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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELASTICITY

CONDUCTIVITY

DUCTILITY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

MALLEABILITY

TENACITY
PLASTICITY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Tap set

FATIGUE

Tapping

TOUGHNESS

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Bearings

Sheavers
HARDNESS

STRENGTH

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Cast iron
Hinge

Wrought iron

Steel

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Iron Ores
rock

Blast Furnace Coke

Limestone

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

White cast iron

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Pig Iron
When the blast furnace is emptied, the melted iron flows out into a
through and then into sand moulds .
When it cools pigs are formed
The moulds used in forming pig iron are a number of parallel trenches
connected by a channel running at right angles to them.These are called
pigs , they are connected at one end to the long bar called the Sow
(Mother pig)

93 % pure iron, 3 5 % Carbon Remainder Silicon , Phosporous , Sulphur,Manganese

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Pig Iron

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

The 3 ways of making steel.

2. Open-Hearth Furnace

1. Bessemer Converter

3. Electric
Furnace

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Bessemer Converter

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Open Hearth Furnace

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Crucible Furnace

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Electric Furnace

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Basic Oxygen Process

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

925 o C
906 o C
UCT

860 o

AUSTENITE
830

800 o 780 o
760
Ferrite +
Austenite

810 o

745 o
730 o

Cementite +
Austenite

727 o

725 o C
LCT
TEMP

723 o C
FERRITE + PEARLITE
(Hypoeutectoid)

0.1 0.2 0.3

0.4

0.5

Pearlite +
Cementite
(Hypereutectoid)
0.6

0.7

CARBON CONTENT

0.8 0.9

1.0

1.1

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Corrosion Treatment During Manufacture: Metal Surface Treatment


Cadmium Plating
Cadmium plating is a non-porous, electrolytically deposited layer of cadmium
that offers high corrosion resistance for steel
Three types of cadmium plating are considered in this specification:
Type 1
This type is pure silver-coloured cadmium plate without supplementary
treatment
This type of cadmium coating was used on all steel aircraft hardware in the
past.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Type 2
This type consists of type 1 plating
followed by a chrome treatment.
Type 2 plating is a light to dark gold colour.
It has improved corrosion resistance.
Procurement specifications for most
aircraft now specify type 2 plating.

Type 3
This is type 1 coating followed by a
phosphate treatment.
It is used mainly as a paint base.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Corrosion Prone Areas


Some of the sections are most of the trouble areas common to all
aircraft. They are: Battery compartments and Battery vent openings
Exhaust Trail Area
Bilge Areas

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

landing gear

Corrosion Prone Areas

Wheel well
corrosion

area

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Corrosion Prone Area

Engine frontal areas and


cooling air vents

Water entrapment areas

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Corrosion Prone Area

External skin areas

Wing flap and spoiler recesses

Wing flap and spoiler recesses

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Example of other corrosions

Blocked drain passages


resulted in accumulation of
corrosion contaminates

F-16 Aircraft Main Fuel


Shutoff Valve