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Research Methodology

Makingpresentations.

ISM20 Project management and Research Methods

OUTLINE
Introduction
Makingpresentations,Putyouraudiencefirst!
Speakingstyle,Timekeeping
Usingnotes,Composure
Practicalissues,pitfallstoavoid
Preparingthecontent
Tell`em,Tell`em,andTell`em
Visualaids
Whatmakesagoodpresentation?Someguidelines
Conclusions
References
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Making presentations

Theaimisgood,clear
communication.
Mostpeopleareafraid
ofpublicspeaking.
Thereisnosubstitute
forpreparation.
Collectandorder
relevantmaterial.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Put your audience first!


Preparetheopeningsentencescarefully.
Useanontechnicalopeningbutonlyifits
relevant.
AvoidopeningslikeThankyouMrChairmanforthose
kindwords.Itisagreatpleasuretobehereagainin
thisgreat
ThrowyouraudiencestraightintothestoryIsit
possibletoimproveonthereliabilityofAirbus
software?

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Speaking style.


Aninformal,conversationalstyleisbest.
Avoidlong,complicatedsentences.
Varytoneofvoicetogiveexpression.
Varythespeedofdeliverytoprovide
emphasis.
Butdontspeaktooquickly:fastdeliveries
aredifficulttounderstand.

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Time keeping.


Dontspeakfortoolong.
Peoplerememberupto40%ofa15minute
talk,butonly20%after45minutes.
Assumeapresentationrateof100words
perminute.
Keeptotime!

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Using notes.

NEVERreadascript.
Writeoutthetext.
Listthekeywordstoformyournotes.
Producenotesoncardsratherthanpaper.
Keepnotesinorderwithatreasurytag.
Practiseinfrontofamirror!

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Composure.
Holdyournotesinonehand;lettheother
hangbyyourside.
Lookattheaudiencebutnotatone
person!
Startslowly,havinglearnedthefirst
sentence.
Beawareofmannerismsandrepeated
gestures.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: Practical issues


Explorethelayoutofthelectureroom
BEFOREHAND.
Understandhowtocontroltheprojectors,
microphones,lights,video..
Donotspeakwhileturningawayfromthe
microphonetolookataslide.
Overheadprojectorsshouldprojectupwards
Donotobscuretheslideprojection.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: pitfalls to avoid


Never,NEVERapologiesforbeingan
inexperiencedspeaker.
Neversay
Youwillhaveseenallthisbefore
YouwillknowmoreaboutthisthanIdo
Audienceswillbeembarrassedtheyareonyour
side.
Nervousnessleadstouncertaintyaboutyour
material.

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Introduction: pitfalls to avoid.


Nevertrytobeastandupcomic.
Behumorous,buthumourisoftenat
someonesexpensemakeityourown.
Itiseasytooffendpeople
andlosetheirsympathy.
Humourdependsontiming.
Ajokethatfallsflatisembarrassing.

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

OUTLINE
Introduction
Makingpresentations,Putyouraudiencefirst!
Speakingstyle,Timekeeping
Usingnotes,Composure
Practicalissues,pitfallstoavoid
Preparingthecontent
Tell`em,Tell`em,andTell`em
Visualaids
Whatmakesagoodpresentation?Someguidelines
Conclusions
References
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Preparing the content: Tell `em, Tell `em, and


Tell `em

Theoldsalesmansadagecontainsagood
dealoftruth:Tellemwhatyouregoingto
tellem;Tellem;
Tellemwhatyouvejust
toldem.
Dontpacktoomuchinformationintoa
talk.
Startwithabrainmapandthenorderthe
materialintoasequence.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Preparing the content: Visual aids


OHPscanbuildononeanotherandareeasy
toproduce.
35mmslidesaremoreprofessional,easier
tomanipulatebutmoredifficulttoproduce.
Computerscreenprojectionisbecomingthe
preferredoption.
Laserpointersneedpracticeandcanbe
dangerous.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Preparing the content: Visual aids


TopointtoanOHPplaceapencilonthe
projector.
Slidesshouldnotbeclutteredwith
information.
Usecolourtoemphasiseapointandnotfor
itsownsake.
TheminimumsizefontonanOHPshould
be16point.
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

OUTLINE
Introduction
Makingpresentations,Putyouraudiencefirst!
Speakingstyle,Timekeeping
Usingnotes,Composure
Practicalissues,pitfallstoavoid
Preparingthecontent
Tell`em,Tell`em,andTell`em
Visualaids
Whatmakesagoodpresentation?Someguidelines
Conclusions
References
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

What makes a good presentation? - Some guidelines


Tell em 1

Guideline1Considerwhomthepresentationisdesignedfor.
Thinkabouttheaudience.Dotheyknowmuchaboutthesubject?
Areyouusingjargonorsymbolsthattheyareunfamiliarwith?
Ifyouaretalkingtoasmallnumberofpeople,thentheyshouldbeabletoseethe
computerscreenwithoutanyproblems.Iftherearealargenumberofpeople,thenyou
willneedtouseaprojectorofsomesort.
Guideline2Keepthechartssimpleanduncluttered.
Dontputinanymoreoranylessthanisrequired
Guideline3Makesurethatthechartsarelegible,evenfromthebackoftheroom.
Ifyouaremakingapresentationusingaprojector,thenthecharactersneedtobea
minimumof0.5cmhighformembersoftheaudiencewhoare100metresaway.For
morematurepeople,theminimumheightneedstobe1cm.
Guideline4Highlightkeyinformation
Makeiteasyfortheaudiencetopickoutthemostimportantdetails.
Guideline5Focusattentionononeconceptatatime
Makesurethatyouarenotgivingtheaudiencetoomuchtothinkaboutatanyonetime.
Guideline6Reinforceyourconclusion
Finishthepresentationwithasummaryofthemainpointsthatyouwanttomakesure
thattheaudiencehasunderstood.

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines: Tell m 2


Guideline1Considerwhomthe
presentationisdesignedfor
Theaudience
Terminology,Jargonorsymbols
Numberofpeople

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines


Guideline2Keepthechartssimpleand
uncluttered.
Dontputinanymoreoranylessthanis
required

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines


Guideline3Makesurethatthechartsare
legible,evenfromthebackoftheroom
Ifyouaremakingapresentationusinga
projector,thenthecharactersneedtobea
minimumof0.5cmhighformembersofthe
audiencewhoare100metresaway.Formore
maturepeople,theminimumheightneedstobe
1cm.

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines

Guideline4Highlightkeyinformation
Makeiteasyfortheaudiencetopickoutthe
mostimportantdetails

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines


Guideline5Focusattentiononone
conceptatatime
Makesurethatyouarenotgivingtheaudience
toomuchtothinkaboutatanyonetime

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good presentation guidelines


Guideline6Reinforceyourconclusion
Finishthepresentationwithasummaryofthe
mainpointsthatyouwanttomakesurethatthe
audiencehasunderstood

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Presentation Guidelines: Tell m 3


In summary, we have Six Guidelines
Who the presentation is designed for
Keep charts simple
Charts must be legible
Highlight key information
One concept at a time
Reinforce your conclusion
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Project Costs
10. Smart Project Cost
Cash Flow Forecast (April 1998 - June 1999)
Months
Expenditure ('000)
Pay of personnel
Overheads
Materials consumed
Consultancy fees
Sub-contract charges
Fees for trials/mapping data
Prepartion of technical manuals
Intellectual property costs
Capital equipment/hardware
Market assessment
Training
Software
Other
Total
Income
DTI
Balance

Apr-98 May-98 Jun-98


3000
400
50
0
0
1000
0
0
0
500
1000
0
0
5950

15000
9050

3000 3000
400
400
50
50
0 2500
0
0
1000 1500
0
0
0
0
0 3000
500
0
500
500
0 2500
0
0
5450 13450

3600

-4400

Jul-98 Aug-98 Sep-98 Oct-98 Nov-98 Dec-98 Jan-99 Feb-99


3000
400
50
1000
0
0
0
0
5000
0
0
0
0
9450

3000
400
50
0
0
500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3950

12000
-1850

-5800

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3450

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
500
0
2500
0
6450

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3450

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3450

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
500
0
0
0
0
3950

3000
400
50
0
0
0
0
0
500
0
0
0
0
3950

2500
4000
-9250 -13200 -16650 -20100 -20050 -24000

Mar-99 Apr-99 May-99 Jun-99 Total


3000
400
50
2500
0
100
0
500
0
0
0
0
0
6550

3000
400
50
0
0
100
0
500
0
500
0
0
0
4550

3000
400
50
0
0
50
0
1000
0
500
0
0
0
5000

3000 45000
400 6000
50
750
0 6000
0
0
50 4300
500
500
1000 3000
0 9000
500 3000
0 2000
0 5000
0
0
5500 84550

4750
38250
-30550 -30350 -35350 -40850

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Project Costs

Pounds

Costs per month


16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15

Months

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Cost by Category

COSTS
2%

6%

4%

Pay of personnel
Overheads

11%

Materials consumed
Consultancy fees
Sub-contract charges

4%
52%

1%

Fees for trials/mapping data


Prepartion of technical manuals

5%

Intellectual property costs


Capital equipment/hardware

7%

Market assessment
1%
7%

Training
Software
Other

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

OUTLINE
Introduction
Makingpresentations,Putyouraudiencefirst!
Speakingstyle,Timekeeping
Usingnotes,Composure
Practicalissues,pitfallstoavoid
Preparingthecontent
Tell`em,Tell`em,andTell`em
Visualaids
Whatmakesagoodpresentation?Someguidelines
Conclusions
References
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Conclusions
Theaimisgood,clearcommunication,thereisno
substituteforpreparation.
InPreparingthecontentrememberto
Tell`em,Tell`em,andTell`em
UsegoodVisualaids
Followgoodpresentationguidelines

Who the presentation is designed for


Keep charts simple
Charts must be legible
Highlight key information
One concept at a time
Reinforce your conclusion
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

References
Campbell,J.,(1990),Speakforyourself,BBC
Books,London,ISBN0563215119
Boothe,V.,(1984),Communicatinginscience:
writingandspeaking,CambridgeUniversityPress,
ISBN052127771X
Tufte,E.,(1983),TheVisualDisplayof
QuantitativeInformation,GraphicsPress
ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

Good luck: better still, prepare


thoroughly! And Practice

ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods

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