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Columns are vertical compression members
of a structural frame intended to support the
load-carrying beams. They transmit loads
from the upper floors to the lower levels and
then to the soil through the foundations.
Usually columns carry bending moment as
well, about one or both axes of the cross
section, and the bending action may produce
tensile forces over a part of the cross section
Reinforcement are provided in order to
reduce the size of the column

The main reinforcement in columns is

longitudinal, parallel to the direction of the load
and consists of bars arranged in a square,
rectangular, or circular shape

Main steel is provided to resist compression load

along with concrete
Reinforcement Requirements (Longitudinal Steel
min Ast 0.8 % of C/S
max Ast 6% of C/S

The object of stipulating a min. percentage of

steel is to make provision to prevent buckling of
column due to any accidental eccentricity of the
load on it
For stipulating a max. percentage of steel is to
provide reinforcement with in such a limit to
avoid congestion of reinforcement which would
make it very difficult to place the concrete and
consolidate it

Min. 4 bars in rectangular/square column and min. 6

bars in circular shape column
The bar shall not be less than 12mm
The nominal cover shall any case not be less than
In our site they provided 40mm cover
Min. distance b/w individual bars
-the dia of larger bar
-5mm more nominal max. size of coarse aggregate

Spacing of longitudinal bars shall not exceed

300mm from the periphery of the column
in our site they provided rectangular and circular
For rectangular column
-distributed the reinforcement equally on four

- the no. of bars in a column are varying from 10,

12,14, 16, of varying diameter
They provide different diameter main bars i.e.,
In our site 450mm dia. circular column Is used
For circular column they provide 6 nos 20mm
dia. And 6 nos 16mm dia
The effective length provide is 48 times the dia .
Of bar

In order to maintain the position of longitudinal
reinforcement and also to prevent their buckling which
may cause splitting of concrete. It is also assist
confining the concrete
The diameter of transverse reinforcement shall not be
less than 1/4th dia. of main bar in no case less than 5mm
The spacing of lateral ties
the least lateral dimension of the column/16times the
dia. Of main bars
max spacing is 300mm

In our site they provided lateral ties of diameter

8mm at a spacing 200 and 250mm c/c