Types of Prestressing Systems


I . Pre-tensioning:
In Pre-tension, the tendons are tensioned before the
concrete is place. After the concrete hardened, the
tension force is released.

II . Post tensioning:
In Post tension, the tendons are tensioned after the
concrete has hardened.

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108

Example of Pre-tensioning

Fig : Pre-tensioned electric pole


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109

Example of Post-tensioning

Fig : Post-tensioning of a box girder


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110

Losses in Various Prestressing Systems


Type of Loss

Pre-tensioning

Post-tensioning
i.

1. Elastic Shortening

Yes

No, if all the cables are


simultaneously tensioned.
ii. If the wires are tensioned
in stages loss will exist.

2. Anchorage Slip

No

Yes

3. Friction Loss

No

Yes

4. Creep and Shrinkage


of Concrete

Yes

Yes

5. Relaxation of Steel

Yes

Yes

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111

Immediate Loss

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112

Elastic Shortening
It is the shorten of concrete member, when the prestress is transferred to

concrete, the member shortens and the prestressing steel also shortens in it.
Hence there is a loss of prestress.

Original length of member at transfer of


prestress
Pi

Length after elastic


shortening

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P0
113

Elastic Shortening at Pre-tensioned


Members
When

the

tendons

are

cut

and

the

prestressing force is transferred to the


member,

concrete

undergoes

immediate

shortening due to prestress.

Tendon also shortens by same amount,

which leads to the loss of prestress.


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114

Elastic Shortening at Pretensioned Members

Prestressing
bed
Pre-tensioning of a member
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115

Elastic Shortening at Post-tensioned


Members
If there is only one tendon, there is no loss

because the applied prestress is recorded after the


elastic shortening of the member.

For more than one tendon, if the tendons are

stretched sequentially, there is loss in a tendon


during subsequent stretching of the other tendons.

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116

Elastic Shortening at Posttensioned Members

Duc
t
jack

Anchorag
e

Casting bed
Post-tensioning of a member
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117

Anchorage Slip
In most Post-tensioning systems when the prestress
force is transferred from the jack to the anchoring
ends, the wedges slip over a small distance.

Loss of prestress is due to the consequent reduction


in the length of the tendon.
Amount of slip depends on type of anchorage
system.
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118

Force variation diagrams for


various stages
a) The initial tension at
the right end is high to
compensate for the
anchorage slip. It
corresponds to about initial
prestress. The force
variation diagram (FVD) is
linear.
b) After the anchorage slip,
the FVD drops near the
: Effect of anchorage slip is present
right end till the length lsetNote
.
up to a certain length, called the setting
length lset.

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119

Force variation diagrams for


various stages
c) The initial tension at the
left end also corresponds to
about initial prestress. The
FVD is linear up to the
centre line of the beam.
d) After the anchorage slip,
the FVD drops near the left
end till the length lset. It is
observed that after two
stages, the variation of the
prestressing force over the
length of the beam is DCS-II
lessDr PVR
than after the first stage.

120

Typical values of anchorage slip

Anchorage System

Anchorage Slip (s)

Freyssinet system
12 - 5mm strands
12 - 8mm strands

4 mm
6 mm

Magnel system

8 mm

Dywidag system

1 mm

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121

Frictional Loss

The friction generated at the interface


of concrete and steel during the
stretching of a curved tendon in a
post-tensioned member.

The friction in the jacking anchoring system is


generally small.
More serious frictional loss occurs between the
tendon and its surrounding material .
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122

Frictional loss occurs only in Post-tensioned


Members

The loss due to friction does not occur in pretensioned members because there is no concrete
during the stretching of the tendons.

Friction is generated due to curvature of tendon,


and vertical component of the prestressing force .

A typical continuous post-tensioned member


DCS-II Dr PVR

123

Frictional Loss
Frictional Loss is the summation of
Friction Loss Due to length Effect.
Friction Loss Due to Curvature Effect.

Length Effect: If the profile of cable is linear, the

loss will be due to straightening or stretching of


the cables.
Curvature Effect: If the profile is curved, there will

be loss in stress due to friction between tendon


and the duct or between the tendons themselves.
DCS-II Dr PVR

124

Length & Curvature Effects

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125

Methods available to Reduce the


frictional losses
1. Cables should pass through metal tubes.
2. The bends should be through as small an
angle as possible.
3. Radius of curvature for bends should be
large.
4. Prestressing the wire from both ends.
5. Over-tensioning the wires.

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126

Time Dependent Losses

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127

Creep of Concrete
The Continuous deformation of concrete with time
under sustained load.
Factors affecting creep of concrete
Age
Applied Stress level
Density of concrete
Cement Content in concrete
Water-Cement Ratio
Relative Humidity and
Temperature
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128

Condition for calculating the loss of


prestress due to creep.

Creep is due to sustained (permanent) loads only.


Temporary loads are not considered in calculation of
creep.

Since the prestress may vary along the length of the


member, an average value of the prestress is
considered.
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129

Shrinkage of Concrete
Shrinkage of concrete is
defined
as
the
contraction due to loss of
moisture.

Due to the shrinkage of


concrete, the prestress in
the tendon is reduced
with time.

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130

Shrinkage of Concrete
For pre-tensioned members, transfer
commonly takes place after 24 hours after
casting and nearly all shrinkage takes
place after that.
For post-tensioned members, stressing
may takes place after one day or much
later, thus a large percentage of shrinkage
may already taken place by them.
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131

Relaxation
Relaxation is the reduction in stress with
time at constant strain.
decrease in the stress is due to the fact
that some of the initial elastic strain is
transformed in to inelastic strain under
constant strain.
Percentage of relaxation varies from 1 to 5%.
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132

Factors effecting Relaxation :


Time
Initial stress
Temperature and
Type of steel.

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133

Method Available to Reduce The Loss


due to Relaxation
Choice of proper steel helps to reduce this
loss.
Prestressed wires have lesser creep.
Galvanised wires also have no creep.
overstressing steel about 10% above its
initial stress and then releasing it to the
initial stress
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134

Calculation of Total Amount of


Loss

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135

Loss of Prestress=Initial StressEffective Stress

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136

Initial Prestress
Deducting the loss due to anchorage take-up and
friction, initial prestress is obtained.
If prestress is measured at the time of pulling the
wire, the stress is termed as the jacking stress.
if jacketing stress is treated as the initial stress,
effective stress is jacketing stress minus all
losses.
DCS-II Dr PVR

137

Effective Prestress
Initial Prestress in steel minus the losses is
known as the effective or design prestress.
Effective prestress=Initial prestress-Losses

Note: For Pre-Tension system , Pretension Losses are used


instead of losses.
For Post-Tension system , Post-Tension Losses are used
instead of losses.
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138

Total Amount Of Losses According To


Tensioning System
Total pretension losses=Loss due to creep
+ Elastic shortening + Shrinkage + Steel
Relaxation.
Total post-Tension Loss=Loss due to creep
+ Elastic shortening + Shrinkage + Steel
Relaxation +Anchorage slip +
Friction.
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139

Total Losses
It is difficult to generalize the amount of
loss of prestress, because it is dependent
on so many Factors :
The properties of concrete & steel.
Curing & moisture condition.
Magnitude & time of application
prestress.
Process of prestress.

DCS-II Dr PVR

of

140

Method of Loss Estimation


There are two methods that can be used to
estimate losses in prestressed concrete:
(a)lump sum approximations;
(b)refined estimations.
One should keep in mind that all estimates
for prestress loss are just that ESTIMATIONS .

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141

Lump Sum Estimation For Prestress


Loss
First introduce by the ACI-ASCE Committee 423 in
1958.
Table : AASHTO Lump Sum Losses.

Total

Types of
prestressing
steel
Pretensioning
strand
Posttensionin
g wire or
strand
Bars

Loss
fc=28 MPa

fc=35 MPa

310 MPa
220 MPa

230 Mpa

150 MPa

160 Mpa

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142

AASHTO-LRFD Specifications
For Lump-Sum estimates following conditions should met :
1. Members that are post-tensioned must be nonsegmental members with spans less than 160 feet and
concrete stressed an age of 10-30 days.
2. Members that are pretensioned must be stressed at
an age where the concrete strength is not less than
3,500-psi.
3. Members must be made from normal weight
concrete.
4. Members cannot be steam-cured, nor moist-cured.
5. The prestressing steel must be normal or lowrelaxation.
DCS-II Dr PVR
6. There must be Average
exposure conditions at the143

Thumb rule of Losses


For average steel and concrete properties ,the tabulated
percentages may be taken as representative of the
average losses.
Pretensioning ,
%
4

Posttensioning
.%
1

Shrinkage of
concrete

Steel relaxation

25

20

Elastic shortening
& bending of
concrete
Creep of concrete

Total Loss

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144

Comparison Between RCC &


Prestress Concrete

DCS-II Dr PVR

145

Thank You

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146