Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

THIRD EDITION

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D.

Chapter 21
Digestion

PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by


Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

About this Chapter


Overview of the digestive system & how it is
organized
How products are moved and the role of digestive
secretions
How and where food is broken down and
absorbed
How digestive wastes are concentrated and
eliminated
How digestion is regulated in the gastrointestinal
(GI) tract
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Processes of the Digestive System: Overview


Ingestion
Digestion:
enzymatic
Motility
Secretion
Absorption
Elimination
(Self protection)
Figure 21-1: Processes of the digestive system
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Digestive Anatomy: Overview


Oral cavity
Salivary glands
Esophagus
Stomach
Fundus
Body
(rugae)
Antrum
pyloris
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chemical and mechanical digestion in the mouth


Saliva
Lubricates and softens food
Salivary amylase
Breaks down starches into smaller carbs
Mechanical digestion; mastication
Protection
Lysosomes and immunoglobulins kill viruses
and bacteria.
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-17: Integration of secretion in the stomach


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: ENDOCRINE RESPONSE


The pyloric sphincter
sends chyme into the
duodenum in spurts.
Acidic chyme in the
duodenum stimulates
hormone release into the
blood of:
Secretin,
cholecystokinin, GIP

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Digestive Anatomy: Overview

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-2a: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Digestive System

More Digestive Anatomy


Small intestine
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Pancreas
Liver
Large intestine
Colon
Rectum
Anus
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Digestive Anatomy: Histological Overview


Stomach wall
Mucosa
Gastric glands
Muscularis mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis Externa
Serosa
Small intestine wall
Vili & microvilli
Peyer's patches
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Digestive Anatomy: Histological Overview

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-2c: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Digestive System

Digestive Anatomy: Histological Overview

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-2e: ANATOMY SUMMARY: The Digestive System

Motility: Smooth Muscle Contractions


Tonic support
Phasic move
products
Parastalsis
moves
Segmentation
mixes

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-4: Contractions in the GI tract

Digestive Secretions:
(7 L / Day From Tissues into Lumen)
Salivary glands
Pancreas
Water
Enzymes
Mucus
Ions: H+, K+, Na+

HCO3-, Cl-

Mass Balance (H2O)


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-5: Daily mass balance in the digestive system

Chemistry of Digestion: Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrate foods


Long polymers
Enzyme hydrolysis
Amylase
Maltase
Sucrase
Lactase
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chemistry of Digestion: Carbohydrates

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-6: Carbohydrate digestion

Chemistry of Digestion: Carbohydrates

Disccharides
Monosccharides
(Absorption)

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chemistry of Digestion: Proteins

Proteins enzyme
hydrolysis amino acids
Enzymes: endopeptidases
& exopeptidases

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-7: Endopeptidases and exopeptidases

Chemistry of Digestion: Fats

Bile emulsification to small fat droplets


Enzymes: lipases, colipases & phospholipases
Triglycerides monoglycerides & free fatty acids

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chemistry of Digestion: Fats

Figure 21-8: Fat digestion


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regulating Digestion: CNS and Enteric Nervous


System (ENS)

Long (cephalic) reflexes: CNS, feed forward &


emotional reflexes
Short reflexes ENS ("little brain")
integration, motility & secretion: enzymes &
hormone/paracrine GI peptides

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regulating Digestion: CNS and Enteric Nervous


System (ENS)

Figure 21-9: The enteric nervous system

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Phases of Digestion: Overview

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-11: Overview of functions in different regions of the digestive system

Cephalic and Oral Phases of Digestion


Cephalic: anticipation of food
CNS ANS long reflex
Enteric cells short reflex
GI motility
GI secretions
Mouth: starts digestion
Grind, mix & liquefy
Saliva: water, enzymes, mucus & lysozyme
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cephalic and Oral Phases of Digestion

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-12: Long and short reflexes in the stomach

Swallowing reflex: Soft Palate & Esophagus

Deglutition
Epiglottis
Upper esophageal sphincter
Lower esophageal sphincter
(heartburn)

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Swallowing reflex: Soft Palate & Esophagus

Figure 21-13: The swallowing reflex

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gastric Phase: The Stomach


Storage
Digestion
HCl parietal C.
Lipase chief C.
Pepsin chief C.
Protect walls
HCO3 Mucus
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Secretion in the Stomach

Parietal cells pH-1


Chief cells inactive pepsinogen active pepsin
D cells somatostatin
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells histamine
G cells the hormone gastrin.
Mucuos cells mucus and bicarbonate

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gastric Phase: The Stomach

Figure 21-17: Integration of secretion in the stomach


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gastric Phase: The Stomach

Figure 21-15: The mucus-bicarbonate barrier of the gastric mucosa


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regulation of the Stomach Digestive Activities

CNS cephalic input


ENS ANS integration w/hormones & paracrines

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regulation of the Stomach Digestive Activities

Figure 21-17: Integration of secretion in the stomach


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: Reflexes Direct Digestive Action

Limit chyme entrance rate & motility


Neutralize HCl, add bile & enzymes

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: EXOCRINE RESPONSE

Pancreatic bicarbonate secretions


Secretin stimulates bicarbonate release.
Neutralize HCl, add bile & enzymes

Pancreatic exocrine enzyme secretions


CCK stimulates pancreatic release of inactive enzymes
Figure 21-20

Liver adds bile via gall bladder


CCK stimulates gall bladder contraction
Bile; a non-enzyme
Bile salts
Act as detergents
Bilirubin
cholesterol
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: Pancreatic Secretions

Enzymes
HCO3 Insulin
Glucagon

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-18: The intestinal phase of gastric function

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: Pancreatic Secretions

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-19: The hepatic portal system

Intestinal Phase:
Liver-Nutrient Storage & Conversions

Bile secretion
Hepatic portal system directs absorbed nutrients

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase:
Liver-Nutrient Storage & Conversions

Figure 21-24: Carbohydrate absorption


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase:
Carbohydrate Digestion & Absorption

Hydrolysis to simple sugars


Absorption: transport
Na+/ glucose symport
Fructose GLUT
To ECF capillary

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-23: Bile salts

Lets remember what fat is. . .


Phospholipids
Triglycerides
cholesterol

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: Fat Digestion & Absorption

Hydrolyzed to small peptides, dipeptides, &


amino acids
Membrane transport: H+, Na+ cotransports &
transcytosis
To ECF then into capillary

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase: Fat Digestion & Absorption

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-26: Fat digestion and absorption

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase:
Large Intestine, H2O Absorption & Defecation

(Small intestine reabsorbs 7.5 L/day of water)


Large Intestine reabsorbs 1.4 L/day
Defecation Reflex: mass movement rectal
distension
internal sphincter (invol)
external sphincter (vol)

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intestinal Phase:
Large Intestine, H2O Absorption & Defecation

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-27: Anatomy of the large intestine

Intestinal Phase:
Large Intestine Digestion & Absorption

Bacterial digest significant amounts of complex


carbs and proteins through fermentation.
Most remaining water is reabsorbed

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-28: NaCl reabsorption by colonocytes

Intestinal Phase:
Large Intestine Digestion & Absorption
Bacterial
fermentation:
Vit. K , lactate &
buterate
Water and
electrolyte
secretion &/or
absorption

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 21-28: NaCl reabsorption by colonocytes

Intestinal Phase:
Large Intestine Digestion & Absorption

Figure 21-29: NaCl secretion by colonic crypt cells


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Digestive Health: Protection & Problems


Immune defense: M-cells, Peyer's patches,
lymphocytes
Irritable bowel disease chronic inflammation
Diarrhea: leads to dehydration (4 million
deaths/yr)
Osmotic-solutes prevent H2O reabsorption
Secretory- bacterial toxins ("flush out'
pathogens)
Vomiting (emesis) can lead to alkalosis
Ulcers- H. pylori
"heart-burn" acid reflux disease
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Summary

Processes of digestion: ingestion, digestion,


absorption, secretion, motility, reabsorption &
defecation
Anatomy of digestion: mouth, esophagus,
stomach, small & large intestines, rectum, anus
(pancreas & liver)

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Summary

Enzyme hydrolysis of carbohydrates, proteins,


lipids and nucleic acids provide the nutrients,
absorbed & conducted to liver for storage and
conversion
Regulation from CNS (long reflex) and ENS (short
reflex) integrate hormones & paracrines to
coordinate digestion

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Оценить