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Slotted FAMA: A MAC Protocol

for Underwater Acoustic


Networks
Marcal Molins and Milica
Stojanovic

MAC Protocols for UWA


Characteristics of an underwater acoustic
network
Low bit rate
Low Propagation Speed

Goals of MAC protocols


To prevent collisions
To save energy

Problems for Medium Access


Hidden terminal
problem
Exposed terminal
problem

Existing Approaches
MACA
RTS/CTS/DATA

MACAW
RTS/CTS/DATA with ARQ
Backoff algorithm

FAMA
RTS/CTS/DATA with ARQ
Backoff algorithm
Carrier sensing

Problem with RTS/CTS

Conditions for Collision Avoidance


RTS length is greater than the maximum
propagation delay
CTS length should be greater than RTS
length plus twice the maximum
propagation delay plus the hardware
transmit-to-receive transmission time
.Too expensive in UWA

Slotted FAMA
RTS/CTS/CSMA/DATA
Time is divided into slots
Each packet is transmitted at the
beginning of one slot
The length of a slot is +
: maximum transmission delay
: transmission time of CTS

Slotted FAMA (contd)

Slotted FAMA (contd)


Receiving state
If a node detects carrier on channel, it goes into receiving state

RTS: 2 slots
CTS: wait until end of the transmission
Data : wait until ACK
ACK : 1 slot
Interference: same as CTS

Trade off between ARQ and exposed terminal problem


Backoff algorithm:
No CTS for RTS, node is in backoff algorithm
Do not reset backoff timer

Slotted FAMA (contd)


Transmission priority for node that just
received a packet
Trains of packets

Throughput
Throughput per node

: time while useful data is being sent


: idle time
B: busy time

Simulation
Simulation settings:
Packet size: 3000 bits
Control packet size: 100 bits
Bitrate:1000bps
Packet rate: 1 packet/3000 seconds
AUVs: 2.5m/s

Networks layout

Simulation networks

Simulation Results

Simulation Results

Simulation results

Simulation Results

Simulation Results

Discussions
Cost of synchronization ?
Energy efficiency?
Is it worth avoiding collision?