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Some tools for


The bible is the product of

numerous editing by various
authors and traditions. Still, it
is dabated on the delineation
of each too, for exegenis.

Textual Critisism
It seeks to find the closest translation of the biblical text to the
original manuscript by investigating and comparing the
numerous variations and modifications of the biblical text
through time and tradition.
It involve the two main processes:
*Recension- the selection (after examination) of the most
trustworthy evidence on which to base a text.
*Emendation- the attempt to eliminate errors which are found
even in the best manuscripts.

The application editing the text was developed by three German

scholars, Federich Wolf, one of the founders of the classical
philosophy, Immanuel Bekker and Karl Lachmann.

Consideration: textual Criticism requires knowledge and expertise of the

original languages, namely, Near Eastern Languages of the Old
Testament and the mastery of Hebrew, Aramaic,