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SPACE FRAME

STRUCTURES
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Introduction:

In architecture and structural engineering


, a space frame or space structure is a
truss-like, lightweight rigid structure
constructed from interlocking struts in a
geometric pattern. Space frames can be
used to span large areas with few interior
supports. Like the truss, a space frame is
strong because of the inherent rigidity of
the triangle; flexing loads (bending
moments) are transmitted as tension and
compression loads along the length of
each strut.

In a most general way of speaking the term space frame indicates three
dimensional structure capable of resisting loads in different planes.

By using computer programs, it is possible to analyze very complex space


structures with great accuracy and less time involved.

A space frame is a structure system assembled of linear elements so arranged


that forces are transferred in a three-dimensional manner.

A space frame is usually arranged in an array of single, double, or multiple


layers of intersecting members.

The space frame can be formed on either a flat or a curved surface.

Construction:
Space frame supports:

Space frames are connected to their foundation using four different types of
supports:

1) A spherical movable support;

2) A spherical roller support;

3) A spherical fixed support;

4) A fixed support.

The spherical movable support consists of two flat parallel slabs with a ball in
between. This type of support allows rotation as well as displacements along
any direction.

The second type of support consists of two rockers, with a ball inserted in their
sockets. This type of supports permits free rotation about axes, passing
through the centre of the ball. It prevents displacement along two directions
one being perpendicular to the plane of the roller axes and the other parallel to
their axes .

The spherical fixed support consists of a pair of similar rockers with a ball, but
no rollers, so that the upper rocker can only rotate about any axes passing
through the centre of the ball, but cannot move in any direction.

In the case of fixed support, structure will become statically indeterminate.

ADVANTAGES OF SPACE FRAME


STRUCTURES

Provides complete freedom in large span areas while providing strong


resistance and economic efficiency.

Demountable steel elements are light and easy to handle, and their assembly
is safe and time saver.

Provides column-free space, aesthetic appearances and spectacular qualities


while offering flexibility and adaptability.

Created a wide array of ultra-modern , functional and innovative designs while


blending professional engineering experience with state of the art computer
technology.

Satisfying the needs of an extremely diverse range of clients demands from


municipalities to aviation, from sport halls to shopping centers for their own
specific project needs.

Best fit to any structures with their outstanding and elegant designings while
perfectly interfacing with any structures whether new or renovation works.

Manufactured in sophistication and elegance with the specialy


prepared corrosion resistant round tubes and spherical nodes
that are available in spans up to 100 meters.

Uses exclusive assembly methods and organized according to


structural rules depending on deadline and the requests of the
work owner.

Ensuring the rigidity of materials, make up of elements able to


transmit compression or tention forces and utilising advantage of
3-D structural behavior.

Offers are prepared in detail and complete turnkey service from


feasibility studies to preliminary/final/shop drawings and from
simulation to installations.

One of the most important advantages of a space structure is its lightweight.


Most space frames are now constructed with steel or aluminum, which
decreases considerably their self-weight.

The units of space frames are usually mass produced in the factory so that
they can take full advantage of the industrialized system of construction.
Space frames can be built from simple prefabricated units, which are often of
standard size and shape. Such units can be easily transported and rapidly
assembled on site by semi-skilled labor.

Consequently, space frames can be built at a lower cost.

Advantages of space frame


systems over conventional
systems:
Random column placement

Column-free spaces

Minimal perimeter support

Controlled load distribution

Design freedom

Supports all types of roofing

Disadvantages:

Space frames are highly statically indeterminate, and their


analysis leads to extremely tedious computation,if done by hand.

The space frame has also the problem of connecting a large


number of members in space through different angles at a single
point.

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