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MEDIUMS OF

THE VISUAL ARTS


PRESENTED BY: GROUP 3

Mediums of
the Visual Arts

REFERS TO THE
MATERIALS WHICH
ARE USED BY AN
ARTIST

MEANS BY WHICH HE
COMMUNICATES HIS
IDEAS

MANY MEDIUMS HAVE


BEEN USED IN
CREATING DIFFERENT
WORKS OF ART

MEDIUMS IS VERY

PIGMENTS

Pigments of the painter


could be applied to:
Wet

Plaster
Canvas

Wood
Paper

Pigments:
Oil
Tempera
Watercolor

Pastel
Fresco
Acrylic

PAINTING

The art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of


pigments

OIL PAINTING

Pigments are mixed in oil

The most familiar type of painting is done with oil on canvass.

The surface to be suitable must receive oil paint freely and yet not
absorb it, can withstand temperature changes and not crack the
pigment on it.

Pigments can come from many sources: minerals, vegetable matter,


coal tars, and other chemical combinations

Two Methods in Oil Painting


Direct

method: paints are opaque and are applied to the surface


just as they are to look in the finished product

Indirect

method: the paint is applied in many thick layers of


transparent color.

Oil

color is the best method for convincing


representation where exact reproduction of a
color tone is necessary.

TEMPE
Mixture of ground pigments and an
RA
albuminous or colloidal vehicle, either
egg, gum, or glue, used by Egyptian,
Medieval, and Renaissance painters.
Special characteristic: EMULSION
-Watery, milk-like texture of oily
and watery consistency.
Advantages of Tempera
- Rapid drying
-Great luminosity of the stone
- Colors are clear and beautiful

3 Principal Dimensions
1.Unvarnished or goauche like
tempera
2. Varnished tempera
3. tempera as under painting for oil

Resurrection with Two Angels by


Bernardino Fungai
Temper a on Wood Siena, 1460-1616

Majesty Segna Di
Bonaventura Tempera on Panel
Siena, 1298-1326

WATERCOLO
R

Pigments are mixed with water and


applied to fine
white paper.
Require a high degree of technical
dexterity.
Paper is the most commonly used for
ground.
Opaque watercolor is also called
gouache
Made by grinding
opaque colors with
water and mixing the
product with a
preparation of gum
and adding Chinese
white to transparent
watercolors.

SCULPTURES

What are
Sculptures?
the

art of making two- or


three-dimensional
representative or abstract
forms,by the use of
different mediums. (to be
discussed later on.)

In

choosing a subject for


sculpture, the most important
thing to consider is the material.
Substances available for
sculpture are limitless.
Some of the earlier sculptures
are made from bone or wood.
Different materials required
different methods of handling.

Types of Mediums in Making Sculpture


Soft Medium

Has freedom

Lend itself to a moderate


technique that uses
squeezing and shaping and
continuously adding to it
as the work goes on

Hard Medium

Modeling allows for the


expansion of gesture

Requires the process of


cutting and taking away
from the block

Clay is a good example of


soft medium

Carving is confined to the


limits of wood or stone

Stone and wood is a good


example of hard medium

Major Sculpture Processes Used:


Subtractive Process: ( - )
A

process in which
unwanted material
is cut away.

Carving

of Stone
and Wood is a good
example. It is the 2
major mediums in
subtractive
process.

Additive Process: ( + )

The construction of a
figure by putting together
bits of clay, or by welding
together parts of a metal.

Final results are produced


by putting together smaller
segments of metals.

May be plastic material


and can be molded like
moist clay.

Materials may be rigid or


semi-rigid like metal wires,
rods and plates.

2 Types of
Sculpture:
Relief

Figures which are


attached to the
ground like the
relief of Stela of
Akhenaten and
the Sculpture
made by Ed
Castrillo for the
Polytechnic
University of the
Philippines.

Freestanding:

Can be seen from


all sides can be
seen from all
sides like the UP
Oblation made by
Guillermo
Tolentino in 1949.
It is made of
bronze and stone.

RELIEF SCULPTURES

Bonifacio Shrine
Made by: Eduardo
Castrillo

FREE-STANDING SCULPTURES

Stone and Bronze

The media most commonly used for


sculpture are stone and metal.

Stone is durable, resistant to


elements, fire and other hazards. On
the other hand, it is heavy and breaks
easily.

Marble is the most beautiful of stones.


Plenty in Greece and Italy and
commonly used. High gloss and
polished; more or less permanent.

Pieta by Michael Angelo in the

Wood
Advantage:

Really Cheap, Readily Available


and easy to cut. Polishes well and has
smooth, shiny surface and beautiful color.

Relatively

light and can be made easily into a


variety of shapes. The grain of wood that
could be seen ads to beauty.

Carved

Pulpit of the San Austin Church in


Intramuros is an example of Phil. Carving.

Disadvantage: Limited in Size and Burns Easily.


Discolor and Decays easily in the Phil.
Climate.

Ivory
Ivory

Statues survive through long


periods of time due to the intrinsic
value of the material. Ivory lends
itself to technical mastery. Popular
to ordinary craftspeople.

Many

statues of saints have heads


and arms made of Ivory.

Ivory

lacks the vigor of wooden


statues.

Like

wood, it also cracks.

Seldom

used today.

Terra Cotta
Terra

Cotta means Cooked


Earth.

It

is made when Moist Clay is


molded and then subjected to
heat.

Moderately

Coarse Clay product


fired comparatively low
temperature.

Usually

painted and coated in


heavy glaze.
Mount Li(shan); Qin Shi

Other
Materials

Aluminum

Chromium
Steel
Plastic

Chemically

Treated Clay & Stone for


casting in liquid form

*** Plastic is less expensive for use as a


casting material than metals and less
fragile in many ways. Beauty; lightness
makes it preferable to other materials.

MATERIALS IN
ARCHITECTURE

The materials used in a building and the


methods which are used in assembling them
are among the factors contributing to
architectural style.

Availability of materials is important.

Durability and beauty is the basis of choosing


the materials.