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FUNDAMENTALS OF

DATABASE SYSTEM

HAROLD R. LUCERO,MIT

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS
The design and implementation of the database
component is a most significant aspect of Information
system development
Success of the Information system depends on the
design of the database

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

WHAT IS DATABASE?
A collection of related facts stored in a computer
readable format
A very large, integrated collection of data
A store of information, held over a period of time

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

DBMS
DBMS Database Management System
A software system designed to store, manage and
facilitate access to database
A software system for defining, constructing, and
manipulating databases for various applications
A multiple billion dollar market for DBMS products and
services

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

DBMS
DBMS Database Management System
A software system designed to store, manage and
facilitate access to database
A software system for defining, constructing, and
manipulating databases for various applications
A multiple billion dollar market for DBMS products and
services

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Well known DBMSs


MS Access
MS SQL Server
MYSQL
Oracle
PostgreSQL
SQLite
IBMDB2
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

DBMS Facilitates
Defining a Database - Specifying the types, structures
and constraints for the data
Constructing a Database storing the data on a storage
medium
Manipulating a Database Querying and updating the
database

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

DBMS provides
efficient, reliable, convenient, and
safe multi-user storage of and access to
massive amount of persistent data

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

DBMS
Massive
Persistent
Safe
Multi-user
Convenient
Efficient
Reliable
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

What is a DATABASE SYSTEM?


User/Programmer
Application
Program/Queries
Software to Process
Queries/Programs
DBMS SOFTWARE

Software to Access
Stored Data

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

DATABASE
SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Database System Components


The Stored Database A collection of related facts
The DBMS The software that defines, construct and
manipulate database
The Application The program that manipulate the
database
The Users People who use the database system
through application programs

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Users of the Database System


Application Programmer - is the person who is responsible for
implementing the required functionality of database for the end user.
Application programmer works according to the specification provided by the
system analyst.

End Users - persons who interact with the application directly


Casual End User -occasionally access the database, but they may
need different information each time.
Parametric End Users - Their main job function revolves around
constantly querying and updating the database, using standard types of
queries and updates-called canned transactions-that have been carefully
programmed and tested.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Users of the Database System


Sophisticated End Users - include engineers, scientists, business
analysts, and others who thoroughly familiarize themselves with the facilities
of the DBMS so as to implement their applications to meet their complex
requirements.

Stand-Alone Users - maintain personal databases by using readymade program packages that provide easy-to-use menu-based or graphicsbased interfaces.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Major Features of DBMS


Data Security - The DBMS can prevent unauthorized users from
viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access
to the entire database or a subset of it known as a "subschema

Data Integrity - The DBMS can ensure that no more than one user can
update the same record at the same time. It can keep duplicate records out of
the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer number
can be entered.

Interactive Query - A DBMS provides a query language and report


writer that lets users interactively interrogate the database. These essential
components give users access to all management information as needed

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Major Features of DBMS


Interactive Data Entry and Updating - A DBMS typically
provides a way to interactively enter and edit data, allowing you to manage
your own files and databases.

Data Independence - When a DBMS is used, the details of the data


structure are not stated in each application program. The program asks the
DBMS for data by field name; for example, a coded equivalent of "give me
customer name and balance due" would be sent to the DBMS.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Advantages of DBMS
Improved Availability - One of the principle advantages of a DBMS
is that the same information can be made available to different users.

Minimized Redundancy - The data in a DBMS is more concise


because, as a general rule, the information in it appears just once.

Accuracy - Accurate, consistent, and up-to-date data is a sign of data


integrity. DBMSs foster data integrity because updates and changes to the
data only have to be made in one place.

Program and File Consistency - Using a database


management system, file formats and system programs are standardized.
This makes the data files easier to maintain because the same rules and
guidelines apply across all types of data.
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Advantages of DBMS
User-Friendly - Data is easier to access and manipulate with a DBMS
than without it. In most cases, DBMSs also reduce the reliance of individual
users on computer specialists to meet their data needs.

Improved Security - As stated earlier, DBMSs allow multiple users


to access the same data resources

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Disadvantages of DBMS
Cost -

Implementing a DBMS system can be expensive and timeconsuming, especially in large organizations. Training requirements alone can
be quite costly.

Security - Even with safeguards in place, it may be possible for some


unauthorized users to access the database.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Types of DBMS
There are four structural types of database management
systems:
Hierarchical
Network
Relational
Object-oriented

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Hierarchical Databases
Commonly used on mainframe computers, have
been around for a long time
Related fields or records are grouped together so
that there are higher-level records and lower-level
records, just like the parents in a family tree sit
above the subordinated children
The advantage of hierarchical databases is that
they can be accessed and updated rapidly
because the tree-like structure and the
relationships between records are defined in
advance
Hierarchical databases are so rigid in their design
that adding a new field or record requires that the
entire database be redefined
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Network Databases
Similar to hierarchical databases by
also having a hierarchical structure.
More connections can be made
between different types of data,
network databases are considered
more flexible
Similar to hierarchical databases,
network databases must be defined in
advance
There is also a limit to the number of
connections that can be made between
records.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Relational Databases
The relationship between data files is relational,
not hierarchical.
Relational databases connect data in different
files by using common data elements or a key
field.
Data in relational databases is stored in different
tables, each having a key field that uniquely
identifies each row
Relational databases can be used with little or no training
Database entries can be modified without redefining the entire structure
Relational databases are more flexible than either the hierarchical or network
database structures
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF DBMS

Object-oriented Databases (OODBMS)


Able to handle many new data types, including graphics, photographs, audio,
and video, object-oriented databases represent a significant advance over
their other database cousins
Object-oriented database can be used to store data from a variety of media
sources, such as photographs and text, and produce work, as output, in a
multimedia format
OODBMS consists of two elements: 1) a piece of data (e.g., sound, video,
text, or graphics), and 2) the instructions, or software programs called
methods, for what to do with the data
Costly to develop
Most organizations are reluctant to abandon or convert from those databases
that they have already invested money in developing and implementing

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM