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# Planning and Scheduling

Lecture 4
Critical Path Method

## Tasks are identified by start

and finish dates. No logic or
relationship provided!!!

1-2
Good Sample of Given
Data

durations and relationships.

1-3
Schedule inputs from previous slide inserted into scheduling
software
If correct inputs are provided the proper critical path can be
established using scheduling software. This will be discussed later in
more detail.

1-4
Critical Path Method [CPM]
& Network Diagrams
•Critical Path Method (CPM) and
Network Analysis

## •Schedule Calendars (Weather,

resources, buffers)

•Q & A

1-5
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Background
• Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed in the
1950s by the US Navy when trying to better
organize the building of submarines and later,
especially, when building nuclear submarines

## • Today, it is commonly used with all forms of

projects, including construction, software
development, research projects, product
development, engineering, and plant
maintenance, among others
• Any project with interdependent activities can
apply this method of scheduling

1-6
Critical Path Method (CPM)
What Project Questions can CPM answer?
• How long will the entire project take to complete?

## • Which activity durations should be shortened, if

possible, to shorten the overall project duration?

## • If there are not enough resources available, how much

resources should be allocated to each activity?

1-7
Critical Path Method (CPM)
What is the CPM?
• CPM is a mathematically based algorithm for
scheduling a set of project activities

## • It is a procedure for using Network Analysis to

identify those tasks which are on the Critical
Path
– i.e. where any delay in the completion of
these tasks will lengthen the project duration,
unless recovery action is taken

## – for all tasks off the critical path, a degree of

tolerance for delay is possible

1-8
Critical Path Method (CPM)
• The essential technique for using CPM
is to construct a model of the project
that includes the following:
– a list of all activities required to complete
the project (also known as
Work Breakdown Structure),
– the time (duration) that each activity will
take to completion, and
– the dependencies between the activities

1-9
Basic Activity Relationships
• Predecessor: an activity that precedes
another activity

another activity

## • Open End: an activity that has neither a

predecessor and/ or a successor identified

NOTE:
• Refer to “Types of Activity Relationships &
Scheduling Best Practices” handouts in the Day One
Resources section

1-
1-
Steps in CPM Project Planning
1. Specify the individual activities (use WBS)

## 5. Calculate the early start (ES) and early finish

(EF) dates for each activity (use forward pass)

## 6. Calculate the late start (LS) and late finish (LF)

dates for each activity (use backward pass)
7. Identify the Critical Path and overall project
duration

1-
Scheduling Diagrams
• Any Graphical Representation of the
logical relationships of project
activities are known as a Scheduling
Diagram, including:

## – Gantt Chart (Bar Chart)

– Network Diagrams
• Activity on Node (AON) (Precedence
Diagram Method – PDM)
• Activity on Arrow (AOA)

1-
Sample of Gantt Chart (Bar Chart)

1-
Sample of Network Diagram (AON)

1-
Sample of Network Diagram (AOA)

1-
Key Word: Float/ Slack
• Is the difference between the time
available and the time required to

## • As a Project Manager it allows you to

depending on their float or slack
thereof

Note:
• Float and Slack mean the same thing

1-
Key Word: Total Float/ Free Float
Total Float:
• The total amount of time that a
scheduled activity (or milestone) may
be delayed or extended without
delaying the project end date or
violating a schedule constraint.
Free Float:
• The amount of time that a scheduled
activity (or milestone) can be delayed
without delaying the start of the next
activity in the network.

1-
Float Example in Scheduling Software

1-
CPM Network Calculation

1-
Calculate the CPM

## • Assume the following

information:

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Creating Activity Network

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

EF
5 LF EF
7 LF EF
6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF

## Total Float (TF) =

EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES Duration LS ES Duration LS

EF
8 LF EF
4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish (Forward Pass)
EF = ES + Duration

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

EF
5 LF EF
7 LF EF
6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF

## Total Float (TF) =

EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

EF=ES +
Duratio ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

n ES Duration LS ES Duration LS

EF
8 LF EF
4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish (Forward Pass)

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

EF
5 LF EF
7 LF EF
6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES Duration LS ES Duration LS

EF
8 LF EF
4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish (Forward Pass)
Single predecessor: EF of Predecessor ES of Successor

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

10
EF
5 LF EF
7 LF EF
6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES Duration LS ES Duration LS

EF
8 LF EF
4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish
(Forward Pass)
Single predecessor:
2 ID EF
3
of Predecessor
4
Stud & Board 1 Side ID M&E Rough in Wall ID Board 2nd Side/Tape/Sand ES of
10
ES
Successor
15 22
Duration LS ES Duration LS ES Duration LS

EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF EF
28 6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish – Forward Pass Multiple predecessor:
Greatest EF of Predecessors ES of Successor

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS ES
22Duration LS
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF EF
28 6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
14 LF
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Early Start & Early Finish (Forward Pass)

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS ES
22Duration LS
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF EF
28 6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting

ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS

10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF 36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## It’s time for the Forward Pass Calculation Activity!

1-
Forward Pass Calculation Results

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)
For the last task in the network: Late Finish = Early Finish

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS ES
22Duration LS
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF EF
28 6 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF 36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)
Late Start = Late Finish – Duration

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS ES
22Duration LS
EF
5 LF EF
7 LF EF
6 LF LS=LF -
15 22 28
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Duratio
n
ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF 36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)
Single Successor: LF of Predecessor = LS of Successor

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS ES
22Duration LS
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring

32
ES Duration LS
32
10 4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

10
ES Duration LS ES Duration LS
18
EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF

## Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)
Multiple Successors : Least LS of Successors = LF of Predecessor

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)
Multiple Successors : Least LS of Successors = LF of Predecessor

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF
18
EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Late Start & Late Finish (Backward Pass)

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS
13 ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF
18
EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
0
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 10 36
Total Float (TF) =
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) =
Total Float (TF) =

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS
10 ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF
18
EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = Total Float (TF) =

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Calculating Total Float
Total Float = LF – EF (or LS – ES)

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS
13 ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF
18
EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 3 Total Float (TF) = 4 Total Float (TF) = 4

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
0
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 10 36
Total Float (TF) = 0
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) = 0
Total Float (TF) = 0

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS
10 ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF
18
EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 0 Total Float (TF) = 10

1-
Calculate the CPM

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS
13 ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF
18
EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 3 Total Float (TF) = 4 Total Float (TF) = 4

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
0
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 10 36
Total Float (TF) = 0
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) = 0
Total Float (TF) = 0

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS
10 ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF
18
EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 0 Total Float (TF) = 10

1-
Calculate the CPM
• Identify Critical Path

ID
2 Stud & Board 1 Side ID
3
M&E Rough in Wall ID
4Board 2 Side/Tape/Sand
nd

ES
10
Duration LS
13 ES
15Duration LS
19
ES
22Duration LS26
EF
15 5 LF
18
EF
22 7 LF
26
EF
28 6 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 3 Total Float (TF) = 4 Total Float (TF) = 4

ID
1M&E Rough in Ceiling ID
5 Painting
ES
0
Duration LS
0
ID
8 Flooring
ES Duration LS
32
32
10 18
4
ES Duration LS
EF LF 18 EF LF
10 10 36
Total Float (TF) = 0
EF
32 14 LF
32
36
Total Float (TF) = 0
Total Float (TF) = 0

ID
6 Framing Ceiling ID
7
Board Ceiling

ES
10
Duration LS
10 ES
18
Duration
28
LS

EF
18 8 LF
18
EF
22 4 LF
32
Total Float (TF) = 0 Total Float (TF) = 10

1-
Critical Path Displayed In Gantt Chart

1-
Critical Path Displayed in Network View

It’s now time to calculate the Backward Pass and identify the
Critical Path!

1-
Managing Float

## – if the contract is silent, then the float is usually

considered a commodity owned by the project
that can be used by either party

## • Identification and management of float on non-

critical activities can enable both parties to plan
and mitigate with potential project changes as
they arise

1-

## • Trauner Consulting Services, Inc.

Web video on Float. Note there are
numerous excellent videos at this
web site (next bullet) for you to
explore including the one on float:
• http://www.traunerconsulting.com/construc
• Trauner Consulting PM Videos\Construction

1-
Schedule Calendars
• Schedule Calendars determine the standard
working time and non-working time, such as
weekends and holidays, for the project

## • They are used to determine resource

availability, how resources assigned to tasks
are scheduled, and how tasks themselves
are scheduled

## • Calendars are used in scheduling tasks, and

if resources are assigned to tasks, Resource
Calendars are used as well

1-
Schedule Calendars
• Weather Calendar
– Buffer for inclimate weather

• Resource Calendar
– Sub-contractor / Supplier
• Individual working days per week
• Time sensitive (e.g. roofing, soft
landscaping, commissioning testing
chiller)
• Holidays e.g. Christmas

1-
Discussion Questions
• Will the Critical Path always be the same
once the baseline is established?
• Can there be more than one Critical Path?
• What conditions may cause the Critical
Path to change?
– Provide examples of real tangible Critical Path
– What caused these changes?
– What problems does this typically cause?
– How did you resolve them?
– List suggestions to minimize the changes in
the schedule, where possible

1-
Homework
Planning for next class
• Read “CPM for Construction Managers” Handout in the
Resources section
• Read Project Management E-Book: Chapter 1 Owners
Perspective http://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu/index.html
• Think about how you can implement one best practice that
was discussed today or a new one that you think of, try it this
coming week & come prepared to report on how it worked
• From a current project that you are working on, identify a
Critical Path task item that is technically complex and
requires a great deal of effort to manage.
– Come prepared to discuss the problem and how you plan to work
through it, including what type of support it may require.

1-

repeated!)

how?

1-