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Motivation

Definition of Motivation
Motivation - the process of arousing and
sustaining goal-directed behavior
Needs

Drives

Incentives

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsically Motivated work behavior


Behavior that is performed to acquire material
or social rewards or to avoid punishments.

Intrinsically Motivated work behavior


Behavior that is performed for its own sake.

Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)


Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five
needsphysiological, safety,
social, esteem, and selfactualization; as each need is
substantially satisfied, the
next need becomes
dominant.
Self-Actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of
becoming.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Lower-Order Needs

Higher-Order Needs

Needs that are satisfied SA Needs that are satisfied


internally; social, esteem,
externally; physiological
and safety needs.
Esteem and self-actualization
needs.

Love (Social)
Safety & Security
Physiological

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)


ERG Theory
There are three groups of core needs:
existence, relatedness, and growth.
Core
CoreNeeds
Needs
Existence:
Existence:provision
provisionof
of
basic
basicmaterial
material
requirements.
requirements.
Relatedness:
Relatedness:desire
desirefor
for
relationships.
relationships.
Growth:
Growth:desire
desirefor
for
personal
development.
personal development.

Concepts:
Concepts:
More
Morethan
thanone
oneneed
needcan
can
be
beoperative
operativeatatthe
thesame
same
time.
time.
IfIfaahigher-level
higher-levelneed
need
cannot
cannotbe
befulfilled,
fulfilled,the
the
desire
to
satisfy
a
lowerdesire to satisfy a lowerlevel
levelneed
needincreases.
increases.

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Achievement (nAch)

Need for Achievement - a


manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns
individuals issues of
excellence, competition,
challenging goals,
persistence, and
overcoming difficulties

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Power (nPow)


Need for Power - a manifest
(easily perceived) need that
concerns an individuals
need to make an impact on
others, influence others,
change people or events,
and make a difference in life

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Affiliation (nAff)

Need for Affiliation - a


manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns an
individuals need to establish
and maintain warm, close,
intimate relationships with
other people