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ME- 603

Module 3
Machine Processes for Producing Various
05/30/10 1
Milling operations

 Milling is one of the basic machining

processes. Milling is a very versatile
process capable of producing simple
two dimensional flat shapes to
complex three dimensional
interlaced surface configurations.
Cutting Conditions
Milling Cutter
 Arbor
 Shank
 Face
Milling Cutters
The Process

 The milling process:

 Typically uses a multi-tooth
 Work is fed into the rotating
 Capable of high MRR
 Well suited for mass
production applications
 Cutting tools for this process
are called milling cutters
Milling Operations -
 Milling operations are classified into two
major categories:
 Peripheral (side)
 Generally in a plane parallel to the axis of the
 Cross section of the milled surface
corresponds to the contour of the cutter
 Face
 Generally at right angles to the axis of rotation
of the cutter
 Milled surface is flat and has no relationship to
the contour of the cutter
 Combined cutting action of the side and face
of the milling cutter
Related Operations
 Side milling - machining a plane surface
perpendicular to the milling machine arbor
with an arbor mounted tool. This tool is
called a side mill.
 Straddle milling - milling two parallel surfaces
using two cutters spaced apart on an arbor.
 Gang milling - milling multiple surface
simultaneously using multiple cutters
mounted on an arbor.
 Thread milling - milling treads using the
capability of a three axis contouring CNC
Operating Parameters

 Rpm
 CS converted into Rpm based on cutter diameter
 Feed rate
 Feed per tooth
 Table feed rate
 Feed direction -- Conventional vs. Climb
 Conventional milling
 Most common method of feed
 Feed work against the rotation of the cutter
Operating Parameters

 Feed direction - Conventional vs. Climb

 Climb milling
 Load of the cutter tends to “pull” the work into the
 This results in a small feed force and about 20% less Hp
than conventional milling
 Downward motion increases the load on the table ways
 This method can “pull” the work into the cutter and
scrap the work and/or damage the fixture and tool.
 Machine must be very ridged to safely utilize climb
milling(CNC machines)
Operating Parameters

 Conventional vs. Climb Milling

Operating Parameters

 Depth of cut
 Horsepower
Milling Machines

 Two Major Classifications - Knee & Column and

 Knee & Column (Bridgeport type)
 Basic job shop type mill
 Column mounted to the base which is the major support
 Construction provides controlled motion of the worktable
in three mutual perpendicular directions.
 Knee moves vertically on the ways in the front of the
 Table moves longitudinally on the ways on the saddle
 Saddle moves transversely on the ways on the knee
 Quill moves parallel in Z axis or, if head is rotated, X axis
 Versatile general purpose machine
Milling Machines

 Bed
 Used extensively in production milling
 Rigid construction capable of heavy cuts
 Table is mounted directly to the bed
 Spindle head moves vertically to set depth of
 Head locks into position for cut
 Base of machine functions as a coolant
Milling Machines
Milling Machines
Milling Machines
Variation of Machines
 Variations include:
 Horizontal
 Vertical
 Profilers and duplicators
 Planner
Variation of Machines
 Horizontal, Vertical,and Planner (up to 5
Machining Centers
Process Accuracy

 Accuracy of milling machines

 Factors to consider
 Fixture
Rigidity of machine tool
Accuracy of the spindle
Cutter condition
 Type
Delivery method
Material condition
Process Accuracy

 +/- .0005” - Optimum situation

 +/- .001”-.002” - Typical
 +/- .001” - Flatness
Mill Turn centers
Planning & Shaping - Other Milling
Broaching - Other Milling
 Broaching is a machining operation which uses a
toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. The
broach is used in a broaching machine, which is also
sometimes shortened to broach. It is used when
precision machining is required, especially for odd
shapes. Broaching finishes a surface in a single pass,
which makes it very efficient. Commonly machined
surfaces include circular and non-circular holes, splines,
and flat surfaces. Typical workpieces include small to
medium sized castings, forgings, screw machine parts,
and stampings. Even though broaches can be
expensive, broaching is usually favorable to other
processes when used for high-quantity production runs.
 Broaches are shaped similar to a saw, except the
teeth height increases over the length of the
tool. Moreover, the broach contains three distinct
sections: one for roughing, another for semi-
finishing, and the final one for finishing.
Broaching is an unusual machining process
because it has the feed built into the tool. The
profile of the machined surface is always the
inverse of the profile of the broach. The rise per
tooth (RPT), also known as the step or feed per
tooth, determines the amount of material
removed and the size of the chip. The broach can
be moved relative to the workpiece or vice-
versa. Because all of the features are built into
the broach no complex motion or skilled labor is
required to use it.
Broaching Process
 The process depends on the type of broaching being performed.
Surface broaching is very simple as either the workpiece is moved
against a stationary surface broach, or the workpiece is held
stationary while the broach is moved against it.
 Internal broaching is more involved. The process begins by either
clamping the workpiece into the workholder of the broaching
machine or the workpiece is placed on a spherical workholder
designed to automatically align the workpiece to the broach. The
elevator of the broaching machine then lowers the pilot of the
broach through the workpiece where the puller engages the
broach pilot. The elevator then releases the top of the pilot and
the puller pulls the broach through the workpiece completely. The
workpiece is then removed from the machine and the broach is
raised back up to reengage with the elevator. The broach usually
only moves linearly, but sometimes it is also rotated to create a
spiral spline or gun-barrel rifling.
 Cutting fluids are used for three reasons. First, to cool the
workpiece and broach. Second, to lubricate cutting surfaces.
Third, to flush the chips from the teeth. Fortified petroleum
cutting fluids are the most common, however heavy duty water
soluble cutting fluids are becoming more popular.
 Broaches can be categorized by many means. The table
below outlines various methods.

 If the broach is large enough the costs can also be reduced

by using a built-up or modular construction. This involves
producing the broach in pieces and assembling it. If any
portion wears out only that section has to be replaced,
instead of the entire broach.
 Most broaches are made from high speed steel (HSS) or an
alloy steel; TiN coatings are common on HSS to prolong life.
Except when broaching cast iron, tungsten carbide is rarely
used as a tooth material because the cutting edge will crack
on the first pass.
Types of Broaches
Surface broaches

 The slab broach is the simplest surface broach. It is a general purpose

tool for cutting flat surfaces.
 Slot broaches are cut slots of various dimensions at high production
rates. Slot broaching is much quicker than milling when more than one
slot needs to be machined, because the broach can produce both slots
at the same time.
 Contour broaches are designed to cut concave, convex, cam-,
contoured, and irregular shaped surfaces.
 Pot broaches are cut the inverse of an internal broach; they cut the
outside diameter of a cylindrical workpiece. They are named after the
pot looking fixture in which the broaches are mounted; the fixture is
often referred to as a "pot". The pot is designed to hold multiple
broaching tools concentrically over its entire length. The broach is held
stationary while the workpiece is pushed or pulled through it. This has
replaced hobbing for some involute gears and cutting external splines
and slots.
 Straddle broaches use two slab broaches to cut parallel surfaces on
opposite sides of a workpiece in one pass. This type of broaching holds
closer tolerances than if the two cuts were done independently. It is
named after the fact that the broaches "straddle" the workpiece on
multiple sides.
Types of Broaches
Internal broaches
 Hollow or shell broaches are internal cutting broaches for
cutting large diameters. They are designed to mount on an
arbor. This is cheaper to produce than a solid broach,
especially if it will need to be replaced after wearing out.
 A common type of internal broach is the keyway broach. It
uses a special fixture called a horn to support the broach
and properly locate the part with relations to the broach.
 A concentricity broach is a special type of spline cutting
broach which cuts both the minor diameter and the spline
form to ensure precise concentricity.
 The cut-and-recut broach is used to cut thin-walled
workpieces. Thin-walled workpieces have a tendency to
expand during cutting and then shrink afterward. This
broach overcomes that problem by first broaching with the
standard roughing teeth, followed by a "breathing"
section, which serves as a pilot as the workpiece shrinks.
The teeth after the "breathing" section then include
roughing, semi-finishing, and finishing teeth.
Internal Broaches
 For defining the geometry of a
broach an internal type is shown
below. Note that the geometry of
other broaches is similar.
 The most important characteristic of a broach is its RPT, which
changes for various parts of the broach. Here they are defined
as: roughing (tr), semi-finishing (ts), and finishing (tf). The
roughing teeth remove most of the material so the number of
roughing teeth required dictates how long the broach is. The
semi-finishing teeth provide surface finish and the finishing
teeth provide the final finishing. tf is zero so that as the first
finishing teeth wear the later ones continue the sizing
function. The maximum RPT is about 0.006 in (0.15 mm) for
free-machining steels and a minimum of 0.001 in (0.025 mm)
for finishing teeth. For surface broaching the RPT is usually
between 0.003 to 0.006 in (0.076 to 0.15 mm) and for
diameter broaching is usually between 0.0012 to 0.0025 in
(0.030 to 0.063 mm). The exact depth depends on many
factors, however if the cut is too big it will impart too much
stress into the teeth and the workpiece; if the cut is too small
the teeth will not cut but rub the workpiece. The starting
material condition should be 0.020 to 0.025 in (0.51 to
0.63 mm) greater than the final dimension for broaching to be
 The hook (α) determines the primary rake angle and is a
parameter of the material being cut. For steel is between
15 and 20° and for cast iron it is between 6 and 8°. The
back-off (γ) provides clearance for the teeth so that they
don't rub on the workpiece; it is usually between 1 and 3°.
 When radially broaching a workpieces that require a deep
cut per tooth, such as forgings or castings, a rotor-cut or
jump-cut design can be used; these broaches are also
known as free egress or nibbling broaches. In this design
two or three rows of teeth have the same RPT, but each
tooth is notched in a different area; the teeth are notched
so that the entire circumference or area is cut. This allows
for a deep cut while keeping stresses, forces, and power
requirements low. Chip breakers are similar in design, but
there are not multiple teeth with the same RPT. Chip
breaker notches are designed to break chips on circular
 There are two different options for achieving the same goal
when broaching a flat surface. The first is similar to the
rotor-cut design, which is known as a double-cut design.
Here four teeth in a row have the same RPT, but each
progressive tooth takes only a portion of the cut due to
notches in the teeth. The other option is known as a
progressive broach, which completely machines the center
of the workpiece and then the rest of the broach machines
outward from there. All of these designs require a broach
that is longer than if a standard design were used.
 For some circular broaches, burnishing teeth are provided
instead of finishing teeth. They are not really teeth as they
are just rounded discs that are 0.001 to 0.003 in (0.025 to
0.076 mm) over-sized. This results in burnishing the hole to
the proper size. This is primarily used on non-ferrous and
cast iron workpieces.
Broaching Machines

 Broaching machines are relatively simple as

they only have to move the broach in a linear
motion at a predetermined speed and provide a
means for handling the broach automatically.
Most machines are hydraulic, but a few
specialty machines are mechanically driven. The
machines are distinguished by whether their
motion is horizontal or vertical. The choice of
machine is primarily dictated by the stroke
required. Vertical broaching machines rarely
have a stroke longer than 60 in (1.5 m).
Broaching Machines

 Vertical broaching machines can be designed

for push broaching, pull-down broaching, pull-up
broaching, or surface broaching. Push broaching
machines are similar to an arbor press with a
guided ram; typical capacities are 5 to 50 tons.
The two ram pull-down machine is the most
common type of broaching machine. This style
machine has the rams under the table. Pull-up
machines have the ram above the table; they
usually have more than one ram. Most surface
broaching is done on a vertical machine.
Broaching Machines
 Horizontal broaching machines are designed for
pull broaching, surface broaching, continuous
broaching, and rotary broaching. Pull style
machines are basically vertical machines laid on
the side with a longer stroke. Surface style
machines hold the broach stationary while the
workpieces are clamped into fixtures that are
mounted on a conveyor system. Continuous style
machines are similar to the surface style machines
except adapted for internal broaching.
 Horizontal machines used to be much more
common than vertical machines, however today
they represent just 10% of all broaching machines
purchased. Vertical machines are more popular
because they take up less space.
Hydraulic Cylinderical
of a Broaching Machine
Rotary Broaching
 A somewhat different design of cutting tool that can achieve
the irregular hole or outer profile of a broach is called a rotary
broach or wobble broach. This type of tool is often used on
rotating machines such as lathes, screw machine or
Swiss lathe.
 Rotary broaching requires two tooling components: a tool
holder and a broach. The leading (cutting) edge of the broach
has a contour matching the desired final shape and this
leading edge of the tool is wider than the body. The broach is
free to rotate within the tool holder, but the axis of rotation is
inclined slightly to the axis of rotation of the work. A typical
value for this misalignment is 1 degree. If the work piece
rotates, the broach is pressed against it, is driven by it, and
rotates synchronously with it. If the tool holder rotates, the
broach is pressed against the work piece, but is driven by tool
holder rotation. Since the axis of rotation is different, the tool
holder appears to "wobble" with respect to the work. This is
the reason for the original term wobble broach
Rotary Broaching
 If the tool is inclined at an angle of 1 degree to the work, the sides of
the tool must have a 1 degree or greater draft.
 Ideally the tool advances at the same rate that it cuts. The rate of cut
is defined as:

 If it advances any faster than that, then the tool becomes choked; if it
advances any more slowly, then you get an interrupted or zig-zag cut.
Since all work material is elastic, you would actually cut a little less
than the ideal rate, just to release the load on the non-cutting edge of
the tool.
 There is some spiraling of the tool as it cuts, so the form at the bottom
of the work piece may be rotated with respect to the form at the top of
the hole or profile. Spiraling may be undesirable because it binds the
body of the tool and prevents it from cutting sharply. One solution to
this is to reverse the rotation in mid cut, causing the tool to spiral in
the opposite direction. If reversing the machine is not practical, then
interrupting the cut is another possible solution.
 In general, a rotary broach will not cut as accurately as a push or pull
broach. However, the ability to use this type of cutting tool on high-
production machinery such as a screw machine, and eliminate
secondary operations, makes this a desirable manufacturing method.
 Broaching was originally developed for machining
internal keyways. However, it was soon discovered
that broaching is very useful for machining other
surfaces and shapes for high volume workpieces.
Because each broach is specialized to cut just one
shape either the broach must be specially designed
for the geometry of the workpiece or the workpiece
must be designed around a standard broach
geometry. A customized broach is usually only
viable with high volume workpieces, because the
broach can easily cost $15,000 to $30,000 to
 Broaching speeds vary from 20 
surface feet per minute (SFPM) to 120 SFPM. This
results in a complete cycle time of 5 to 30 seconds.
Most of the time is consumed by the return stroke,
broach handling, and workpiece loading and
 The only limitations on broaching are that there are
no obstructions over the length of the surface to be
machined, the geometry to be cut does not have
curves in multiple planes, and that the workpiece is
strong enough to withstand the forces involved.
Specifically for internal broaching a hole must first
exist in the workpiece so the broach can enter. Also,
there are limits on the size of internal cuts.
Common internal holes can range from 0.125 to 6 in
(3.2 to 150 mm) in diameter but it is possible to
achieve a range of 0.05 to 13 in (1.3 to 330 mm).
Surface broaches' range is usually 0.075 to 10 in
(1.9 to 250 mm), although the feasible range is 0.02
to 20 in (0.51 to 510 mm).
 Tolerances are usually ±0.002 in (±0.05 mm), but in precise
applications a tolerance of ±0.0005 in (±0.01 mm) can be held.
Surface finishes are usually between 16 and 63 microinches (μin),
but can range from 8 to 125 μin. There may be minimal burrs on
the exit side of the cut.
 Broaching works best on softer materials, such as brass, bronze,
copper alloys, aluminium, graphite, hard rubbers, wood,
composites, and plastic. However, it still has a good machinability
rating on mild steels and free machining steels. When broaching
the machinability rating is closely related to the hardness of the
material. For steels the ideal hardness range is between 16 and 24
Rockwell C (HRC); a hardness greater than HRC 35 will dull the
broach quickly. Broaching can also be used on harder materials,
like stainless steel and titanium, but it is tougher.
Gear Manufacturing By
 A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth,
or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in
order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working
in tandem are called a transmission and can produce
a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and
thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared
devices can change the speed, magnitude, and
direction of a power source. The most common
situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear,
however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating
toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing
translation instead of rotation.
 The gears in a transmission are analogous to the
wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the
teeth of a gear prevent slipping.
Gear Manufacturing By
 When two gears of unequal number of teeth are
combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with
both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two
gears differing in a simple relationship.
 In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as
bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers
to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The
term is used to describe similar devices even when gear
ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the
device does not actually contain any gears, as in a
continuously variable transmission
 The earliest known reference to gears was circa 50 A.D.
by Hero of Alexandria,[2] but they can be traced back to
the Greek mechanics of the Alexandrian school in the 3rd
century BC and were greatly developed by the Greek
polymath Archimedes (287-212 BC).
Two meshing gears transmitting rotational
Types Of Gears
External vs. internal gears
 An external gear is one with the teeth
formed on the outer surface of a
cylinder or cone. Conversely, an
internal gear is one with the teeth
formed on the inner surface of a
cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an
internal gear is one with the pitch
angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal
gears do not cause direction reversal.
Types of Gears
 Spur gears or straight-cut gears are
the simplest type of gear. They
consist of a cylinder or disk, and with
the teeth projecting radially, and
although they are not straight-sided
in form, the edge of each tooth thus
is straight and aligned parallel to the
axis of rotation. These gears can be
meshed together correctly only if
they are fitted to parallel axles.
Types of Gears
 Helical gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the
teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since
the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of
a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the
most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel.
 The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth causing
them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each
pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear
wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth
face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single
point on the opposite side. In spur gears teeth suddenly meet at a line
contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. Spur gears
make a characteristic whine at high speeds and can not take as much
torque as helical gears. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed
applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem,
the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high
speeds, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.
The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds
25 m/s
Types of Gears
 A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along
the axis of the gear, which needs to be accommodated by
appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of
sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed
with additives in the lubricant.
 For a crossed configuration the gears must have the same
pressure angle and normal pitch, however the helix angle
and handedness can be different. The relationship between
the two shafts is actually defined by the helix angle(s) of
the two shafts and the handedness, as defined:
E = β1 + β2 for gears of the same handedness
E = β1 − β2 for gears of opposite handedness
 Where β is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed
configuration is less mechanically sound because there is
only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the
parallel configuration there is a line contact.
Helical gears
Top: parallel configuration
Bottom: crossed configuration
Types of Gears
Double helical
 Double helical gears, or herringbone gears, overcome the problem of axial
thrust presented by "single" helical gears by having two sets of teeth that
are set in a V shape. Each gear in a double helical gear can be thought of
as two standard mirror image helical gears stacked. This cancels out the
thrust since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. Double
helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more
complicated shape.
 For each possible direction of rotation, there are two possible
arrangements of two oppositely-oriented helical gears or gear faces. In
one possible orientation, the helical gear faces are oriented so that the
axial force generated by each is in the axial direction away from the
center of the gear; this arrangement is unstable. In the second possible
orientation, which is stable, the helical gear faces are oriented so that
each axial force is toward the mid-line of the gear. In both arrangements,
when the gears are aligned correctly, the total (or net) axial force on each
gear is zero. If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the
unstable arrangement generates a net force for disassembly of the gear
train, while the stable arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the
direction of rotation is reversed, the direction of the axial thrusts is
reversed, a stable configuration becomes unstable, and vice versa.
 Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears
without any need for different bearings.
Double Helical Gears
Types of Gears
 A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip
cut off. When two bevel gears mesh their imaginary vertexes must
occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point,
forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle
between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees.
Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees
are called miter gears.
 The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears, or
they may be cut in a variety of other shapes. Spiral bevel gears have
teeth that are both curved along their (the tooth's) length; and set at
an angle, analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an
angle compared to spur gear teeth. Zerol bevel gears have teeth
which are curved along their length, but not angled. Spiral bevel
gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their
straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears. Straight bevel
gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s (1000 ft/min), or,
for small gears, 1000 r.p.m.
Bavel Gear
Types of Gears

 Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the
shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear
conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in
fact hyperboloids of revolution. Hypoid gears are
almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90
degrees. Depending on which side the shaft is offset
to, relative to the angling of the teeth, contact
between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother
and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth.
Also, the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than
a spiral bevel pinion, with the result that gear ratios of
60:1 and higher are feasible using a single set of
hypoid gears. This style of gear is most commonly
found in mechanical differentials.
Hypoid Gear
Types of Gears

 Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form
of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to
the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth
resemble the points on a crown. A crown gear can
only mesh accurately with another bevel gear,
although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing
with spur gears. A crown gear is also sometimes
meshed with an escapement such as found in
mechanical clocks.
Crown gear
Types of Gears

 Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is
usually meshed with an ordinary looking, disk-
shaped gear, which is called the gear, wheel,
or worm wheel.
 Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and
compact way to achieve a high gear ratio. For
example, helical gears are normally limited to
gear ratios of less than 10:1 while worm-and-
gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1. A
disadvantage is the potential for considerable
sliding action, leading to low efficiency.
Types of Gears
 Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear, but
its helix angle is usually somewhat large (close to 90
degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial
direction; and it is these attributes which give it its screw like
qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear
is made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation
around the helix. If this occurs, it is a 'worm'; if not, it is a
'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that
tooth persists for several turns around the helix, the worm
will appear, superficially, to have more than one tooth, but
what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at
intervals along the length of the worm. The usual screw
nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single
thread or single start; a worm with more than one tooth is
called multiple thread or multiple start. The helix angle of a
worm is not usually specified. Instead, the lead angle, which
is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle, is given.
Types of Gears
 In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always
drive the gear. However, if the gear attempts to
drive the worm, it may or may not succeed.
Particularly if the lead angle is small, the gear's
teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth,
because the force component circumferential to
the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction.
Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self
locking, which can be used to advantage, as for
instance when it is desired to set the position of
a mechanism by turning the worm and then have
the mechanism hold that position. An example is
the machine head found on some types of
stringed instruments.
Types of Gears
 If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an
ordinary helical gear only a single point of
contact will be achieved. If medium to high
power transmission is desired, the tooth
shape of the gear is modified to achieve
more intimate contact by making both gears
partially envelop each other. This is done by
making both concave and joining them at a
saddle point; this is called a cone-drive.
 Worm gears can be right or left-handed
following the long established practice for
screw threads.
Worm Gear
Types of Gears

 Non-circular gears are designed for special
purposes. While a regular gear is optimized to
transmit torque to another engaged member with
minimum noise and wear and maximum efficiency,
a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio
variations, axle displacement oscillations and
more. Common applications include textile
machines, potentiometers and continuously
variable transmissions.
Non-Circular Gear
Types of Gears

Rack and pinion

 A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought
of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of
curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force
by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns;
the rack moves in a straight line. Such a
mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the
rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right
motion of the tie rod(s). Racks also feature in the
theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the
tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears
may be specified for the rack (infinite radius), and
the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii
then derived from that. The rack and pinion gear
type is employed in a rack railway.
Rack and pinion
Types of Gears

 In epicyclic gearing one or more of
the gear axes moves. Examples are
sun and planet gearing (see below)
and mechanical differentials
Types of Gears
Sun and planet
 Sun and planet gearing
was a method of
reciprocal motion into
rotary motion in
steam engines. It played
an important role in the
Industrial Revolution. The
Sun is yellow, the planet
red, the reciprocating
crank is blue, the
flywheel is green and the
driveshaft is grey Sun (yellow) and planet (red) gearing
Types of Gears

Harmonic drive
 A harmonic drive is a specialized
proprietary gearing mechanism.

Harmonic drive gearing

Types of Gears

Cage gear
 A cage gear, also called a lantern gear or
lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth,
parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle
around it, much as the bars on a round bird
cage or lantern. The assembly is held
together by disks at either end into which
the tooth rods and axle are set.
 General nomenclature

 Rotational frequency, n , Measured in

rotation over time, such as RPM.
 Angular frequency, ω,  Measured in
radians per second. 1RPM = π / 30
 Number of teeth, N,  How many
teeth a gear has, an integer. In the
case of worms, it is the number of
thread starts that the worm has.
 Gear, wheel  The larger of two interacting gears.
 Pinion  The smaller of two interacting gears.
 Path of contact  Path followed by the point of
contact between two meshing gear teeth.
 Line of action, pressure line  Line along which the
force between two meshing gear teeth is directed.
It has the same direction as the force vector. In
general, the line of action changes from moment to
moment during the period of engagement of a pair
of teeth. For involute gears, however, the tooth-to-
tooth force is always directed along the same line—
that is, the line of action is constant. This implies
that for involute gears the path of contact is also a
straight line, coincident with the line of action—as is
indeed the case.
 Axis  Axis of revolution of the gear; center line of the
 Pitch point, p  Point where the line of action crosses a line
joining the two gear axes.
 Pitch circle, pitch line  Circle centered on and
perpendicular to the axis, and passing through the pitch
point. A predefined diametral position on the gear where
the circular tooth thickness, pressure angle and helix
angles are defined.
 Pitch diameter, d  A predefined diametral positon on the
gear where the circular tooth thickness, pressure angle
and helix angles are defined. The standard pitch diameter
is a basic dimension and cannot be measured, but is a
location where other measurements are made. Its value is
based on the number of teeth, the normal module (or
normal diametral pitch), and the helix angle. It is
calculated as:
 Module, m  A scaling factor used in metric gears with
units in millimeters who's effect is to enlarge the gear
tooth size as the module increases and reduce the size as
the module decreases. Module can be defined in either
the normal (mn), transverse (mt), or axial planes (ma)
depending on the design approach employed and the
type of gear being designed. Module is typically an input
value into the gear design and is seldom calculated.
 Operating pitch diameters  Diameters determined from
the number of teeth and the center distance at which
gears operate. Example for pinion:
 Pitch surface  In cylindrical gears, cylinder formed by
projecting a pitch circle in the axial direction. More
generally, the surface formed by the sum of all the pitch
circles as one moves along the axis. For bevel gears it is a
 Angle of action  Angle with vertex at the gear center, one
leg on the point where mating teeth first make contact,
the other leg on the point where they disengage.
 Arc of action  Segment of a pitch circle subtended by the
angle of action.
 Pressure angle, θ  The complement of the angle between
the direction that the teeth exert force on each other, and
the line joining the centers of the two gears. For involute
gears, the teeth always exert force along the line of action,
which, for involute gears, is a straight line; and thus, for
involute gears, the pressure angle is constant.

 Outside diameter, Do  Diameter of the gear,

measured from the tops of the teeth.
 Root diameter  Diameter of the gear,
measured at the base of the tooth.
 Addendum, a  Radial distance from the pitch
surface to the outermost point of the tooth.
a = (Do − D) / 2
 Dedendum, b  Radial distance from the
depth of the tooth trough to the pitch
surface. b = (D − rootdiameter) / 2
 Whole depth, ht  The distance from the top of the tooth
to the root; it is equal to addendum plus dedendum or to
working depth plus clearance.
 Clearance  Distance between the root circle of a gear
and the addendum circle of its mate. Working depth 
 Depth of engagement of two gears, that is, the sum of
their operating addendums.
 Circular pitch, p  Distance from one face of a tooth to
the corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the
same gear, measured along the pitch circle.
 Diametral pitch, pd  Ratio of the number of teeth to the
pitch diameter. Could be measured in teeth per inch or
teeth per centimeter.
 Base circle  In involute gears, where the tooth
profile is the involute of the base circle. The radius
of the base circle is somewhat smaller than that of
the pitch circle.
 Base pitch, normal pitch, pb  In involute gears,
distance from one face of a tooth to the
corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the
same gear, measured along the base circle.
 Interference  Contact between teeth other than at
the intended parts of their surfaces.
 Interchangeable set  A set of gears, any of which
will mate properly with any other.
Tooth contact
Line of contact
Tooth contact
Path of action
Tooth contact
Line of action
Tooth contact
Plane of action
Tooth contact
Lines of contact
Tooth contact
Arc of action
Tooth contact
Length of action
Tooth contact
Limit diameter
Tooth contact
Face advance
Tooth contact
Zone of action

 The majority of gears are composed of

carbon and low-alloy steels, including
carburised steels. Among the carburised
steels used in gears are 1018, 1524,
4026, 4118, 4320, 4620, 4820, 8620 and
9310. The intended gear use will dictate
the material used in its creation. For
example gears to be used in
food processing are made of stainless
steels or nickel-base alloys because of
their corrosion resistance.
Gear manufacturing
 There are multiple ways in which gear blanks can be shaped
through the cutting and finishing processes.
 Blanking
 Gear Cutting Processes
 Broaching
 Hobbing
 Shaping
 Milling
 Gear Finishing Processes
 Grinding
 Honing
 Shaving
 Lapping
 Gear Forming (non-cutting) Processes
 Plastic Injection Molding
 Powder Metal Sintering
 Forging
 Casting
 Roll-Forming (Spline Rolling)

 Blanking refers to initial forming or

machining operations that produce
a semi finished part ready for gear
cutting, starting from a piece of raw
Gear Cutting Processes -

 Broaching is a machining operation

which uses a toothed tool, called a
broach, to remove material.
Gear Cutting Processes -
 Hobbing is a machining process for making gears,
splines, and sprockets on a hobbing machine, which is a
special type of milling machine. The teeth or splines are
progressively cut into the workpiece by a series of cuts
made by a cutting tool called a hob. Compared to other
gear forming processes it is relatively inexpensive but
still quite accurate, thus it is used for a broad range of
parts and quantities.[1]
 It is the most widely used gear cutting process for
creating spur and helical gears[2] and more gears are cut
by hobbing than any other process since it is relatively
quick and inexpensive.
A hob — the cutter used
for hobbing
Gear Cutting Processes -
 The cutter is a circular pinion-shaped
cutter with the necessary rake angles
to cut as shown. Both the gear blank
and cutter are set in a vertical plane
and rotated such as that the two are
like gears in mesh. Gear shaping is
faster than gear planing because the
cutting process is continuous and the
cutter does not have to be stepped
Gear Shaping
Gear Cutting Processes -
 Milling is a form-cutting process limited to
making single gears for prototype or very small
batches of gears as it is a very slow and
uneconomical method of production. A involute
form-milling cutter, which has the the profile of
the space between the gears, is used to remove
the material between the teeth from the gear
blank on a horizontal milling machine. The
depth of cut into the gear blank depends on the
cutter strength, set-up rigidity and
machineability of the gear blank material.
Gear Milling
Gear Finishing Processes
- Grinding
 A grinding machine is a
machine tool used for grinding,
which is a type of machining using
an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool
. Each grain of abrasive on the
wheel's surface cuts a small chip
from the workpiece via shear
Gear Finishing Processes
- Grinding
 The grinding machine consists of a power driven grinding wheel
spinning at the required speed (which is determined by the wheel’s
diameter and manufacturer’s rating, usually by a formula) and a
bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work-piece. The grinding
head can be controlled to travel across a fixed work piece or the
workpiece can be moved whilst the grind head stays in a fixed
position. Very fine control of the grinding head or tables position is
possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel, or using the
features of numerical controls.
 Grinding machines remove material from the workpiece by
abrasion, which can generate substantial amounts of heat; they
therefore incorporate a coolant to cool the workpiece so that it
does not overheat and go outside its tolerance. The coolant also
benefits the machinist as the heat generated may cause burns in
some cases. In very high-precision grinding machines (most
cylindrical and surface grinders) the final grinding stages are
usually set up so that they remove about 200nm (less than
1/100000 in) per pass - this generates so little heat that even with
no coolant, the temperature rise is negligible.
Gear Finishing Processes
- Honing
 Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a
precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an
abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is
primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface,
but may also improve the surface texture.
 Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for
internal combustion engines, air bearing spindles and gears.
Types of hone are many and various but all consist of one or
more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against
the surface they are working on.
 In everyday use, a honing steel is used to hone knives,
especially kitchen knives, and is a fine process, there
contrasted with more abrasive sharpening.
 Other similar processes are lapping and superfinishing.
The surface of a honed
Gear Finishing Processes
 Gear shaving is the most commonly used method for finishing
spur and helical gear teeth prior to hardening. The gear is run
in contact with the shaving tool. Such a tool is very hardened,
accurate and ground gear that contains a number of peripheral
serration, thus forming a series of cutting edges on each tooth.
The gear and shaving cutters are run in mesh with their axes
crossed at a small angle usually about 10 degrees. As they
rotate, the gear is reciprocated longitudinally across the
shaving tool (or vice versa). During this action, which usually
requires less than one minute, very fine chips are shaved from
the gear tooth faces, thus eliminating any high spots and
producing a very accurate tooth profile.
 Rack shaving cutters are sometimes used for shaving small
gears, the cutters reciprocating length wise, causing the gear
to roll along it, as it is moved sideways across the cutter and
fed inward.
 Although shaving cutters are costly, they have a relatively long
life because only a very small amount of metal is removed ,
usually o.001 to 0.004 inches.
Gear shaving
Gear Finishing Processes
 Lapping is a machining operation, in which two surfaces
are rubbed together with an abrasive between them, by
hand movement or by way of a machine.
 This can take two forms. The first type of lapping
(traditionally called grinding), typically involves rubbing a
brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron
or glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with
an abrasive such as aluminum oxide, emery, silicon carbide,
diamond, etc., in between them. This produces microscopic
conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the
two surfaces and removes material from both.
 The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the
lap, which is "charged" with the abrasive. The lap is then
used to cut a harder material—the workpiece. The abrasive
embeds within the softer material which holds it and
permits it to score across and cut the harder material.
Taken to the finer limit, this will produce a polished surface
such as with a polishing cloth on an automobile, or a
polishing cloth or polishing pitch upon glass or steel.
 Taken to the ultimate limit, with the aid of
accurate interferometry and specialized
polishing machines or skilled hand polishing,
lensmakers can produce surfaces that are flat
to better than 30 nanometers. This is one
twentieth of the wavelength of light from the
commonly used 632.8 nm helium neon laser
light source. Surfaces this flat can be
molecularly bonded (optically contacted) by
bringing them together under the right
conditions. (This is not the same as the
wringing effect of Johansson blocks, although
it is similar)
Gear Finishing Processes
–Lapping operation
 By way of example, a piece of lead may be used as the lap, charged
with emery, and used to cut a piece of hardened steel. The small
plate shown in the first picture is that of a hand lapping plate. That
particular plate is made of cast iron. In use, a slurry of emery powder
would be spread on the plate and the workpiece simply rubbed
against the plate, usually in a "figure-eight" pattern.
Small lapping machine
 The second picture is that of a commercially available lapping
machine which is needed for this process. The lap or lapping plate in
this machine is 30 cm (12") in diameter. For a commercial machine
that is about the smallest size available. At the other end of the size
spectrum, machines with eight to ten foot diameter plates are not
uncommon and systems with tables 30 feet in diameter have been
constructed. Referring to the second picture again, the lap is the large
circular disk on the top of the machine. On top of the lap are two
rings. The workpiece would be placed inside one of these rings. A
weight would then be placed on top of the workpiece. The weights
can also be seen in the picture along with two fiber spacer disks that
are just used to even the load.
Gear Finishing Processes
–Lapping operation
 In operation, the rings stay in one location as the
lapping plate rotates beneath them. In this machine, a
small slurry pump can be seen at the side, this pump
feeds abrasive slurry onto the rotating lapping plate.
 When there is a requirement to lap very small
specimens (from 3" down to a few millimetres), a
lapping jig can be used to hold the material while it is
lapped (see Image 3, lapping machine and jig). A jig
allows precise control of the orientation of the specimen
to the lapping plate and fine adjustment of the load
applied to the specimen during the material removal
process. Due to the dimensions of such small samples,
traditional loads and weights are too heavy as they
would destroy delicate materials. The jig sits in a cradle
on top of the lapping plate and the dial on the front of
the jig indicates the amount of material removed from
the specimen.
Gear Finishing Processes
Two-piece lapping
 Where the mating of the two surfaces is more
important than the flatness, the two pieces can be
lapped together. The principle is that the
protrusions on one surface will both abrade and be
abraded by the protrusions on the other, resulting
in two surfaces evolving towards some common
shape (not necessarily perfectly flat), separated by
a distance determined by the average size of the
abrasive particles, with a surface roughness
determined by the variation in the abrasive size.
This yields closeness-of-fit results comparable to
that of two accurately-flat pieces, without quite
the same degree of testing required for the latter.
 One complication in two-piece lapping is the need to
ensure that neither piece flexes or is deformed
during the process. As the pieces are moved past
each other, part of each (some area near the edge)
will be unsupported for some fraction of the rubbing
movement. If one piece flexes due to this lack of
support, the edges of the opposite piece will tend to
dig depressions into it a short distance in from the
edge, and the edges of the opposite piece are
heavily abraded by the same action - the lapping
procedure assumes roughly equal pressure
distribution across the whole surface at all times,
and fails in this manner if the workpiece itself
deforms under that pressure
Schematic of two-piece
Gear inspection

 As with all manufactured products,

gears must be checked to determine
whether the resulting product meets
the design specifications and
requirements. Because of their
irregular shape and the number of
factors that must be measured,
inspection of gears is somewhat
Gear inspection
 Among the factors to be checked are:
 Measure Actual Tooth Thickness
 Measure Fine Pitch Gears up to 120 DP
 Measure Plastic and Powder Metal Gears
 Measure Surface Finish in both the profile and helix
 Measure Unknown Gears for Reverse Engineering
 Measure a gear and/or related features in relation
to functional datums and/or compare
measurements to manufacturing datums
 Use “Compare Software" on the output – e.g. to
compare measurements before & after heat