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Conceptual

Models of
Nursing Practice
Introduction to models - Holistic
Model, Health Belief Model, Health
Promotion Model

A conceptual model is defined as a

set of concepts, and statements


that integrate the concepts into a

Definition

meaningful

configuration.

Eg:

Theory of disease causation (Agent,


Host, Environment), Communication
Model, Maslows Hierrarchy needs.

Concepts Basic needs, Body temp, Smoking


habits

Poor environment may cause diseases to animal and


man.
Eg. Viral infection spreading from one to another

Concepts

Communication Process / Model


Environment

FEEDBACK
Statements: Simple
and clear message is essential for better
communication

Maslows Hierrarchy Needs

1. A

set

of

beliefs

and

values

(Philosophy Respect for humanity,


Treating patient as whole)

Componen
ts of
Nursing
Models

2. A statement of the goal the nurse is


trying to achieve (Objectives short
term and long term)
3. The knowledge and skills the nurse
needs to practise (Pearson et al,
1996).

Person

Central
Concepts
of all
Nursing
Models
(Fawcett,
1995)
(Nursing
Paradigm)

The

recipient

of

nursing

actions
Environment The recipients specific

surroundings
Health The wellness or illness state of

the recipient
Nursing Actions taken by nurses on

behalf

of

recipient

or

in

conjunction

with

Holistic nursing is a practice of


nursing that focuses on healing

Holistic
Model

the whole person.


This practice recognizes that a
person is not simply his or her
illness.

Holistic

Holistic
Model

healing

addresses

the

interconnectedness of the mind,


body,

spirit,

social/cultural,

emotions, relationships, context,


and environment.

All of these aspects combine to


create the person, so in order to

Holistic
Model

heal

the

person,

the

holistic

nurse looks at all aspects and


how they can affect the patient's
health.

The

field

combines

nursing

knowledge, theory, intuition, and

Holistic
Model

experience as a guide for building


a relationship with the patient to
increase
health.

healing

and

promote

Holistic

nurses

alternative

often

integrate

medicine

and

practices into their nursing care.

Holistic
Model

These

practices

address

the

patient's physical needs, as well


as

their

psychological

spiritual needs.

and

Holistic View

Holistic nursing doesn't try to


question the validity of traditional
medicine practices.

Holistic
Model

Instead, it tries to complement


and broaden them to better help
the patient during his or her
recovery.

Nurses use their own experiences


as a foundation for their care,

Holistic
Model

integrating

the

patient's

experiences, as well as social,


cultural, and spiritual values, to
treat the whole person rather
than just the illness.

Holistic also acknowledges that


relationships are everywhere, and
humans can affect other humans.

Holistic
Model

This concept is included in the


nurse's care plan, using self-care,
self-responsibility, and reflection
to help the patient get healthy.

Because holistic nurses focus on the


interconnectedness of the patient with his
or her world, it often leads the nurse to
have a deeper understanding of that

Holistic
Model

interconnectedness, as well as the nurse's


interconnectedness with his or her own
world.
The

nurse

can

then

use

that

understanding and awareness to better


care for the patient.

Due

to

the

nature

of

holistic

nursing, it is often considered way


more than a nursing practice.

Holistic
Model

It affects every aspect of the nurse,

even outside his or her job, and


becomes a philosophy and lifestyle.

Holistic
Model

A liberal arts or alternative


medicine background is very
beneficial to holistic nursing.
Both
give
a
well-rounded
foundation of education and
experience, which allows the
nurse to expand his or her mind,
increase critical thinking skills,
and grow on a personal level.

It includes nursing interventions such as


music

therapy,

massage

therapy,

laughter therapy, biofeed back, guided

Holistic
Model

imagery.
By having knowledge nurses can assist
their client in making choices to promote
health Quality care improves patients
satisfaction and Health.

This

model

explains

the

relationship between the persons

Health
Belief Model

belief and behaviour.


Developed by Rosenstoch in 1947
and Becker and Maiman in 1975.

This model helped to understand


clients

Health
Belief Model

behaviour

towards

his

health and also how he adjust


with
services.

interventions/

health

1. Individual perceptions

Health
Belief Model
Component
s

2. Individuals perception of the


seriousness of the illness
3. The likelihood of action
4. Nursing implication

It means how individual perceive

Health
Belief Model

Component
s 1.
Individual
perceptions

or feel about developing illness.


For

eg.,

from

past

two

generations, family member died


with DM. Now the offspring and
third generation may perceive
himself as susceptible to DM.

Health
Belief Model

Component
s 2.
Individuals
perception
of the
seriousness
of the
illness

It means how much serious is the


illness from which client suffer.
Such perception is influence by
the

psychological

factors,

complications/recovery of illness,
and advice of close relatives as
well as demographic factors.

Health
Belief Model

Component
s 3. The
likelihood of
action

Likelihood of action may be taking


preventive
control,

measures
diet

control,

(weight
regular

exercise, regular check up, life style


modifications) or barriers to take
action.

Health

Health
Belief Model

Component
s 4.
Nursing
Implication

belief

relationship

model

explains

between

the

clients

behaviour and beliefs.


It helps the nurses to understand
clients belief and perception about
health

which

will

help

her

in

preventing diseases and promoting


health of client.

This model was proposed by Pender


in 1982.

Health
Promotion
Model

It

defines

dynamic

health
state,

as

not

positive,

merely

the

absence of disease.
It means if client is not having
disease, we cannot say he is healthy.

Dynamic means changeable. Here the

Health
Promotion
Model

level of health is positive which may


vary.
Health promotion is proceeded to
promote clients level of wellbeing.

Health
Promotion
Model

Health promotion model describes the


multidimensional nature of persons as
they interact within their environment
to pursue health.

1. Clients cognitive perceptual factors

Health
Promotion
Model Three areas

2. Modifying factors
3. Participation in health promoting
behaviours

Health
Promotion
Model Three areas

1. Clients cognitive perceptual


factors:

It

means

what

perceives about own feelings.

client

Health
Promotion
Model Three areas

2. Modifying factors: Factors which


can

be

changed/flexible.

Such

as

demographic factors and social factors.

3.

Health
Promotion
Model Three areas

Participation

in

health

promoting behaviours: Action taken


towards health promotion.
This

model

explains

why

individuals/human beings are engaged


in health promotion acitivities.

Health
Promotion
Model Three areas

Nurses knowledge on this model


Helps

in

strengthening

the

clients

perception towards health promoting


factors.