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# DATA MINING

ALGORITHMES

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INTENSIONS

## Define classification problem using map and

illustrate with examples.

## What are the different techniques to classify the

data into classes

## List the approach in classification.

What are common methods to define classes?
Give suitable examples.

## What are the different issues faced in doing

classification of data?

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CLASSIFICATION
PROBLEM
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CLASSIFICATION PROBLEM
Given a database D={t1,t2,,tn} and a set of
classes C={C1,,Cm}, the Classification
Problem is to define a mapping f: DC
where each ti is assigned to one class.
Actually divides D into equivalence
classes.
Prediction is similar, but may be viewed as
4having infinite number of classes.
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CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLES
Teachers classify students grades as A,
B, C, D, or F.
Identify mushrooms as poisonous or
edible.
Predict when a river will flood.
Identify individuals with credit risks.
Speech recognition
Pattern recognition
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CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE:
MARKS
x

<90

## If x >= 90 then grade =A.

If 70<=x<80 then grade =C. <80
x
<70
x
<50
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>=90

A
>=80
B

>=70
C

>=60
D

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CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE
Letter Recognition
View letters as constructed from 5 components:

Letter A

Letter B

Letter C

Letter D

Letter E

Letter F
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CLASSIFICATION
TECHNIQUES
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CLASSIFICATION
TECHNIQUES
Regression
Distance
Decision Trees
Rules
Neural Networks
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CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES
Approach:
Create specific model by evaluating
training data (or using domain experts
knowledge)
Apply model developed to new data.

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CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES
Classes must be predefined
Most common techniques use DTs, NNs,
or are based on distances or statistical
methods.

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DEFINE CLASSES
Distance Based

Partitioning Based

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ISSUES IN CLASSIFICATION
View letters as constructed from 5
components:
Missing Data
1. Ignore
2. Replace with assumed value
Measuring Performance
1. Classification accuracy on test data
2. Confusion matrix
133. OC Curve
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INTENSIONS

## How one can find the performance that can be

measured to do the classification of data?

## Explain Operating Characteristic curve.

Define confusion matrix.
How regression is used to classify the data?
What are the two different approaches in
classification using regression?

## How correlation is used in classification of data?

What is Bayes theorem?
Explain with example.
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PERFORMANCE
MEASURE
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## HEIGHT EXAMPLE DATA

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MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN
CLASSIFICATION
C j is a specific class and t I is a database
tuple, may or may not be assigned to that
class while its actual membership may or
may not be in mat class. This gives four
parts as shown below:

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MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN
CLASSIFICATION

## 1.True Positive: t i predicted to be in c j and is

actually in it.
2. False Positive : t i predicted to be in c j but
is not actually in it.
3. True Negative : t I not predicted to be in c j
and is not actually in it.
4. False Negative : t i not predicted to be in
18c j but actually in it.
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CLASSIFICATION
PERFORMANCE

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True Positive

False Negative

False Positive

True Negative
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OPERATING CHARECTERISTIC
CURVE
It shows the relation ship between false
positives and true positives
OC curve was originally used to examine
false alarm rates.

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OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC
CURVE

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CONFUSION MATRIX
It illustrates the accuracy of solution to a
classification problem
Definition:
Given m classes, a confusion matrix is an m
by m matrix where each entry indicates the
number of tuples from D that were assigned
to class C j but where correct class is C i
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CONFUSION MATRIX
EXAMPLE
Using height data example with Output 1
correct and Output 2 actual assignment

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STATISTICAL
BASED
ALGORITHMS
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REGRESSION
Assume data fits a predefined function
Determine best values for regression
coefficients c 0,c1,,cn.
Linear Regression:
y = c0+ c1x1++ cnxn
Assume an error: y = c0+ c1x1++ cnxn+ e
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Linear Regression

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## LINEAR REGRESSION : Poor Fit

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CLASSIFICATION USING
REGRESSION
Division: Use regression function to
divide area into regions.
Prediction: Use regression function to
predict a class membership function.
Input includes desired class.

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DIVISION

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PREDICTION

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CORRELATION
Examine the degree to which the
values for two variables behave
similarly.
Correlation coefficient r:
1 = perfect correlation
-1 = perfect but opposite correlation
0 = no correlation
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BAYES THEOREM
Posterior Probability: P(h1|xi)
Prior Probability: P(h1)
Bayes Theorem:

data value.
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## BAYES THEOREM EXAMPLE

Credit authorizations (hypotheses):
h1=authorize purchase, h2 = authorize after
further identification, h3=do not authorize,
h4= do not authorize but contact police
Assign twelve data values for all
combinations of credit and income:

## From training data: P(h1) = 60%;

P(h2)=20%; P(h3)=10%; P(h4)=10%.
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Bayes Example(contd)
Training Data:

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INTENSIONS

distances.

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## Explain KNN in detail

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DISTANCE BASED
ALGORITHM
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SIMILARITY MEASURES
Determine similarity between two objects.
Similarity characteristics:

## Alternatively, distance measure measure

how unlike or dissimilar objects are.

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SIMILARITY MEASURES
Similarity characteristics:

Sim( t i, t i ) = 1
SIMILARITY
Sim( t i, t j ) = 0
No SIMILARITY

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SIMILARITY MEASURES

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CLASSIFICATION USING
DISTANCE
Place items in class to which they are
closest

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CLASSIFICATION USING
DISTANCE
Must determine distance between an item
and a class.

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DISTANCE MEASURES
Measure dissimilarity between objects

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CLASSIFICATION USING
DISTANCE
Classes represented by
1. Centroid: Central value.
2. Medoid: Representative point.
3. Individual points
Algorithm: KNN
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## K-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR (KNN)

Training set includes classes.
Examine K items near item to be
classified.
New item placed in class with the most
number of close items.
O(q) for each tuple to be classified.
(Here q is the size of the training set.)
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KNN

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KNN ALGORITHM

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DECISION TREE
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DECISION TREE
Tree where the root and each internal
node is labeled with a question.
The arcs represent each possible
Each leaf node represents a
prediction of a solution to the
problem.
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DECISION TREE
Popular technique for classification;
Leaf node indicates class to which the
corresponding tuple belongs.

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## DECISION TREE: Example

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DECISION TREE
Given:
D = {t1, , tn} where ti=<ti1, , tih>
Database schema contains
{A1, A2, , Ah}
Classes C={C1, ., Cm}

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DECISION TREE
Decision or Classification Tree is a tree
associated with D such that
Each internal node is labeled with
attribute, Ai
Each arc is labeled with predicate
which can be applied to attribute at
parent

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Cj
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## DECISION TREES MODEL

A Decision Tree Model is a
computational model consisting of
three parts:
Decision Tree
Algorithm to create the tree
Algorithm that applies the tree to
data
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## DECISION TREES MODEL

Creation of the tree is the most
difficult part.
Processing is basically a search
similar to that in a binary search tree
(although DT may not be binary).
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## Decision Tree Algorithm

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DIRECTED TREE :
Easy to understand.
Easy to generate rules

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DIRECTED TREE :
May suffer from over fitting.
Classifies by rectangular partitioning.
Does not easily handle nonnumeric
data.
Can be quite large pruning is
necessary.
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CLASSIFICATION USING
DECISION TREE
Partitioning based: Divide search
space into rectangular regions.
Tuple placed into class based on the
region within which it falls.
DT approaches differ in how the tree is
built: DT Induction
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CLASSIFICATION USING
DECISION TREE
Internal nodes associated with attribute
and arcs with values for that attribute.
Algorithms: ID3, C4.5, CART

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DT INDUCTION

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DT SPLIT AREA

Gender

M
F
Height

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COMPARING DTs

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Balanced

Deep
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DT ISSUES
Choosing Splitting Attributes
Ordering of Splitting Attributes
Splits
Tree Structure
Stopping Criteria
Training Data
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## Decision Tree Induction is often based

on Information Theory
So

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INFORMATION

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DT INDUCTION
When all the marbles in the bowl are
mixed up, little information is given.
When the marbles in the bowl are all
from one class and those in the other
two classes are on either side, more
information is given.
Use this approach with DT Induction !
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ARTIFICIAL NEURAL
NETWORK (ANN)
ANN is an information processing
paradigm that is inspired by the way
brain process information.
Composed of a large number of highly
interconnected
processing
elements
called neurones.
ANNs, like people, learn by example.
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ARTIFICIAL NEURAL
NETWORK (ANN)
Learning in biological systems involves
that exist between the neurones.
This is true of ANNs as well.

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Cont..

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## HOW HUMAN BRAIN LEARNS?

In the human brain, a typical neuron
collects signals from others through a
host of fine structures called dendrites.
The neuron sends out spikes of electrical
activity through a long, thin stand known
as an axon, which splits into thousands
of branches.

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## HOW HUMAN BRAIN LEARNS?

At the end of each branch, a structure
called a synapse converts the activity from
the axon into electrical effects that inhibit
or excite activity from the axon into
electrical effects that inhibit or excite
activity in the connected neurones.
Learning
occurs
by
changing
the
effectiveness of the synapses so that the
influence of one neuron on another
changes.
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A SIMPLE NEURON

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NEURAL NETWORKS
Based on observed functioning of
human brain.
(Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
The first artificial neuron was
produced
in
1943
by
the
neurophysiologist Warren McCulloch
and the logician Walter Pits.

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NEURAL NETWORKS
Our view of neural networks is very
simplistic.
We view a neural network (NN) from a
graphical viewpoint.
Used in pattern recognition, speech
recognition, computer vision, and
classification.
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## NEURAL NETWORKS: Example

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NEURAL NETWORKS
It is a directed graph F=<V,A> with vertices
V={1,2,,n} and arcs A={<i,j>|1<=i,j<=n},
with the following restrictions:
V is partitioned into a set of input nodes, V I,
hidden nodes, VH, and output nodes, VO.

## The vertices are also partitioned into

layers
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NEURAL NETWORKS
Any arc <i,j> must have node i in layer
h-1 and node j in layer h.
Arc <i,j> is labeled with a numeric value
wij.
Node i is labeled with a function fi.

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NN NODE

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## NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

It is a computational model consisting of
Three parts:

## Neural Network graph

Learning algorithm that indicates
how learning takes place.
Recall techniques that determine
how information is obtained from the
network.
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Learning
Can continue learning even after training
set has been applied.
Easy parallelization
Solves many problems

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Difficult to understand
May suffer from overfitting
Structure of graph must be determined a
priori.
Input values must be numeric.
Verification difficult.

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CLASSIFICATION USING
NEURAL NETWORKS
Typical NN structure for classification:
1. One output node per class
2.Output value is class membership
function value
Supervised learning
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CLASSIFICATION USING
NEURAL NETWORKS
For each tuple in training set, propagate it
through NN. Adjust weights on edges to
improve future classification.
Algorithms: Propagation, Back
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NN ISSUES
Number of source nodes
Number of hidden layers
Training data
Number of sinks
Interconnections
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NN ISSUES
Weights
Activation Functions
Learning Technique
When to stop learning
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## DECISION TREE VS. NEURAL

NETWORK

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PRPOGATION

Tuple Input
Output

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NN PROPOGATION ALGORITHM

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EXAMPLE PROPOGATION

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RULES
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## CLASSIFICATION USING RULES

Perform classification using If-Then
rules
Classification Rule: r = <a,c>
Antecedent, Consequent
May generate from from other
techniques (DT, NN) or generate
directly.
Algorithms: Gen, RX, 1R, PRISM
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DTs

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1R ALGORITHM

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1R EXAMPLE

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PRISM ALGORITHM

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PRISM EXAMPLE

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## DECISION TREE VS. RULES

Tree has implied
order in which
splitting is
performed.
Tree created
based on looking
at all classes.

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Rules have no
ordering of
predicates.
Only need to look
at one class to
generate its rules.

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INTENSIONS

Clustering Examples
Segment customer database based on
Group houses in a town into
neighborhoods based on similar features.
Identify new plant species
Identify similar Web usage patterns

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CLUSTERING
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CLUSTERING : Example

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CLUSTERING HOUSES

Geographic
Size
Distance
Based Based
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## Clustering vs. Classification

No prior knowledge
Number of clusters
Meaning of clusters

Unsupervised learning

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Clustering Issues
Outlier handling
Dynamic data
Interpreting results
Evaluating results
Number of clusters
Data to be used
Scalability
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Impact of Outliers on
Clustering

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Clustering Problem
Given a database D={t1,t2,,tn} of tuples
and an integer value k, the Clustering
Problem is to define a mapping f:D{1,..,k}
where each ti is assigned to one cluster Kj,
1<=j<=k.
A Cluster, Kj, contains precisely those
tuples mapped to it.
Unlike classification problem, clusters are
not known a priori.
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Types of Clustering
Hierarchical Nested set of clusters
created.
Partitional One set of clusters created.
Incremental Each element handled one
at a time.
Simultaneous All elements handled
together.
Overlapping/Non-overlapping
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Clustering Approaches
Clustering

Hierarchical

Agglomerative

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Partitional

Divisive

Categorical

Sampling

Large DB

Compression

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Cluster Parameters

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## Distance Between Clusters

Single Link: smallest distance between points
points
points
Centroid: distance between centroids

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Hierarchical Clustering
Clusters are created in levels actually creating
sets of clusters at each level.
Agglomerative
Initially each item in its own cluster
Iteratively clusters are merged together
Bottom Up

Divisive
Initially all items in one cluster
Large clusters are successively divided
Top Down
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Hierarchical Algorithms

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Dendrogram
Dendrogram: a tree data
structure which illustrates
hierarchical clustering
techniques.
Each level shows clusters for
that level.
Leaf individual clusters
Root one cluster

## A cluster at level i is the union

of its children clusters at level
i+1.
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Agglomerative Example
A B C D E
A

D
Threshold of
1 2 34 5

A B C D E
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MST Example
A

A B C D E

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Agglomerative Algorithm

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View all items with links (distances)
between them.
Finds maximal connected components
in this graph.
Two clusters are merged if there is at
least one edge which connects them.
Uses threshold distances at each level.
Could be agglomerative or divisive.
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Partitional Clustering
Nonhierarchical
Creates clusters in one step as opposed
to several steps.
Since only one set of clusters is output,
the user normally has to input the desired
number of clusters, k.
Usually deals with static sets.
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Partitional Algorithms
MST
Squared Error
K-Means
Nearest Neighbor
PAM
BEA
GA
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K-Means
Initial set of clusters randomly chosen.
Iteratively, items are moved among sets
of clusters until the desired set is
reached.
High degree of similarity among
elements in a cluster is obtained.
Given a cluster Ki={ti1,ti2,,tim}, the
cluster mean is mi = (1/m)(ti1 + + tim)
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K-Means Example
Given: {2,4,10,12,3,20,30,11,25}, k=2
Randomly assign means: m1=3,m2=4
K1={2,3}, K2={4,10,12,20,30,11,25},
m1=2.5,m2=16
K1={2,3,4},K2={10,12,20,30,11,25},
m1=3,m2=18
K1={2,3,4,10},K2={12,20,30,11,25},
m1=4.75,m2=19.6
K1={2,3,4,10,11,12},K2={20,30,25},
m1=7,m2=25
Stop as the clusters with these means are the
same.
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K-Means Algorithm

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Nearest Neighbor
Items are iteratively merged into the
existing clusters that are closest.
Incremental
Threshold, t, used to determine if items
are added to existing clusters or a new
cluster is created.

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## Clustering Large Databases

Most clustering algorithms assume a large
data structure which is memory resident.
Clustering may be performed first on a
sample of the database then applied to the
entire database.
Algorithms
BIRCH
DBSCAN
CURE
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## Desired Features for Large

Databases
One scan (or less) of DB
Online
Suspendable, stoppable, resumable
Incremental
Work with limited main memory
Different techniques to scan (e.g.
sampling)
Process each tuple once
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BIRCH
Balanced Iterative Reducing and
Clustering using Hierarchies
Incremental, hierarchical, one scan
Save clustering information in a tree
Each entry in the tree contains
New nodes inserted in closest entry in
tree
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Clustering Feature
CT Triple: (N,LS,SS)
N: Number of points in cluster
LS: Sum of points in the cluster
SS: Sum of squares of points in the cluster
CF Tree
Balanced search tree
Node has CF triple for each child
Leaf node represents cluster and has CF value
for each subcluster in it.
Subcluster has maximum diameter
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CURE
Clustering Using Representatives
Use many points to represent a cluster
Points will be well scattered

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CURE Approach

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CURE Algorithm

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ASSOCIATION
RULES
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## Association Rules Outline

Goal: Provide an overview of basic
Association Rule mining techniques
Association Rules Problem Overview
Large itemsets

## Association Rules Algorithms

Apriori
Sampling
Partitioning
Parallel Algorithms

Comparing Techniques
Incremental Algorithm
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Items frequently purchased together:

Uses:
Placement
Sales
Coupons

costs
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## Association Rule Definitions

Set of items: I={I1,I2,,Im}
Transactions: D={t1,t2, , tn}, tj I
Itemset: {Ii1,Ii2, , Iik} I
Support of an itemset: Percentage of
transactions which contain that itemset.
Large (Frequent) itemset: Itemset whose
number of occurrences is above a
threshold.
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## Association Rule Definitions

Association Rule (AR): implication
X Y where X,Y I and X Y = ;
Support of AR (s) X Y: Percentage
of transactions that contain X Y
Confidence of AR ( ) X Y: Ratio of
number of transactions that contain
X Y to the number that contain X
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## Association Rule Problem

Given a set of items I={I1,I2,,Im} and a
database of transactions D={t1,t2, , tn}
where ti={Ii1,Ii2, , Iik} and Iij I, the
Association Rule Problem is to
identify all association rules X Y with
a minimum support and confidence.
NOTE: Support of X Y is same as
support of X Y.
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## Association Rule Techniques

1. Find Large Itemsets.
2. Generate rules from frequent
itemsets.

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## Algorithm to Generate ARs

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Apriori
Large Itemset Property:
Any subset of a large itemset is large.
Contrapositive:
If an itemset is not large, none of its
supersets are large.

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## Large Itemset Property

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Apriori Ex (contd)

s=30%
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= 50%
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Apriori Algorithm
1. C1 = Itemsets of size one in I;
2. Determine all large itemsets of size 1, L1;
3. i = 1;
4. Repeat
5.
i = i + 1;
6.
Ci = Apriori-Gen(Li-1);
7.

## 8. until no more large itemsets found;

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Apriori-Gen
Generate candidates of size i+1 from large
itemsets of size i.
Approach used: join large itemsets of size
i if they agree on i-1
May also prune candidates who have
subsets that are not large.

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Apriori-Gen Example

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## Apriori-Gen Example (contd)

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Uses large itemset property.
Easily parallelized
Easy to implement.

Assumes transaction database is memory
resident.
Requires up to m database scans.
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Sampling
Large databases
Sample the database and apply Apriori to the
sample.
Potentially Large Itemsets (PL): Large
itemsets from sample
Negative Border (BD - ):
Generalization of Apriori-Gen applied to
itemsets of varying sizes.
Minimal set of itemsets which are not in PL,
but whose subsets are all in PL.
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## Negative Border Example

PL
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PL BD-(PL)
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Sampling Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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Ds = sample of Database D;
PL = Large itemsets in Ds using smalls;
C = PL BD-(PL);
Count C in Database using s;
ML = large itemsets in BD-(PL);
If ML = then done
else C = repeated application of BD-;
Count C in Database;
SUSHIL KULKARNI

Sampling Example
Find AR assuming s = 20%
Ds = { t1,t2}
Smalls = 10%
BD-(PL)={{Beer},{Milk}}
ML = {{Beer}, {Milk}}
Repeated application of BD- generates all
remaining itemsets
159

SUSHIL KULKARNI

Reduces number of database scans to one
in the best case and two in worst.
Scales better.

Potentially large number of candidates in
second pass

160

SUSHIL KULKARNI

Partitioning
Divide database into partitions D1,D2,
,Dp
Apply Apriori to each partition
Any large itemset must be large in at
least one partition.

161

SUSHIL KULKARNI

Partitioning Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

162

## Divide D into partitions D1,D2,,Dp;

For I = 1 to p do
Li = Apriori(Di);
C = L1 Lp;
Count C on D to generate L;

SUSHIL KULKARNI

Partitioning Example
{PeanutButter},
{Jelly, PeanutButter},

D1

D2

S=10%
163

PeanutButter},
{Beer,Milk}}
SUSHIL KULKARNI

Easily parallelized
Maximum number of database scans is
two.

May have many candidates during second
scan.
164

SUSHIL KULKARNI

Parallelizing AR Algorithms
Based on Apriori
Techniques differ:
What is counted at each site
How data (transactions) are distributed

Data Parallelism
Data partitioned
Count Distribution Algorithm