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MEMBRANE

TECHNOLOGY

MEMBRANE
CHARACTERIZATION
ASEP MUHAMAD
SAMSUDIN, S.T.,M.T.

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


(SEM)

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org

SEM is very simple and useful


techniques
for
characterizing
structure and morphology of
membrane.
A clear and concise picture of the
membrane can be obtained in terms
of the top layer, cross-section and
bottom layer.
Magnification in a SEM can be
controlled from about 10 to 500,000
times
The porosity and the pore size
distribution can be estimated from
the photographs.
Care must be taken that the
preparation techniques does not
influence the actual porous structure.

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


(SEM)

First Scanning Electron Microscope


with high resolution from Manfred von
Ardenne 1937
Source : http://en.wikipedia.org

Source : www.ceo.msu.edu

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


(SEM)

Flat Sheet

Hollow Fiber

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


(SEM)

Polypropylene

Alumina

PERMEABILITY

this method, the pore size can be obtaining by measuring the


With
flux through a membrane at a constant pressure using the Hagen

Poiseuille equation
Hagen-Poiseuille equation

Feed
Retentate

membrane

Permeate

Cross-flow process

PERMEABILITY

Dead-End process
Source : www.sciencedirect.com

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED


SPECTROSCOPY
In membrane characterization, FTIR is used to determine the
chemical composition of the membrane
IR radiation is passed through a sample. Some of the infrared
radiation is absorbed by the sample and some of it is passed
through (transmitted)
Infrared spectroscopy can result in a positive identification
(qualitative analysis) of every different kind of material. In
addition, the size of the peaks in the spectrum is a direct
indication of the amount of material present.
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was developed
in order to overcome the limitations encountered with
dispersive instruments.,

Source : www.ssi.shimadzu.com

3900
PES UF
3600
3300
3000
2700
2400
2100
1950
1800
1650
1500
1350
1200
1050
900
898.83

0.2

750
600
1/cm

0.1
0.2

4000
3600
Kitosan Medium 2 gr Aktiv asi GA 1%
3200
2800
2400
2000
1800
1600
1400
1199.72

0.4
1375.25

1647.21

0.8
1 151.50

1033.85

Abs

1200
1000
800

617 .22

663.51

1319.31

0.6
2 872.01

2933.73

5 1 8 .8 5

7 1 7 .5 2
6 9 8 .2 3

0.6

1560.41

6 2 6 .8 7

6 6 5 .4 4

1259.52
1238.30

1535.34

8 37 .11

8 7 1 .8 2

1 1 5 1 .5 0

0.5
1 1 0 5 .2 1

1 2 4 2 .1 6

0.4

1 04 7 .3 5

1 2 9 4 .2 4

1 4 8 7 .1 2

5 5 9 . 36

3450.65
3419.79

106 8.56

3385.07

1.1

2358.94

0.3
1 5 7 5 .8 4
1 55 8 .4 8

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED


SPECTROSCOPY

Abs
1.4

0.9
1.2

0.8

0.7
1

0
0
600
400
1/cm

BUBBLE POINT METHOD

method is a very simple technique for characterizing


This
the largest
pores in microfiltration membrane.

The method essentially measure the pressure needed to


blow air through a liquid-filled membrane.
The top of the membrane is placed in contact with a liquid
which fills all the pores when the membrane is wetted. The
bottom of membrane is in contact with air and as the air
pressure is gradually increased bubbles of air penetrate
through the membrane at a certain pressure.
The relationship between pressure and pore radius is given
by the Laplace equation.
A disadvantages is that different results are obtained when
different liquids are used for characterization.

BUBBLE POINT METHOD

SOLUTE REJECTION TEST (MWCO)

used for the industrial

This method is often referred to as challenge test or sieving


test.
In this method, permeability of solute (macromolecule) that
used for membrane test is measured in certain condition.
Membrane rejection was calculated using the equation

method is very frequently


This
assessment
membrane.

Pore size is expressed by the molecular weight cut off which


is defined as the molecular weight that 90% rejected by
membrane.

SOLUTE REJECTION TEST (MWCO)


Solute
D-Alanine
DLPhenylananine
Tryptophan
Sucrose
Raffinose
Inulin
PVP K15
Dextran T10
Myoglobin
Chymotrypsino
gen
Albumin
Aldolase
Lg
Apoferitin
lgM

BM
89
165
204
342
594
5000
10000
10000
17800
24500
67000
14200
0
16000
0
48000
0
96000
0