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Buil ogy II
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Building
Structure
(Window)
By:
d Syawal
Hafz | Az
wadi | No
rfarhah
Balqis |
Nurul Atiq
ah | Ani S
ofanie | N
atasha Na
bilah

Wan Muha
mma

DEFINITION OF WINDOW
0 An openings in a brick wall that allows the air
ventilation and natural day lighting.
COMPONENTS OF WINDOW

Glass and
Glazing

Frames

FUNCTIONS OF WINDOW

To allow
natural day
lighting
Aesthetic
value

To allow for air


ventilation

Means of
escape in the
case of fre

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF WINDOW


Daylight
Ventilation
Thermal and sound
insulation
Weather resistance
Security
Cleaning

TYPES OF WINDOWS

Top-hung
(Awning)

Side-hung
(Casement)

Fixed window

Horizontal sliding
window

Vertical sliding
window

Hopper window

Bay & Bow window

Custom window

CASE
STUDY

Project
0 2 - Storey SemiD (Limited 16 Units)
0 3 - Storey SemiD (Limited 16 Units)
0 3 4 Storey Lifestyle Shop Offices

(42 Units)
Developer
0 SYCAL DEVELOPMENT SDN. BHD
Architect
0 AXIS EDGE INTERIOR SDN. BHD
Consulting Engineers
0 SYCAL GEOTECHNICS SDN BHD
Contractor
0 SYCAL CONCRETE SDN BHD

TYPES OF
MATERIA
L USED
FOR WIN
DOW

Timbe
r
windo
w
Vinyl
windo
w
Fiberglass

Steel
windo
w
PVC
windo
w

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TYPES OF
MATERIA
L USED
FOR WIN
DOW

Aluminium

Tinted glass
Low
emission
glass

Reflective
window
glass
Laminated
glass

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PROPERT
IES OF
MATERIA
L USED
FOR WIN
DOW

Frosted and
Tinted Glass

Aluminium
Frame

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CONSTRU
CTION
/ WORKIN
G
PROCESS

1) Provided wall opening


For the lug system, provided the size of the wall opening 20mm

gap between the wall and the window frame.

Installation of frame on brickwall

2)
i.

To hold the window frame so that it is in the right position,


Timber V-shaped wedges is used .

ii.

Window frames will be examined for the plumb, levelling and


alignment.

Plumb of frame
need to be check

Alignment of frame
need to be check

Alignment of
frame need to be
check

Positioning of the
frame need to be
check by
reference to wall

iii.

After the work put in its frame in the position done, galvanized
straps will be ramsetted to the wall.

iv. Levellness and squareness of the installed frame can be checked by

conducting a diagonal dimensional.

Seal of gap between window frame and wall.

3)
i.

Properly sealed need to be done to the gap which is located


between the wall and window frames in action to avoid the
water seepage from happening in this place. Waterproof
grouting is used to overcome this problem.

The ways to clean the surfaces by get rid of dust and


particles

Mortar mixed with


waterproofing
compound

Need to use suitable


grouting gun

Timber strip is used


for backing

Grout need to be
tooling to give neat
surfaces

Picture above shows the process of grouting

Applied the waterproofng.

4)
i.

a layer of approved waterproofng membrane can applied onto


the external surfaces of the joint areas between window frame
and wall before plastering or skim coating of the external walls
occurred.

Picture above shows the waterproofng being applied over the joint area

ii.

Groove line should be drawn during plastering in the external face


of the wall around the perimeter of the window. After that, the
sealant will then be imposed on the groove line after the plaster is
completely dry.

Picture above shows the sealant application


(Around the perimeter of the window will be drawn a groove line to receive sealant)

iii.

For wall with textured coating, the sealant must be applied before
the texture coating, as the coating in the groove will affect the
adhesion properties of the sealant. Polyurethane sealant should be
used where sealant is to be painted over.

Picture above shows the ways to apply sealant between the window
frame and wall surfaces

5)

Installation of window glazing


i.
ii.

Preparatory works before glazing


Glazing of glass to inner frame

Inserting glass panel


onto the window frame

Use of spacer blocks to


hold the glass panel in
place

Picture above shows the process of glazing the glass to


inner frame

Length of the gasket need


to be estimated

To fit the corners of the


glass panel, the gasket
need to be splice

Tooling the gasket in place

Picture above shows the ways how to install the gasket

Aluminium beads are used to hold the position of the glass panel.

For glazing before


assembly the inner panel

For glazing after assembly


the inner panel

Picture above shows the ways to protect the glass panel with beadings

The gap between the glass panel and the bead need to be sealed after

assembly the beadings.

Used appropriate
sealant & sealant
applicator

Surfaces should be
covered by using
masking tape

Use a simple tool to


obtain a neat finish

Picture above shows the ways how to apply


sealant

6)

Installation of window inner frame

By using the friction stays, inner frame of casement window is set

to the main frame.


The friction stays should continue to use sufficient number of
stainless steel screws or rivets of adequate size, depends on the
size and weight of inner frame.
To get preferable water tightness, screw or rivet heads need to be
seal by using sealant.
For the installation of top hung window panel, it is just the same
with the casement window.

Picture above shows the ways to assembly the


inner panel of casement window

7)

Installation of fxed glass panel

Glass panel need to be


slot into the "pocket"

Bead need to be fxed


on the top of the glass
panel

Top beading need to


be secure

Side beading need to


be secure

Picture above shows the ways to secure the glass panel by fixing of beadings

Spacer blocks being inserted

Gasket being inserted

Picture above shows the ways to install the gasket

8)

Installation of accessories

installation will be fnished when fxing accessories such as

handles, locking devices, and etc.

Handles need to be
protected after
installation

Installed the handles

Picture above shows the ways to install handles

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ADVANTA
GES &
DISADVA
NTAGE
S OF WIN
DOW

TOP HUNG WINDOW

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGE
S

Stylist
look
Good
secure

Good
ventilatio
n

Weather
resistance

Emergenc
y cases

Hard to
make
maintenan
ce

SIDE HUNG WINDOW

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGE
S

Efficient
window

Size
limitatio
n
Good
ventilation

Easy to
open &
close

The
uses of
crank

FIXED WINDOW

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGE
S

Heat
gain

Cost

Heat
gain

Natur
al
light

No
ventilatio
n

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STRUCTU
RAL &
DESIGN
REQUIRE
MENTS
OF WIND
OW

LIVING ROOM
Design
Aluminum frame
fxed glass panel
with top hung glass
window (corner
window)
Aluminum frame
fxed glass panel
with top hung glass
window

Picture

DINING ROOM
Design
Aluminum frame
fxed glass window

Picture

BEDROOM
Design
Aluminum frame top
hung glass window

Aluminum frame
fxed glass panel
Aluminum frame
fxed glass window
(prosted glass)

Picture

FAMILY AREA
Design
Aluminum frame fxed
glass panel with top
hung glass window
(prosted glass)

Picture

DRY KITCHEN
Design
Aluminum frame
casement glass
window

Picture

BATHROOM
Design
Aluminum frame top
hung glass window

Aluminum frame fxed


glass panel with top
hung glass window
(prosted glass)

Picture

CONCLUS
IO