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EVENTS BEFORE 1940

Minto Marley Reforms1909

Lucknow Pact 1916

Simon Commision 1927

Muhammad Ali Jinnahs 14 points 1929

Allama Iqbal Address 1930

Pakistan Resolution 1940

Crips Mission 1942

General Election 1945-1946

Cabinet Mission 1946

3rd June Plan 1947

ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE


EVENTS:

The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:

It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative


councils in India for the first time. Moreover the electorate was
limited to specific classes of Indian nationals.(Right of separate
electorate)

Jobs for Muslims

MINTO MARLEY REFORMS


1909:

When the All-India Muslim League came into existence, it was a


moderate organization.
Due to the decision of the British government to annul the partition
of Bengal, the Muslim leadership decided to change its stance.
In 1913, a new group of Muslim leaders, including Quaid e Azam,
who was already a member of Indian National Congress, entered
the folds of the Muslim League with the aim of bridging the gulf
between Muslims and Hindus. The Muslim League changed its
major objective and decided to join hands with the Congress in
order to put pressure on the British government.
It was the only time Congress stood by the side of Muslim league
resulting in cooperation during Khilafat movement and accepting
Muslim demands like Right of separate electorate.

LUCKNOW PACT 1916:

On 26th Novemeber , 1927 a commission was announced by British


Government under the Chairmenship of Sir John Simon . The
commission was charge in the duty of investigating Indian
constitutional Problem and Drop Recommendation for future action
. All members of commission were white people and no Indian was
Present in the commission . There was Negative Responce of
Indians Towards the commission and they received the
commission with slogan " Simon Go Back , Simon Go Back " .
Congress and Muslim League boycott the commission . It was
Published in 1930 namely Simon Report . It had 2 Volumes , first
deals with Indian problem and Second Deals with
Recommendation and Proposal .

SIMON COMMISION 1927:

All the people should be aware of their rights all the people have the freedom of religion freedom of sense.
All cabinets at central or local level should have at least 1/3 Muslim representation.
All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and
effectiverepresentation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or
even equality.
In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it
shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.
Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority.
Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be
guaranteed to all communities.
No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if threefourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill resolution.
Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan on the same footing
as in the other provinces.
Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all
the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection
and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their
due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.
No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third
Muslim ministers.
No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's
contribution of the Indian Federation.

14 POINT 1929:

The Allahabad Address, notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential
Address by Allama Iqbal to the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29
December 1930, at Allahabad, India. Here he presented the idea of a separate
homeland for Indian Muslims which was ultimately realized in the form of Pakistan."
[1]
Iqbal was the first person to officially announce the idea for a separate Muslim
nation. He was the pioneer for all the freedom movements.

I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan
amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire, or
without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim
State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West
India.

ALLAMA IQBAL ALLAHABA ADDRESS 1930

The people of Pakistan celebrate the 23rd of March, every year, with
great keenness and interest, to memorialize the most wonderful
success of the Muslims of South Asia who passed the historic
Pakistan Resolution on this day at Lahore in 1940. 23 March holds a
significant place in the history of PakistanIt was the day when Muslim
were recognized as a separate nation and basis of independent
homeland for Muslim was laid in which they can lead their lives
according to the teaching of Islam, follow their culture traditions and
own way of lives.
23 March In Pakistan History. March 23, 1940 commemorates the
passage of what was originally the Lahore Resolution (Qarardad i
Lahore) and later became better known as the Pakistan
Resolution (Qarardad i Pakistan). In 1941, this Lahore (Pakistan)
Resolution became part of the Muslim League constitution and in
1946 it became the basis of the demand for Pakistan.

PAKISTAN RESOLUTION 1940:

EVENTS FROM 1940 TO 1947


LAST SEVEN YEARS OF
THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT

PAKISTAN MOVEMENT
(1940-1947)
PAKISTAN RESOULTION(23rd March 1940)
CRIPPS MISSION(22nd March 1942)
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT(8th August 1942)
JINNAH- GANDHI TALKS(1944)
SIMLA CONFERENEC(May 1945)
GENERAL ELECTIONS TO CENTRAL AND
PROVENCAL LAGESLATURE(1945-1946)
CABINET MISSION PLAN(24th March 1946)
3RD JUNE PLAN (1947)
TWO NATION THEORY

PAKISTAN RESOLUTION (22-24TH MARCH 1940)

Annual session of All India Muslim League


22nd to 24th March at Iqbal park Lahore
Session was headed by Quaid-e-Azam
Quaid-e-Azam narrated the events from last few months and presented
his own solution of the Muslim problem.
In the words of Quaid-e-Azam Hindus and the Muslims belong to two
different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. they belong
to two different civilizations that are based mainly on conflicting ideas and
conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different.
Because of these reasons Muslim leadership felt the need for a separate
homeland for Muslims and made practical step for this need in form of
Pakistan Resolution.
Chief Minister of Bengal A.K Fazl-ul-Haq moved the historical resolution
known as
Pakistan resolution.

CRIPPS MISSION (March 1942)


Period of 2nd world war.
War was reaching Indian borders.
British's wanted people of sub-continent to stand with them in this war.
For this cooperation of Indians, some proposals were offered to them, by Sir
Stafford Cripps on behalf of British government. On March 22, 1942, Britain sent Sir
Stafford Cripps with constitutional proposals.
Proposals were:
1.General elections were held as the war ended.
2.India would be given dominion statue
3.Provinces not joining domination, could form their own separate union.
4.Minorities will be protected.
Congress and Muslim League rejected these proposals. Jinnah opposed the plan,
as it did not concede Pakistan. Thus the plan came to nothing

JINNAH GANDHI TALKS (1944)


The talks between the two leaders of the Sub-continent began in
response to the general publics desire for a settlement of HinduMuslim differences
The Gandhi-Jinnah talks began in Bombay on September 19, 1944,
and lasted till the 24th of the month.
Gandhis real purpose behind these talks was to extract from Jinnah
an admission that the whole proposition of Pakistan was absurd.

Quaid-i-Azam painstakingly explained the basis of the demand of Pakistan


On the other hand Gandhis meant, that power over the whole of India should first
be transferred to Congress, which thereafter would allow Muslim majority areas that
voted for separation to be constituted, not as independent sovereign state but as part
of an Indian federation
Gandhi contended that his offer gave the substance of the Lahore Resolution. Quaidi-Azam did not agree to the proposal and the talks ended.

SIMLA CONFERENCE (1945)


In May 1945, Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, went to London and
discussed his ideas about the future of India with the British
administration. The talks resulted in the formulation of a plan of action
that was made public in June 1945. The plan is known as Wavell
Plan.
The plan suggested reconstruction of viceroys Executive Council in
which viceroy was to select persons nominated by political parties.
To discuss these matters a conference was held at Simla on 25
June 1945, both the parties attended the conference.
However, differences arose between the leadership of the two parties on the issue of
representation of the Muslim community. The Muslim League claimed that it was the only
representative party of the Muslims in India and thus all the Muslim representatives in the Viceroys
Executive Council should be the nominees of the party. Congress, which had sent Maulana Azad as
the leader of their delegation, tried to prove that their party represented all the communities living in
India and thus should be allowed to nominate Muslim representative as well
Congress also opposed the idea of parity between the Cast-Hindus and the Muslims. All this
resulted in a deadlock
Finally, Wavell announced the failure of his efforts on July 14. Thus the Simla Conference couldnt
provide any hope of proceeding further

GENERAL ELECTIONS (1945-1946)


On 21st of August viceroy announced to hold the elections in central and provincial
legislature.
All India Muslim League contested with two elementary points that:
1. It represent all Indian Muslims
2. Pakistan is the only solution of Indian problem
Indian National Congress stood on two exactly opposed points that:
1)Congress represent all Indians
2)India will remain one country
All the political parties took active role in the election but results of the election,
announced at the end of Dec,1945, showed the existence of two parties, one
Congress
and
the
other
Muslim
League.
The
result
was
as
follows
:
the Congress secured 91.3 p.c. of the votes cast in non-Muhammadan
Constituencies and teh Muslim League secured 85.6 p.c. of the total votes cast in
Muhammadan
Constituencies.
the
final
figures
were
;
Congress-57, Muslim League-30, Independents-5, Akali Sikhs-2, and Europeans- 8,
making a total of 102 elected seats. Muslim League won 100% (30) seats in central
legislature while in Bengal 113/119, in Punjab 79/80 but in NWFP could not get
majority and won 17/86.

Interim Government of India

The interim government of India, formed on 2 September 1946. The


newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the
transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to independence.
The Viceroy's Executive Council became the executive branch of the
interim government. The powers of a prime minister bestowed on the vicepresident of the Council, a position held by the Congress leader
Jawaharlal Nehru. Upon the Muslim League joining the interim government,
the second highest-ranking League politician, Liaquat Ali Khan, became the
head of the Department of Finance. Abdur Rab Nishtar headed the
Departments of Posts and Air and Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar headed the
Department of Commerce.[7] The League nominated a Scheduled Caste
Hindu politician, Jogendra Nath Mandal, to lead the Department of Law.

CABINET MISSION 1946


All of the British government had failed to make a peace between the
two political parties congress and Muslim league.
After the election of 1945-46 the political parties wanted to find a solution of
political deadlock.
To solve this political deadlock, the British government sent a special
mission of Cabinet ministers to India.
Cabinet mission was proposed by Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir staffed
Cripps AND A.V Alexander.
Purpose of mission:
There would be a union of India comprising both British India and the Indian
States that would deal with foreign affairs, defense and communications. The
union would have an Executive and a Legislature.
All residuary powers would belong to the provinces.
All provinces would be divided into three sections. Provinces can be join of any
group after the first general elections.
There would also be an interim government having the support of the major
political parties

3RD JUNE PLANE 1947


In May 1947, Lord Mount Batten replaced by Lord Wavell as viceroy for India
with the plan of division of India.
The plan was finalized in the Governors Conference in April 1947, and was
then sent to Britain in May where the British Government approved it.
The plane was to divide the sub continent into Indo-Pak and was actually
authored by the congress and Muslim league.
Lord mount batten announced the plan in June 1947 . The plan was made
public on June 3rd, and is thus known as the June 3rd Plan.
THE MAIN CLAUSES OF PLANE ARE

The Provincial Legislative Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal were to meet in two groups,
i.e., Muslim majority districts and non-Muslim majority districts. If any of the two decided in
favor of the division of the province, then the Governor General would appoint a boundary
commission to demarcate the boundaries of the province on the basis of ascertaining the
contiguous majority areas of Muslims and non-Muslims.
The Legislative Assembly of Sindh (excluding its European Members) was to decide either
to join the existing Constituent Assembly or the New Constituent Assembly.

14TH AUGUST 1947:


INDEPENDENCE DAY

EXTRA INFORMATION

Allama Iqbal.

Muhammad Ali jinnah.

Choudhary Rahmat Ali.

NOTABLE QUOTATIONS:-

ALLAMA IQBAL:I would like to see the


Punjab, North-West
Frontier Province, Sind
and Baluchistan
amalgamated into a single
State. Self-government
within the British Empire,
or without the British
Empire, the formation of a
consolidated North-West
Indian Muslim State
appears to me to be the
final destiny of the
Muslims, at least of NorthWest India.

MUHAMMAD ALI
JINNAH:It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu
friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and
Hinduism. They are not religious in the strict sense of the
word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders,
and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever
evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of
one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to
destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The
Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious
philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither
intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they
belong to two different civilizations which are based
mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect
on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus
and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different
sources of history. They have different epics, different
heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one
is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and
defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under
a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other
as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final
destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the
government of such a state."

CHOUDHARY
RAHMAT ALI:The famous 1933 pamphlet, also
known as the Pakistan Declaration,
started with a famous statement:
At this solemn hour in the history
of India, when British and Indian
statesmen are laying the
foundations of a Federal
Constitution for that land, we
address this appeal to you, in the
name of our common heritage, on
behalf of our thirty million Muslim
brethren who live in PAKISTAN by
which we mean the five Northern
units of India, Viz: Punjab, NorthWest Frontier Province (Afghan
Province), Kashmir, Sind and
Baluchistan.

Thank you jinnah for giving us


peaceful Homeland

Why was India partitioned?


Demand for Pakistan by the Muslim League

All India Muslim League Working Committee,


Lahore session, March 1940

Why was India partitioned?

JINNAH & GANDHI

Nehru & Gandhi

THE TWO-NATION THEORY

MAP OF INDIA WITH DISTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS


(1909)

EMERGENCE OF MUSLIM SEPARATISM IN UP


1800

1850

1875

1900

1920

1940
Hindu Mahasabha
+ Muslim League

Political
changes:
Admin
reforms

Political
competitio
n: HinduPopular Religious
Hindi vs.
Nationalism
MuslimUrdu
Economic changes:
-Railways Trade
Emergence of
Wealthy Hindu
Elite Hindu and
merchant castes
Muslim
Social changes:
Nationalism
- Beginnings of
Western
education
through govt
colleges
Dominance of Muslims
Rise of Hindu elite

TWO VIEWS ON
MUSLIM SEPARATISM

* ROLE OF THE BRITISH *

DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN INDIA, 1909

DISTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS IN INDIA, 1909

LARGEST POPULATION MOVEMENT IN RECORDED HISTORY:


12.5 MILLION PEOPLE

A CROWD OF MUSLIMS AT THE OLD FORT (PURANA QILA) IN DELHI, WHICH HAD BEEN CONVERTED
INTO A VAST CAMP FOR MUSLIM REFUGEES WAITING TO BE TRANSPORTED TO PAKISTAN.
MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, 27 SEPTEMBER 1947

DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES IN INDIA, 1909

TRAIN TO PAKISTAN, A RAILWAY STATION IN PUNJAB

ESTIMATES RANGE UP TO 1 MILLION KILLED IN PARTITION VIOLENCE

LORD MOUNTBATTEN AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF THE COUNT-DOWN TO INDIAN


INDEPENDENCE

LORD MOUNTBATTEN, LAST VICEROY OF INDIA

YOUNG REFUGEE SITS ATOP A WALL IN PURANA QUILA (OLD


FORT)IN DELHI, TRANSFORMED INTO A VAST REFUGEE CAMP

Refugee Rehabilitation
India-Pakistan relations

LEGACY OF PARTITION

DIVIDING GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS