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History

Occupational Safety and Health was


strongly believed to have emanated from
the introduction of machineries. This
transition of manpower to machine power,
exposed workers to moving gears, cutting
blades and power operation, which
brought about the various hazards
confronting workers at the workplace.

PREHISTORIC

Defensive weaponry

Silicosis from hard quartz


Mining for flint

BABYLONIANS
2000 B.C. 6th Ruler, Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
Set precedent the early form of workers
compensation insurance
If a man has caused the loss of a
gentlemans eye, his own eye shall be
caused to be lost

EGYPTIANS

Organized construction of temples, pyramids and tombs


Rameses II ( 1500 B.C.)

Canal from Mediterranean to Red Sea


Constructed huge temples Ramesseum
Provided medical services for workers to maintain a healthy
workforce

GREEKS

Nicander, poet & physician

Wrote poem, Alexipharmaca describing lead poisoning

Hippocrates, Father of Medicine


Described effects of tetanus
Hippocratic Oath

ROMANS
Built

extensive aqueducts, sewage systems,


public baths, latrines and ventilated houses
Poets and philosophers wrote about ills of
certain occupations, toxic substances, plague
etc.
Alexander the Great first medical services for
the army
Pliny the Elder first respirators made of ox
bladders for workers exposed to mercury

TH

17

Construction

TH

CENTURY

and world exploration


Some power-driven factories
Start of textile industry
Poor living conditions and plague

18 CENTURY
th

Ramazzini Father of Occupational


Medicine
Wrote

Discourse on Disease of Workers


Suggested physicians ask: What is your
occupation?
Mass

manufacturing textiles cotton & wool


followed by metal, wood and leather goods

Industrial Revolution 1837


The extensive use of power
machinery initially imported
from England during a time
referred to as the Industrial
Revolution ushered in a
period of work deaths and
disability never seen before
or since.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Inanimate

power sources - coal & steam


Substitution of machines for human skills
Invention of new methods of
manufacturing.
Organization of work in large units
What

effect did these changes have on


the safety and health of workers?

The greatest upsurge in


industrial growth occurred
around 1880 with the rapid
increase of steel production.
Weaving machines &
equipment steam
powered and later by
electricity
Labor was untrained and
unskilled.

The Workers Plight 1900


11 to 13 hrs exposure to
accident potential.
Public sympathy rises
(Labor Organization)

The old employers liability law was of no


help to the worker because doctrines of
the common law supplied employers with
an adequate defense against suits
brought about by injured workers or their
families

COMMON LAW
1. The employee Contributed to the cause
2.
3.

4.

of the accident.
Another employee contributed to the
cause of the accident.
The employee knew of the hazards
involved in the accident before the injury
was sustained and still agreed to work in
the condition for pay.
There was no employer negligence.

ORGANIZED LABOR
Organized

labor has fought for safer working


conditions and compensation for injured workers.
Overturned the anti-labor laws:

Fellow-servant rule employers were not liable for


workplace injuries that resulted from negligence of
other employees
Contributory negligence If actions of employees
contributed to own injuries
Assumption of Risk workers who accept a job
assume the risks of the job and consequences of the
risk

It was extremely difficult to obtain an adequate


settlement since common law gave injured
workers very little chance for compensation
due to :
injured worker will usually hesitate to put his
job in jeopardy by suing his employer;
does not have much chance to prove his
case in court;
out of court settlement proved to be more
beneficial on the part of the worker than legal
action.

A Demand for Change: Legislative Progress


1870 Employers Liability Acts (first corrective
measures)
1907 The British Act also served as a model for the
first compensation law in the US (1908)
1911 The Compensation Law of Wisconsin (first
significant legislation in the US)
1913 The US Dept. of Labor was created
1915 The American Society of Safety Engineers was
organized.

Comprehensive Federal Law in US


1948 all states in the US had workmens
compensation laws
1970 US Congress passed OSHA of 1970

Until the beginning of the 20th century, many


owners & society at large took a fatalistic view of
safety.

Accidents are seen as regrettable, but not


preventable.

Farm workers & immigrants willing to risk their lives


& limbs went to the city for decent wage.

The occurrence of accidents led social reformers &


labor unions push for more humane workplaces.

Progress of Safety Movement and OSH


Legislations in the Philippines
The first period is characterized by the adoption of a
reactive policies:
1903 Development of OSH in the Philippines
1908 Employers Liability Act was instituted requiring
employers to compensate workers who were
injured
while performing their job
1908 DOLE started as a small Bureau.
1927 Workmens Compensation Act No. 3428 was passed
which provided payment of damages by the employer
for illnesses, in addition to injury or death due to
employment
1933 DOLE became a Department on Dec. 8, 1933

Philippine
Constitution
Article XIII Section 3 of
Philippine Constitution
The state shall afford full
protection to labor, .....
They shall be entitled to
security of tenure,
humane conditions of
work, and a living wage.

The second period is characterized by the adoption of


proactive measures/policies
1936 Commonwealth Act No. 104 was passed. The first
legislation that directly enjoined management to
ensure the promotion of safety & health in the
workplace. Called the First Industrial Safety Law
1945 Commonwealth Act No. 696 was approved to include
safety in the installation & operation of boilers and
pressure vessels.
1948 Philippines became a member of ILO
1954 Enactment of RA No. 1054 (Free Emergency Medical
& Dental Treatment Act)

1967 Proclamation No. 115-A was issued declaring


the year & every year thereafter as SAFETY &
ACCIDENT PREVENTION YEAR.
January

General Orientation

February

Air Transportation

March

Fire Prevention

April

Vacation Hazards

May

Land Transportation

June

Sea Transportation

July

Schools

August

Farms

September

Heath and Sanitation

October

Industry & Commerce

November

Mines

December

Holiday Hazards & Homes

The second period is characterized by the adoption


of proactive measures/policies
1974 PD 442 (LCP) was passed.
1975 Started the program on accreditation for safety
training organization to conduct OSH training
1977 Tripartite body was created to study the proposed
OSHS
1978 OSHS was approved. National Tripartite
Committee was created to study the
improvement of the OSHS
1984 Tripartite consultation was held to amend OSHS Rule
1410 was amended
1988 OSHC was inaugurated, created per EO 307 (the
first in Southeast Asia)

:
P.D. 442
Law
:
Labor Code of the Philippines
Title
:
1974
Year Passed
Relevant Provisions : Book IV, Titles I & II
Implementing Agency: DOLE
Content: A consolidation of labor and social laws to

afford full protection to labor, promote employment and


human resources development and ensure industrial
peace based on social justice.

Book IV, Title I


Chapter I
Medical & Dental Services

Chapter II
Occupational Safety

Legal Basis of the Occupational Safety &


Health Standards

Article 162, Chapter II,


LCP:
Safety & Health
Standards:
The Secretary of Labor
shall, by appropriate
orders, set and enforce
mandatory Occupational
Safety and Health
Standards to eliminate or
reduce occupational
safety and health hazards
in all workplaces and
institute new, and update
existing programs to
ensure safe and healthful

Book IV, Title I Medical,


Dental and Occupational
Safety

Occupational Safety and


Health Standards, (OSHS)
*Rules and Regulations
Implementing Art. 162, Title I,
PD 442, Passed in 1978

The second period is characterized by the


adoption of proactive measures/policies
1989 Major amendments of OSHS took place.
1998 Tripartite Council on OSH in Construction Industry
was created.
1998 Department Order No. 13 (Implementing
Guidelines in the Implementation of OSH in
Construction Industry) was issued.
1998 Memorandum Circular No .02 Guidelines for
Classifying Hazardous & Non Hazardous
Workplaces.
2000 MC No.01Guidelines for the Conduct of Work
Environment Assessment (WEA)

2000 MC No. 02Guidelines in the Application of


Workplace Component of RA 8504 known as
Phil. AIDS Prevention & Control Act of 1998
2001 Amendments of OSHS (Rule 1030, Rule 1160,
Rule 1170, Rule 1180 & New Rule 1240)
2003 Department Order No. 16 amending Rule 1030
of the OSHS (Training & Accreditation of
Personnel in OSH) was approved.
2004 Department 54 07 (New Labor Standards
Enforcement Framework) & Department Order
53 03 (Guidelines in the Implementation of a
DrugFree Workplace Policy & Programs in the
Private Sector) was approved.

There is low priority given to OSH.


Lack of education & training on
OSH among workers & management.
Lack of trained OSH personnel.
Weak enforcement of OSH
Standards.
Lack of OSH facilities.
Needs to reinforce information.
Statistics does not give reliable
data due to low rate of compliance,
absence of strict penalties, and
fragmented BWC administration.

Employers and Workers are Obliged to :


To fulfill the SOCIAL obligation
- We must save lives
- Do whatever it takes

To fulfill the FISCAL obligation


We must save money
Do what we have to

To fulfill the LEGAL obligation


We must stay out of trouble
Do only what we have to

People causes unsafe ACTS & unsafe


CONDITIONS which are sources of
hazards.
Safety must be a way of life. It
provides corrective, preventive &
predictive measures to minimize
accidents.
Loss avoidance through systematic
approach in safety management.
Safety is required by LAW.

PROFITABILITY a business
must make money (profit) in order
to survive.
GROWTH to increase its profit, it
must expand, go into other types
of business.
CONTINUITY any interruption or
disruption of a business operation
will affect its productivity and
profitability.

COMPANIES are now geared to


meet customers
requirements.
Many of them are now working for
ISO Certification Programs on
QMS (ISO 9001:2000), EMS
(ISO 14001:2004) & OHSMS
(OHSAS 18001:2007).

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Customer Satisfaction

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Zero Waste

SAFETY & HEALTH MANAGEMENT


SYSTEM Zero Accident Performance

DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME.


NO RE-WORK.
JUST IN TIME.
WORKING TOGETHER, GROWING TOGETHER.
COST REDUCTION, INNOVATION.
5S, GOOD HOUSEKEEPING, Etc.

SAFETY freedom from HAZARDS.


HAZARD anything that may likely cause
personal injury or damage to property, or
their combination.
Since NO WORKPLACE with ZERO hazards:
SAFETY is control of hazards to attain an
acceptable level of RISKS.
RISKS is the degree of exposure or chances
of exposure to hazards.

ACCIDENT is an [unplanned,
unexpected, unwanted, unforeseen]
EVENT that interrupts or disrupts
the normal and orderly progress of
any activity which may result in
injury (minor, serious or fatal) to
people and/or damage or destruction
of property that result to losses; or
their combination.

Accidents (with or without injuries)


occur when a series of unrelated
events coincide at a certain time
and space.
- This can be from a few events to
a series of a dozen or more events,
thus actual accidents only happen
infrequently.

The immediate causes of accidents


are the :
unsafe

ACTS

unsafe

CONDITIONS.

Negligence
Anger/Temper
Hasty Decisions
Indifference
Distractions
Curiosity
Inadequate Instructions
Poor Work Habits
Over-Confidence
Lack of Planning

An unsafe act occurs in


approximately 85%- 95% of all
analyzed accidents with injuries

- An unsafe act is usually the


last of a series of events before
the accident occurs (it could
occur at any step of the event)
- By stopping or eliminating the
unsafe act, we can stop the
accident from occurring

Although an accident could occur with


the first unsafe act, studies have
shown that between 300 to 1000
of the same unsafe acts occur
before an injury is sustained
- This is mainly due to the other
series of events that may not
align.

Presence

of defective
tools/equipment/materials
Congestion or restricted body movement
Inadequate warning systems
Presence of Fire/explosion hazards
Poor housekeeping/disorder
With Noise/radiation exposure
Exposure to extremes of temperature /
ventilation
Inadequate guards / barriers

Laws contain administrative requirements,


general safety & health rules, technical
safety regulations & other measures to
eliminate or reduce hazards in the workplace.

Laws are meant to be


implemented/enforced
by the government

Laws are meant to be


followed by the citizens

LAWS

LIFE

Labor Code of the Philippines (DOLE)


OSH Standards (DOLE/BWC)
Fire Code of the Philippines (DILG)
Sanitation Code of Philippines (DOH)
Building Code of the Philippines (LGU)
Philippine Electrical Code
Philippine Society of Mechanical
Engineers, etc.

BUSINESSES & INVESTMENTS


WORKERS

INVESTORS/BUSINESSMEN

NEED TO PROTECT

Properties

Workers

THEY are their ASSETS

They
They
They
They

have price
have life
are needed
comprise his workplace

Property :
damage/spoilage,
thief/fire, etc.

Workers :
injury/harm/death
Illness/sickness

HAZARDOUS

HIGHLY HAZARDOUS

NONHAZARDOUS

It preserves the lives of

workers, and the


company

It is mandated by law
It is a form of motivation
It creates understanding

SAFETY is without doubt,


the most crucial investment we
can make, and the question is
not what it costs us
but what it saves.
Frank Bird