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Man is not only social but also cultural.

Every society prescribes its own way and

means of giving social training to its new born
members so that they may develop their own

The social training is called Socialization.

The process of socialization is conditioned by


Man is not born social

At birth the human child possess the

potentialities of becoming human.

The child becomes a man or person through

variety of experiences.

Socialization means the process whereby an

individual becomes a functioning member of
the society.

Socialization is a continuous process.


Socialization is the process by which the

individual learns to conform to the norms of
the group Ogburn

Complex processes of interaction through

which the individual learns the habits, beliefs,
skills, and standards of judgement that
necessary for his effective participation in
social groups and communities - Lundberg

Internalisation of Social Norms

Socialization is described as the process

whereby an individual internalises the norms
of the group.
Internalised norms and the daily life.
Internalisation of norms helps self-control.
Internalisation of norms due to indoctrination.
Internalisation of norms and the development of

Types of Socialization

Ian Robertson (1977) has mentioned four

types of socialization.
Primary socialization
It takes place in the early years of life of the
newborn. It concentrates on the teaching of
language and cognitive skills, establishment of
emotional ties, and appreciation of other roles.

Anticipatory socialization
Men not only learn the culture of the group of
which they immediate member. They may also
learn the culture group to which they do not

Types of Socialization

Developmental socialization
This kind of learning is based on the achievements
of primary socialization.
It builds on already acquired skills and knowledge
as the adult progresses through new situations
such as marriage and job.

Re-socialization- the stripping away of learned
patterns and substitution of new ones for them

Factors of process of socialization





Theories of Socialization

C.H. Cooleys looking-glass self theory

He held that self and social are two sides of the
same coin
Our ideas, loyalties, attitudes and points of view
are derived from others.
The individual develops the idea of self through
contact with the primary group, particularly with
the members of the family.
The self arises when the person becomes an
object to himself.

Theories of Socialization

George Herbert Meads Theory of self

the individual, largely through interaction,
becomes aware of himself.
The individual in order to get a picture of himself,
plays the role of others.
The child tries to understand the relative roles of
various individuals involved in the same social
The self is a product of social interaction. It arises
in social experience.

Theories of Socialization

Sigmund Freud and his concept of Human

He has divided human mind into three
Id is concerned only with satisfying the animal
impulses of man.
Ego serves as the mediator between desire and
action. It represses the urges of the id when
Super Ego holds up the behaviour norms of
society. It provides the ego the idea of moral and

Theories of Socialization

W.I. Thomas theory of the Definition of the

The situation in which the child finds himself has
already been defined for him.
The rules according to which he must behave are
determined by the group into which he is born.
The child cannot behave according to his own
whims and fancies.

Theories of Socialization

Durkheims Theory of Collective

The individual becomes socialized by adopting the
behaviour of his group.
Collective representation is the body of
experiences, ideas and ideals of a group upon which
the individual unconsciously depends for his ideas,
attitudes and behaviours.
Collective representation have a great force
because they collectively created and developed.

Agencies of Socialization

Family and Parents



Literature and Mass Media

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