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Types of pollution are1.Air Pollution.

2.Water Pollution.
3.Noise Pollution.
4.Land Pollution.

Air Pollution
Air pollution is the human introduction into
the atmosphere of chemicals,
particulate matter, or biological materials that
cause harm or discomfort to humans or other
living organisms, or damage the environment .
Examples of air pollution :
Acid rain
Indoor air pollution
Dust particles

1.Smoke from chimneys of factories.

2.Smoke from Vehicles.
3.Smoke from burning of fire.

1.We should share vehicles for going to office.

2.We should get a regular pollution check of our
3.We should use a bicycle for going to near by places.
4.Chimneys of factories should be fitted with proper
filters to prevent smokes from coming out and effect

Water Pollution
Water pollution is the introduction into
fresh or ocean waters of chemical,
physical, or biological material that
degrades the quality of the water and
affects the organisms living in it.
Examples of Water pollution :
Industrial affluents
Mining and Agricultural Wastes
Sewage Disposal and Domestic Wastes

1.Factories throw their waste in water bodies.

2.People bath and wash clothes in water bodies.
3.Some oil ships drown in water which hardly
effects the aquatic life.
4.Smoke from vehicles lets the river to dry.

1.Factories should not throw there waste in water

2.People should not bath and wash clothes in rivers or
3.People should not take there animals to take bath in
rivers or lakes.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is unwanted humancreated sound that disrupts the

environment. The dominant form of noise
pollution is from transportation sources,
principally motor vehicles, referred to as
environmental noise.
Examples of Noise Pollution:

1.Jet planes.
2.Loud speakers and other loud speaking things.
3.Cinema halls.
5.Road traffic

1.We should not use loud speakers.

2.Factories should be made out of the city.
3.There should be not more noise making
vehicles on the roads.

Land Pollution
Land pollution is the degradation of the
Earth's land surface through misuse of
the soil by poor agricultural practices,
mineral exploitation, industrial waste
dumping, and indiscriminate disposal of
urban wastes .
Examples of Land pollution :
Soil Pollution
Waste Disposal

1.People Cut forest for furniture.

2.Plastic is the main source of land pollution.
3.People throw house garbage on roads.
4.Some industries throw their waste on land.

1.People should not cut trees for making furniture.

2.People should not throw garbage on land.
3.Plastic bags should be avoided for prevention of land
4.Industries should not throw there waste on land.

Thermal pollution can be defined as presence of
waste heat in the water which
can cause undesirable changes in the natural
Heat producing industries like thermal power
plants, nuclear power plants,refineries, steel
mills etc are the major sources of thermal

Effects of Thermal Pollution:

1 The dissolved oxygen content of water is decreased

2. High temperature becomes a barrier for oxygen penetration

into deep cold waters.
3. The composition of flora and fauna changes because the
species sensitive to increased temperature due to thermal

4. Metabolic activities of aquatic organisms increase at high

temperature and require more oxygen level falls under therm
5.Fish migrations

Control of Thermal Pollution:

1 Cooling ponds
2 Spray Ponds
3. Cooling towers

Radioactive pollution can be
defined as the release of radioactive
substances or high-energy particles
into the air water, or earth as a
result of human activity, either by
accident or by design.

Sources of Radioactive wastes

1) Natural sources: Solar radiation, Radionuclides in the
earth Crust, Human Internal radiation, environmental
2) Anthropogenic Sources: The sources of such waste
include :
1) nuclear weapon testing or detonation;
2) mining, separation, and production of nuclear materials
for use in nuclear power plants or nuclear
3) accidental release of radioactive material from nuclear
power plants..

Effect of Radioactive wastes

Soil pollution
Water pollution
Diseases like Anaemia, Reduced immune
response, Haemorrhage , skin burn,
mouth ulcers , Leukemia, Cardiovascular
disease, Premature ageing ,Reduced life
span , reduction of fertility


Control of Radioactive pollution

1.Nuclear devices should never be exploded in air.
2.Nuclear reactors must be enclosed in broad concrete walls to prevent the
radiations that emerge out.
3.Workers should wear protective garments and glass spectacles should be
screened from radiation.
4.Extreme care should be exercised in the disposal of industrial waste

Following are the practical hints for an individual to

prevent pollution:
Reduce your dependency on fossil fuel especially coal or oil
Save electricity by not wasting it.
Adopt and popularize renewable energy sources.
Improve energy efficiency. This will reduce the amount of waste energy
Promote reuse and recycling whatever possible and reduce the production
of wastes.
Use mass transport system. For short visits use bicycle or go on foot.
Decrease the use of automobiles.
Use pesticides only when absolutely necessary that too in right amounts.
Use rechargeable batteries, it will reduce metal pollution.
Use less hazardous chemicals wherever possible.

The solid waste generated during one manufacturing process can

be used as a raw material for some other processes.
Do not put pesticides, paints, solvents, oils or other harmful
chemicals into the drain or ground water.
Use only the minimum and required quantity of water for various
When building a home save (dont cut) trees.
Plant more trees as trees can absorb many toxic gases and can
purify the air.
Check population growth so that demand of materials is under