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MENINGITIS

LAGUITAO, Ayra B.
LLANETA, Marissa Angeline B.

MENINGITIS

an acute inflammation of
the
protective
membranes covering the
brain
and spinal cord,
known collectively as the
meninges.

MENINGES

MENINGITIS: ETIOLOGY
Viral meningitis
Herpes simplex virus (HSV),

usually type 2 (HSV-2)


Mosquito-borne viruses (called

arboviruses), such as West Nile


virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus,
and California encephalitis virus.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

virus.
Human immunodeficiency virus

(HIV)

Bacterial meningitis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

(pneumococcus)
Neisseria meningitidis

(meningococcus)
Haemophilus influenzae

(haemophilus)
Listeria monocytogenes

(listeria)

MENINGITIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
1. Meningitis

occurs as a result of the extension of a body infection


or directly from wound into skin, skull fracture or through surgical
procedures, lumber puncture.
2. Once the organism implanted, it spreads into the CSF then to
subarachnoid space.
3. As any bacterial infection, the infection process is
inflammation, exudation, accumulation of the white blood cells
and varying degree of tissue damage.
4. The brain becomes edemetous and the brain entire surface is
covered with purulent exudates.
5. If infection extends to brain ventricles, thick pus and adhesion
will obstruct the CSF flow.

MENINGITIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

MENINGITIS: ASSESSMENT
Fever
Stomachcramps
Ice-cold hands and feet
Skin rash
Muscle ache orjoint pain
Rapid breathing
Chills
Sensitivity to bright light
Poor appetite

Severe,

persistentheadache
Neck stiffness and pain

that makes it difficult to


touch your chin to your
chest
Nausea and vomiting
Confusion and

disorientation
Drowsiness or

sluggishness

MENINGITIS: ASSESSMENT

MENINGITIS: NURSING MANAGMENT


Assess neurologic status and vital signsconstantly.

Determine oxygenation from arterial blood gas values


and pulse oximetry.
Suction endotracheal tube (or tracheostomy), and posiposition patient on mechanical ventilation as
prescribed.
Assess blood pressure (usually monitored using an
arterial line) for incipient shock, which precedes
cardiac or respiratory failure.
Rapid IV fluid replacement may be prescribed, but take
care not to overhydrate patient because of risk of
cerebral edema.

MENINGITIS: NURSING MANAGMENT


Reduce high fever to decrease load on heart and

brain from oxygen demands.


Protect the patient from injury secondary to seizure
activity or altered level of consciousness (LOC).
Monitor daily body weight; serum electrolytes; and
urine volume, specific gravity, and osmolality,
especially if syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic
hormone (SIADH) is suspected.
Prevent complications associated with immobility,
such as pressure ulcers and pneumonia.

MENINGITIS: NURSING MANAGMENT


Institute infection control precautions until 24

hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy (oral


and nasal discharge is considered infectious).
Inform family about patients condition and
permit family to see patient at appropriate
intervals.

MENING
ITIS

Thanks for listening!!!!!!