Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

LORAN C

NAVIGATIO
N

Loran C

LORAN-C is a
hyperbolic
navigation system.
Operates by measuring
time distance of arrival
of signals from a pair
of
synchronised
transmitters.
By using two pairs
of transmitters a
fix can be obtained.

LO P s

T r a n s m itte r 1
E x te n d e d
B a s e lin e

T r a n s m itte r 2

Loran C

A navigation system that was developed


by the US Coast Guard.
The system is comprised of transmission
stations located around the world.
The Loran-C signal is transmitted from
these stations at specified intervals.
By measuring the time delay between
transmissions a user can determine their
position relative to the towers.

Loran C

The LORAN-C concept is based on groups or


chains of stations around the world.
Worldwide there are 28 chains.
Each chain consists of one master station
and
4 6 secondary stations in a geographic area
The master station of each chain broadcasts a
continuous string of Low Frequency pulses
(measures in microseconds).
The unique time between the start and stop
of each pulse identifies the particular chain.

DIAGRAM

1.1
A and B - transmitting
stations
Curved lines- TD lines
or Time Difference

DIAGRAM

1.2

Loran C Frequency

100kHz centre frequency


99% of power within 90-110kHz

The Loran-C signal is transmitted on a 100kHz carrier.

Loran C Timing

Up to three commercial cesiumatomic


clocksare used to generate 5MHz andpulse
per second (or 1Hz) signals that are used by
timing equipment to generate the various
GRI-dependent drive signals for the
transmitting equipment.

Cesium Atomic Clocks

Phase Coding

where a minus sign indicates an inverted pulse


(180 phase shift)
and a plus sign means no phase shift.
This pattern is repeated every two GRI's.
Simply stated,phase coding determines whether
the first peak in the pulse is upwardsor
downwards.

Loran C Pulses

50

100

150

T im in g s f r o m 3 r d z e r o - c r o s s in g ( 3 0 S )

200

Accuracy

Unlike GPS, LORAN-C accuracy depends


on receiver location with respect to
transmitters
Best on baseline between master and
slave because LOPs are closer here
LORAN accuracy is also best over water
during the day.
Conversely it is least accurate over land
masses at night (sky waves more intense
at night).

Types of Accuracy:

Repeatable Accuracy- ability to return to a


pre-set position for LORAN-C is .01 NM or 60ft.

Absolute Accuracy- ability of the receiver to


determine its position independently is
generally within at least 3 NM for distances
up to 2,800 NM.

Chayka

Chayka was developed by USSR (Russia)


Similar to LORAN-C
Same frequency but different pulse shape
Russian Chayka chains also remain
operational
West Russia chain available in Eastern
Europe
Some Loran-C receivers also use
Chayka signals

Former NELS Chains

B e rle v g

Jan M ayen
B

P e tro z a v o d s k
E i i

V r la n d e t

S y lt

S lo n im

K a ra c h e v

R ugby

Lessay

S o u s to n s

S im fe r o p o l

Former NELS & Chayka Chains

Loran C Stations
and their Respective
Chains

US EAST COAST CHAIN 1957 1965


S-0/1957 1962
SL-0/1962 - 1965

MARTHAS VINEYARD
41 20N 70 49W
1957 - 1962

Y
CHAIN CODE NAME: CLOSE

NANTUCKET
1962 - Present
41 15 11.93N
Y
69 58 38.76W
Replaced Marthas Vineyard
CAROLINA BEACH
1957 - Present
34 03 46.36N
77 54 46.19W
First Proven Loran System
Status Experimental until 1962
Operational 1962

JUPITER INLET
1957 - Present
27 01 59.09N
80 06 52.92W
Station relocated approx 2 miles
north 1962

US EAST COAST CHAIN 1966 - 1978


SS0/1966 1969
SS7/1969 1975
9930/1975 1978

7930-Z

NANTUCKET
1962 Present
41 15 11.930N Y
DANA
1967 Present 69 58 39.090W
39 51 07.540N
87 29 12.140W
Z

M
CAROLINA BEACH
1957 Present
34 03 46.040N
77 54 46.760W

EGLIN
30 35 05.518N
86 36 54.470W

X
CAPE RACE
1966 Present
46 46 32.180N
53 10 28.160W
BERMUDA
32 15 53.261N
64 52 34.270W

W
JUPITER INLET
1957 Present
27 01 58.490N
80 06 53.520W

NOTE:
WILDWOOD used as temp
Master or Slave T
CARIBOU USED as Slave S

U.S. NORTHEAST COAST CHAIN


9960/1978 - Present

SENECA
1978 Present
42 42 50.603N
76 49 33.862W

PLUMBROOK
41 21 45N
82 38 52W
8970-M

MAYPORT
30 22 58.253N
81 25 13.314W

W
CAPE ELIZABETH
43 34N 70 12W
5930-X
X

Z
7980-Z

5930-M

8970-X

DANA
1966 Present
39 51 07.540N
87 29 12.140W

CARIBOU
1978 Present
46 48 27.199N
67 55 37.713W

SANDY HOOK
40 28 17N
74 01 05W
CAROLINA BEACH
1957 Present
34 03 46.040N
77 54 46.760W

NANTUCKET
1962 Present
41 15 11.930N
69 58 39.090W

CANADIAN EAST COAST CHAIN

5930/1980 - PRESENT
FOX HARBOR
1984 - PRESENT

9960-X

NANTUCKET
41 15 11.93N
69 58 39.09W
1980 - PRESENT

7930-W

CARIBOU
46 48 27.199N
67 55 37.713W
1980 - PRESENT
9960-W

7930-M

CAPE RACE
46 46 32.18N
53 10 28.16
1980 PRESENT

LABRADOR SEA CHAIN


7930/1984 - 1994
X

ANGISSOQ
59 59 17.27N
45 10 27.47W

FOX HARBOR
52 22 35.252N
55 42 27.862W
7930-Z

5930-Y

CAPE RACE
46 46 32.286N
53 10 27.606W

NEWFOUNDLAND EAST COAST CHAIN


7270/1995 - Present

5930-Z

COMFORT COVE
49 19 53.57N
54 51 42.57W

X
FOX HARBOR
52 22 35.252N
55 42 27.862W

CAPE RACE
46 46 32.286N
53 10 27.606W
M
W
5930-Y

NORWEGIAN SEA CHAIN


SL-6/1959 1964
SL-0/1964 1966
SL-3/1966 1975
7970/ 1975 - 1994

Chain Code Name: RAIL


ON AIR Mar 1960

SANDUR, ICELAND
1959 1994
54 26.580N 23 55 21.750W

BO, NORWAY
1959 1994
68 38 06.150N
14 27 47.000E

JAN MAYEN
1959 - 1994
70 54 52.610N
08 43 58.690W

M
SL-7-W
7930-W
9980-M

SL-7-X (1996-75)
7930-X (1975-83)
9980-X (1984-94)

EJDE, FAEROES
1959 1994
62 17 59.680N 07 04
26.710W
SHETLAND
60 26 25.347N
W 01 18 05.220W

SYLT, GERMANY
1964 1994
54 48 29.800N 08 17 36.330E

NORWEGIAN SEA CHAIN 29 MAR 1962 SL-6


29 Mar 1962
Ejde tower collapased

Chain Code Name: RAIL


ON AIR Mar 1960

JAN MAYEN
1959 - 1994
70 54 52.610N
08 43 58.690W

SANDUR, ICELAND
1959 1994
64 54 26.580N 23 55
21.750W

BO, NORWAY
1959 1994
68 38 06.150N
14 27 47.000E

NORTH ATLANTIC CHAIN 1966 1983


SL-7/1966 1975
7930/1975 - 1983

ST ANTHONY
51 21 37N
55 37 28W
CAPE RACE
1966 1983
46 46 32.180N
53 10 28.160W

Z
SS-0-X (1966-69)
SS-7-X (1969-75)

SL-3-Y
7970-Y

SANDUR
1959 1983
64 54 26.580N
23 55 21.750W W
ANGISSOQ
1966 1983
59 59 17.270N
45 10 27.470W

KEFLAVIK
63 57 26N
SL-3-M
22 43 29W

7970-M

EJDE
1959 1983
62 17 59.680N
07 04 26.710W

ICELANDIC CHAIN 1984 - 1994


9980/1984 - 1994
SANDUR
64-54-26.58N
23-55-21.75W
M
7930-X

W
X
ANGISSOQ
59-59-17.27N
45-10-27,47W

EJDE
62-17-59.68N
07-04-26.71W

7970-M

MEDITERRANEAN CHAIN
SL-4/1959 1966
SL-1/1967 1975
7990/1975 - 1994

Chain Code Name: TACK


Construction started DEC 58ON AIR AUG 59

SARDINIA
39 10 51.348N
09 09 35.020E

KARGABARUM, TURKEY
AKA: TUSLOG DET 52
AKA: TARGABARUM
1959 1993*
40 58 20.950N
27 52 01.520E
SL-4/X

SL1-7990/Y
ESTARTIT, SPAIN
Oct 1961 Dec
1994
42 03 36.490N
03 12 15.900E

X
LAMPEDUSA
AUG 1972 - DEC 1994
35 31 20.880N
12 31 29.960E

SL-4/Y
SL-1/X

SELLIA MARINA, ITALY


AKA: SIMERI CRICHI
1959 1994
38 52 20.610N
16 43 05.960E
RHODES
36 25
20.746N
28 09
31.920E

MATRATIN, LIBYA
1959-1970
30 36N 18 24E

GREAT LAKES CHAIN

8290-W

Y
BAUDETTE
1978 Present*
48 36 49.947N
94 33 17.915W

BOISE CITY
1980 - Present

MUSKEGON
43 13N 86 16W

8970/1980 - Present
SENECA
1978 Present
42 42 50.603N
76 49 33.862W
9960-M

MABLEHEAD
41 32N 82 43W

DANA
1967 Present
39 51 07.540N
87 29 12.140W
9960-Z

W
Z
9610-M
(1991)

ELGIN
30 35 05.518N
86 36 54.470W

MAYPORT
30 22 58.253N
81 25 13.314W
MALONE
1978 Present
30 59 38.740N
85 10 09.305W
7980-M

5990-M

US NORTH CENTRAL
WILLIAMS LAKE
51 57 58.876N
122 22 01.686W

8290/1991-PRESENT

Y
HAVRE
48 44 38.589N
109 58 53.613W
M

BAUDETTE
48 36 49.947N
94 33 17.915WW

X
GILLETTE
44 00 11.305N
105 37 23.895W
9610-V

8970-Y

US SOUTH CENTRAL
GILLETTE
44 00 11.305N
105 37 23.895W

8290-X

9940-Y

9610/1991 - PRESENT

BOISE CITY
36 30 20.783N
102 53 59.487W
8970-Z
M

W
SEARCHLIGHT
35 19 18.305N
114 48 16.881W

GRANGEVILLE
30 43 33.018
90 49 43.600W
X
Z

LAS CRUCES
32 04 18.130N
106 52 04.388W

Y
RAYMONDVILLE
26 31 55.006
97 50 00.093
7980-X

7980-W

SOUTHEAST US CHAIN
7980/1978 - Present
MALONE
1978 Present
30 59 38.740N
85 10 09.305W

GRANGEVILLE
1978 Present
30 43 33.018N
90 49 43.600W

Z
CAROLINA BEACH
1957 Present
34 03 46.040N
77 54 46.760W

8970-W

9610-Z

9960-Y

SABINE PASS
29 40N 93 50W
EGLIN
30 35 05.518N
86 36 54.470W

9610-Y X

RAYMONDVILLE
1978 Present
26 31 55.006
97 50 00.093

MAYPORT
30 22 58.253N
81 25 13.314W

JUPITER
1957 Present
27 01 58.490N
80 06 53.520W

US WEST COAST CHAINa


9940/1977 - Present

5990-Y

NORTH BEND
43 24 36.210N
124 14 27.920W

X
MIDDLETOWN
1977 Present
38 46 56.990N
122 29 44.529W

GEORGE
1977 Present
47 03 47.990N
119 44 39.530W

FALLON
1977 Present
39 33 06.620N
118 49 56.370W

Y
PT PINOS
36 37 59.020N
121 56 05.580W

9610-W

SEARCHLIGHT
1977 Present
35 19 18.305N
114 48 16.881W

CANADIAN WEST COAST

JUNEAU
58 17 54.847N
134 24 45.369W
7960-Y

5990/1977 - PRESENT

SHOAL COVE
55 26 20.940N
131 15 19.094W
X
WILLIAMS LAKE
51 57 58.876N
122 22 01.686W
M

PORT HARDY
50 36 29.830N
127 21 28.489W

GEORGE
1977 PRESENT
47 03 47.990
119 44 39.530W

8290-Y
Z

ALBERT BAY
50 35 10.0N
126 54 39.0W
NORTH BEND
43 24 36.210
124 14 27.920

Y
9940-W

GULF OF ALASKA
7960/1977 - Present
KODIAK Monitor
57 44 00.703N
152 30 20.356W

NARROW CAPE
1977 1990
KODIAK
1990 - Present
57 26 20.210N
152 22 11.219W
X

TOK
1977 Present
63 19 42.810N
142 48 31.900W
M
JUNEAU
58 17 54.847N
134 24 45.369

Y
SHOAL COVE
1977 Present
55 26 20.850N
131 15 19.850
5990-X

9990-Z

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN


SL2/1960 1969
SH-7/1969 1975
5930/1975 1977
9990/1977 - Present

AKA: Bering Sea Chain early 60s

PORT CLARENCE
1961 Present
65 14 40.120N
166 53 14.470W

7960-X

SL-2/Z
SH-7/Y
5930/Y
9990/Y

KODIAK Monitor
57 44 00.703N
152 30
20.356W

M
SL-2/Y
SH-7/X
5930/X
9990/X
ATTU
1960 Present
52 49 45.050N
173 10 52.310W

NARROW CAPE
1977 1990
KODIAK
1990 - Present
57 26 20.210N
152 22 11.219W

ST PAUL
1960 Present
57 09 09.880N
170 14 59.810W

9990/Z
SL-2/X
SH-7/Z
5930/Z

SITKINAK
1960 1977
56 32N 154 08W

NORTHWEST PACIFIC CHAIN

ain reconfigured Mar 64 Dec 64 due to


wers failure at Iwo and Yap. Again in 1981 for tower maintenance @ Iwo.

GESASHI
1964 1993
26 36 24.990N
128 08 56.210E
7930 X-RAY
Y

SAIPAN
15 07 47.115N
145 41 37.620W

YAP
1964 1987
09 32 45.660N
138 09 55.230E

KAMISEYA
35 29 11.555N
139 29 25.120E

HOKKAIDO
1964 1993
42 44 37.000N
143 43 09.060E
7930 YANKEE

W
IWO JIMA
1964 1993
24 48 04.100N
141 19 28.999E

SS-3/1964-1975
9970/1975-1981
7930/1981(IWO O/A
9970/1981-1993

BARRIGADA
1987 - 1993

MARCUS*
1964 1993
24 17 07.700N
153 58 51.500E
*Master when
Iwo off air

CENTRAL PACIFIC CHAIN


AKA: Hawaii Chain early 60s

FRENCH FRIGATE
23 52 23.066N
166 17 19.600W

Y
KURE ISLAND
1961 1992
28 23 41.770N
178 17 30.200W

85
0

M
IL

SH-4/1961-1969
S-1/1969-1975
4990/1975-1992

UPOLA POINT
1961 1992
20 14 49.160N
155 53 09.700W
X

ES

I L ES
M
802

JOHNSTON ISLAND
1961 1992
16 44 43.950N
169 30 31.200W

SOUTHEAST ASIA CHAIN


S3/1966 - 1969
SH-3/1969 - 1975

iles
3m
35

LAMPANG
1966 1975
18 20N 99 23E

UDORN
1966 1975
MONITOR

TAN MY
1969 1975
16 33N 107 39E

7m
40

SATTAHIP
1966 1975
12 37N 100 58E

s
ile

CONSON
1966 1975
08 43N 106 38E