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PHYSICAL WORLD , Units

and
Measurement

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Scienceis a systematic enterprise


that builds and
organizesknowledgein the form of
testable explanations and
predictions about theuniverse.In
an older and closely related
meaning, "science" also refers to a
body of knowledge itself, of the
type that can be rationally
explained and reliably applied. A
practitioner of science is known as
ascientist.

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A way of describing the physical world


-Physics comes from the Greek physis meaning nature
and
the
Latin physica meaning natural things
- Physics is understanding the behavior and structure of
matter
- It deals with how and why matter and energy act as
they do
- Energy is the conceptual system for explaining how the
universe works and accounting for changes in matter
-

- Although energy is not a thing three ideas about energy are


important
1. It is changed from one form to another (transformed) by
physical events
2. It cannot be created nor destroyed (conservation)
3. When it is transformed some of it usually goes into heat

Branches of physics

astrophysics
The branch of astronomy
concerned with the physical nature
of stars and other celestial bodies,
and the application of the laws and
theories of physics to the
interpretation of astronomical
observations

ELECTRONICS
The branch of physics and
technology concerned with the
design of circuits using transistors
and microchips, and with the
behavior and movement of
electrons in a semiconductor,
conductor, vacuum, or gas.

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Physics - the study of matter, energy and their

interactions - is an international concern, which plays a


key role in the future progress of humankind. The
support of physics education and research in all countries
is important because:
1) Physics is an exciting intellectual adventure that
inspires young people and expands the frontiers of our
knowledge about Nature.
2) Physics generates fundamental knowledge needed for
the future technological advances that will continue to
drive the economic engines of the world.
3) Physics contributes to the technological infrastructure
and provides trained personnel needed to take
advantage of scientific advances and discoveries.

4) Physics is an important element in the education of

chemists, engineers and computer scientists, as well as


practitioners of the other physical and biomedical sciences.

5) Physics extends and enhances our understanding of other

disciplines, such as the earth, agricultural, chemical,


biological, and environmental sciences, plus astrophysics and
cosmology - subjects of substantial importance to all
peoples of the world.
6) Physics improves our quality of life by providing the basic
understanding necessary for developing new
instrumentation and techniques for medical applications,
such as computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging,
positron emission tomography, ultrasonic imaging, and laser
surgery.

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The Four Forces of


Nature
A Brief Introduction

The forces of nature from


weakest to strongest:

Gravity > Weak Force > Electromagnetic Force


> Strong Nuclear
Weakest >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Strongest
The forces of nature are responsible for providing the
energy we used everyday!

The Gravitation Force


(Weakest)
Attractive force between ALL MASS in the

universe
Unusual in that it is ALWAYS attractive
The weakest of all forces
Has infinite range (acts across the entire
universe)
The particle that carries the force is called a
graviton but it has never been found!!

The Gravitational Force


It is the force of mutual attraction between two
bodies by the virtue of their masses. Related by-

m1 m2
F G 2
r

It is a universal attractive force. It obeys inverse


square law. It is the weakest force in nature. It is
conservative, central and long range force. It is
caused due to the exchange of particle called
Graviton.

The Weak nuclear Force


Innuclearphysics,beta decay(-decay) is atype ofradioactivedecayin which abetaray
(an energeticelectronorpositron) and an associatedantineutrinoorneutrinoare emitted
from anatomicnucleus. By beta decay, aprotonwithin the nucleus is transformed into a
neutron, or vice versa, changing thenuclidetype. The beta particle and its associated
neutrinodonotexistwithinthenucleuspriortobetadecay,butarecreated.Bytheprocess
ofbetadecayanunstableatomobtainsamorestableratioofprotonsandneutrons.Beta
decay is a consequence of theweakforce, which is characterized by relatively lengthy
decaytimes

Acts at extremely small distances within the nucleus.


Responsible for radioactive decay of elements called beta-decay.
Occurs when a neutron is changes into a proton or a proton changes

into a neutron (very strange) inside atom . This changes the identity
of the element!!
Energy is released in the form of electrons and can do work.
Neutrino ,Positron particles can be created

The Electromagnetic
Force
Most familiar to us.
Is the attractive force between positive

and negative charges and the repulsive


force between like charges particles.
Holds you together, the atoms of your chair,
everything around you!!
Electricity, magnetism and light are all
examples of this force.
Has infinite range
The photon is the messenger particle of
this force.

The Strong Nuclear


Force
This force works at extremely short range

within the nucleus


Binds protons and neutrons together within
the nucleus.
Keeps protons from repelling each other
If disrupted, the energy released is
tremendous as explaining in next slides
(example: Sun, nuclear bombs)

Nuclear
Reactions
There are two kinds of nuclear reactions:
Fusion
Fission
Protons and neutrons are the two most

important subatomic particles in the nucleus


and participate in these reactions.

Fusion
Fusionistheprocessofcombining

nucleiofatomstomakedifferentatoms.
ThisreactionisgoingfromSMALLto

LARGEparticles.
Thinkoffusingtwothingstogether.

Fusion
Nuclearfusionhappensatthesun.
Oneatomofhydrogen-3andoneatom

ofhydrogencombinetoformahelium
atom,aneutronandlotsofenergy!!!
hydrogen-3

helium atom

neutron
hydrogen
atom

Fusion
Wheredoestheenergycomefrom?
Energyisgainedwhenthetwo

hydrogenatomsbreakapart.
Someofthisenergyisuseduptocreate
theheliumatom,buttherestisgivenoff
aslight.
Massisconvertedtoenergy!
E=mc2 (c=3.0X108m/s)
Sincethespeedoflightissolargeevena

smallmasswillbeconvertedtoaverylarge
energy.

Fission
Nuclearfissionhappensonearth.
Nuclearfissionbeginswhenaneutron

hitsthenucleusoflargeatom.
Addingthisneutronmakesthenucleus

unstableanditsplitsintotwosmaller
nucleiandtwoneutrons.

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Law of Conservation
of Energy
Conservation of energyimplies that energy can be

neither created nor destroyed, although it can be


changed from one form (mechanical, kinetic, chemical,
etc.) into another.
In an isolated system like universe the sum of all forms
of energy therefore remains constant. For example, a
falling body has a constant amount of energy, but the
form of the energy changes from potential to kinetic.
According to the theory ofrelativity, energy and mass
are equivalent. Thus, the rest mass of a body may be
considered a form of potential energy, part of which can
be converted into other forms of energy.

Law Of Conservation Of
Linear Momentum
Conservation of linear momentumexpresses the fact that a

body or system of bodies in motion retains its total momentum,


the product of mass andvectorvelocity, unless an external
force is applied to it.
In an isolated system (such as the universe), there are no
external forces, so momentum is always conserved. Because
momentum is conserved, its components in any direction will
also be conserved.
Application of the law ofconservation of momentumis
important in the solution of collision problems. The operation of
rockets exemplifies the conservation of momentum: the
increased forward momentum of the rocket is equal but
opposite in sign to the momentum of the ejected exhaust gases.

Law Of Conservation Of
Angular Momentum
Conservation of angular momentumof rotating bodies

is analogous to theconservation of linear momentum.


Angular momentum is a vector quantity whose
conservation expresses the law that a body or system
that is rotating continues to rotate at the same rate
unless a twisting force, called atorque, is applied to
it. torque is a measure of the turning force on an
object such as a bolt or afly wheel
The angular momentum of each bit of matter consists
of the product of its mass, its distance from the axis
of rotation, and the component of its velocity
perpendicular to the line from the axis.

Law of Conservation of mass


Conservation of massimplies that matter can be

neither created nor destroyedi.e., processes that


change the physical or chemical properties of
substances within an isolated system (such as
conversion of a liquid to a gas) leave the total mass
unchanged.
Strictly speaking, mass is not a conserved quantity.
However, except in nuclear reactions, the conversion
of rest mass into other forms of mass-energy is so
small that, to a high degree of precision, rest mass
may be thought of as conserved.

Law Of Conservation
Of Charge
Conservation of chargestates that the total

amount of electric charge in a system is balanced.

At asubatomiclevel, charged particles can be

created, but always in pairs with equal positive


and negative charge so that the total amount of
charge always remains constant.

Electroweak

Theory

and

Grand

Unification

Theories

(GUT)

There is a speculation, that In the very early Universe when temperatures


were very high , all four forces were unified into a single force. Then, as the
temperature dropped, gravitation separated first and then the other 3 forces
separated. Even Though, the weak, electromagnetic, and strong forces were
unified into a single force. When the temperature dropped these forces got
separated from each other, with the strong force separating first and then at a
still lower temperature the electromagnetic and weak forces separating and
formed 4 distinct forces that we see in our present Universe. The process of
the forces separating from each other is called spontaneous symmetry
breaking.

The weak and electromagnetic interactions have been unified under

Standard Electroweak Theory, in the Standard Model. (Glashow, Weinberg,


and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979). [Unification
of Weak forces except gravity]
Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong and weak forces
under the same mathematical structure. [Unification of Weak forces and
strong forces] .But attempts to include gravitation in this picture have not
yet been successful.
Theories that add gravity to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental
forces into a single force are called Superunified Theories.
Grand Unified and Super unified Theories remain theoretical speculations
that are as yet unproven, but there is strong experimental evidence for the
unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions in the Standard
Electroweak Theory. Furthermore, although GUTs are not proven
experimentally, there is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that a
theory at least like a Grand Unified Theory is required to make sense of the
Universe.

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