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.2:2.

1 ()
,

:
:

++

(
(
(-Q))
(-Q))

(
(
(+Q))
(+Q))

:
= +Q-Q, Q >0,
: Q
Q
>0,

= +Q-Q, Q

Q<0,
Q<0,

:
: 11

.
.

22-


3-
3-


:
: 1)
1)


(
,

,
( , ,



).
).


;
;
2)
2)





;
;





.
:



.
:

.


2.1.1
;
)
)
)
) .
2.1.2 () ()
;
)

C K.

) 25 oC

10 C.

:
( )

( ,
, )

.2:2.1 ()
,


:
:

.
.

Q (.. C)

Q (.. CaCO3)


2.1.3
()
() ;
)

.

)

(, )


,
.

)


.


2
NH3
1
3 ) .

) 2(g) H2O(l) ,

.

(
mol

mol
,

* :



( )

.2:2.1 ()
,

():
()
,

(


,

)

():

= :
1)

(.. ,
)

2)

(..
)

3)

25 C 1 atm (
C=1M), ( ),

()

2.1.4

2(g) + O2(g) H2O(g), 1


2 2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(g), 2

P,T, 1 = 2
2.1..5 () ()
;
)

.2:2.3

(f):
1 mol
.

2.1.6


:
3, f= -a kJ/mol

.. f(CO2)=-393 kJ/mol,

C3H8, c= -b kJ/mol

C() + 2(g) CO2(g), =-393 kJ

.. 2 3(g) + 3 Cl2(g) N2(g) + 6 HCl(g)

=f()-f()
: =6f(HCl) 2f(NH3)

(C):
1 mol . (C): <0
.. c(CH4)=-890 kJ/mol,
CH4(g) + 2 2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) , =-890 kJ
(n):
1 mol
+ , 1 mol -
. (n)<0
.. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l), =-57,1 kJ

H


-57,1 kJ

,

,
(.. -10 kJ)
A mol
2
.

.2:2.1 ()

2.1.7

:
3, f= -a kJ/mol
C3H8, c= -b kJ/mol

2.1.8 f(Fe3O4)=a , of(H2O)=b, 3 Fe(s) + 4 H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4 H2(g),


: i) a-b, ii) b-a, iii) 4(a-b), iv) 4(b-a), v) .
2.1.9

H2O(l), CO2(g), C2H6(g) C2H4(g), , , kJ/mol.


C2H4(g) + H2(g) C2H6(g), : ) --, ) -, ) -, ) +-+

2.1.10 6 g C2H6 (), 312 kJ. . (r C=12, H=1)


2.1.11 1 g (), 3,62 kcal .
227 c(TNT)=.kcal/mol.
2.1.12 ,



: C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2(g), = 30 kcal

,
2C(s) + O2(g) 2CO(g), = -27kcal.
,
mol ,
,
. ( 20%

(v/v) .