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# ARV4105 -- ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING I

Course Objective:
To familiarize the students with a basic knowledge of good
drafting, lettering techniques and visualization of geometrical
forms through plan, elevations & sections.
Number of credits: 4
Number of Studios/Lectures per week: 6
Internal assessment: 50
External assessment 50

Course Content:
Unit I: Introduction to Architectural Drawing
- Drawing Basic Geometrical Shapes
- Types of lines used in Architectural Drawing, their meaning
& purpose
-Lettering techniques
Unit II: Basics of Orthographic Projection
-Orthographic projection -- Definition/meaning
- Planes of projection
-Projection of points, lines& planes
Unit III: Projections of Solids
- Projection of simple solids (Prisms, Pyramids, Cones and
Cylinders).
-Section of solids & hollow solids, including those with various
cut-outs in their sides & base
Unit IV: Architectural Drawing of a one-room unit (one
bed/study room with attached toilet & kitchen)
- Drawing dimensioned Plans, including furniture layout.

## Importance of Drawing for

Architects
Architecture cannot divorce itself from drawing, no matter how
impressive the technology gets. Drawings express the interactions of
our minds, eyes and hands. I couldnt agree more, and I take every
opportunity I have to encourage students studying architecture to
develop their drawing skills. The design process without this most
fundamental form of human creativity yields, in my opinion, an end
product less inspiring and less responsive to human needs.
-Michael Graves

Floor plan
A floor plan is the most fundamental architectural diagram, a
view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building
in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a
particular level of a building. Technically it is a horizontal section
cut through a building (conventionally at four feet / one metre
and twenty centimetres above floor level), showing walls,
windows and door openings and other features at that level. The
plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level:
the floor, stairs (but only up to the plan level), fittings and
sometimes furniture. Objects above the plan level (e.g. beams
overhead) can be indicated as dotted lines.
Site plan
A site plan is a specific type of plan, showing the whole context
of a building or group of buildings. A site plan shows property
structures if they are relevant to the design.
Elevation
An elevation is a view of a building seen from one side, a flat

Cross section
A cross section, also simply called a section, represents a vertical
plane cut through the object, in the same way as a floor plan is a
horizontal section viewed from the top. In the section view,
everything cut by the section plane is shown as a bold line, often
with a solid fill to show objects that are cut through, and anything
seen beyond generally shown in a thinner line.
Isometric and axonometric projections
Isometric and axonometric projections are a simple way of
representing a three dimensional object, keeping the elements to
scale and showing the relationship between several sides of the
same object, so that the complexities of a shape can be clearly
understood.
Detail drawings
Detail drawings show a small part of the construction at a larger
scale, to show how the component parts fit together. They are
also used to show small surface details, for example decorative
elements. Section drawings at large scale are a standard way of
showing building construction details, typically showing complex

Typical drawings

Concept of Plan

## Section drawing of the

Observatorium at Potsdam.

## Elevation of the principal faade

of the Panthon, Paris

## A typical set of plans and elevation of a residence

Architectural perspective
Perspective in drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface
of an image as it is perceived by the eye.

## Sketches and diagrams

A sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing, a quick way to record
and develop an idea, not intended as a finished work. A diagram may
also be drawn freehand but deals with symbols, to develop the logic of a
design. Both may be worked up into a more presentable form and used
to communicate the principles of a design.
In architecture, the finished work is expensive and time consuming, so it
is important to resolve the design as fully as possible before
construction work begins. Complex modern buildings involve a large
team of different specialist disciplines, and communication at the early
design stages is essential to keep the design moving towards a
coordinated outcome. Architects (and other designers) start
investigating a new design with sketches and diagrams, to develop a
rough design that provides an adequate response to the particular
design problems.

## Types of architectural drawings

Architectural drawings are produced for a specific purpose, and
can be classified accordingly. Several elements are often included
on the same sheet, for example a sheet showing a plan together
Presentation drawings
Drawings intended to explain a scheme and to promote its
merits.Basic presentation drawings typically include people,
vehicles and trees, taken from a library of such images, and are
otherwise very similar in style to working drawings. Rendering is
visual qualities of a building more realistically.
Survey drawings
Measured drawings of existing land, structures and buildings.
Record drawings
Historically, architects have made record drawings in order to
understand and emulate the great architecture known to them.

Deliverables
Sheet 1- Types of lines and line weights, Different drawing
instruments, Introduction to scale, drawing basic 2D geometric
shapes.
Sheet 2- Types of Hatches and symbols used in Architectural
drawings
Sheet 3- Different types of lettering, labeling, dimensioning
and composing of sheets, Different ways to write, Levels,
Sheet 4- Orthographic projections of simple solids- Triangular
Prism, Triangular Pyramid, Square Prism and Square Pyramid.
(Preparing Plan, Elevation and Side Elevation)
Sheet 5- Orthographic projections of simple solids- Pentagonal
Prism, Pentagonal Pyramid, Hexagonal Prism and Hexagonal
pyramid.(Preparing Plan, Elevation and Side Elevation)

Deliverables Cont.
Sheet 7- Section of Sqare pyramid, Pentagonal pyramid,
Hexagonal pyramid and any one pyramid with a hollow core. With
cutting plane (H.T.) parallel to H.P.(Frustum) (Preparing Plan,
Elevation and Side Elevation)
Sheet 8- Section of Sqare pyramid, Pentagonal pyramid,
Hexagonal pyramid and any one pyramid with a hollow core. With
cutting plane (H.T.) at and angle to H.P. (Truncated). (Preparing
Plan, Elevation and Side Elevation)
Sheet 9- Section of any four figures with a mixture from Pyramids
and Prisms of Triangle, Square, Pentagon or Hexagon with cutouts
in them like 'sides' and 'bases' and Cutting plane also in different
position each time(like parallel and at an angle to V.P. and H.P
different for all four cases)
Sheet 10- A one room unit plan to be made and given to students
with attached toilet and kitchen. Students are required to make a
complete set of drawings viz. Presentation Plan, two Elevations