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Instrumental Chemistry

Chapter 11
Atomic Mass
Spectrometry

Atomic mass
The

mass of a single atom, usually expressed


in atomic mass units (amu)
Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated
in the protons and neutrons contained in the
nucleus
Each proton or neutron weighs about 1 amu,
and thus the atomic mass is always very close
to the mass number (total number of protons
and neutrons in the nucleus)

Mass Spectrometers

Mass spectrometers use the difference


in mass-to-charge ratio (m/e) of ionized
atoms or molecules to separate them
from each other

In general a mass spectrometer


consists of an ion source, a massselective analyzer, and an ion
detector

Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer

Stage 1: Ionization

The atom is ionized by knocking one or


more electrons off to give a positive ion
These positive ions are persuaded out
into the rest of the machine by the ion
repeller which is another metal plate
carrying a slight positive charge

Ionization (cont.)

Stage 2: Acceleration
The

ions are accelerated so that they


all have the same kinetic energy
All the ions are accelerated into a finely
focused beam

Acceleration (cont.)

Stage 3: Deflection
The ions are then deflected by a

magnetic field according to their


masses
The lighter they are, the more they are
deflected
The more the ion is charged, the more it
gets deflected

Deflection (cont.)

Stage 4: Detection
The

beam of ions passing through the


machine is detected electrically
When an ion hits the metal box, its charge is
neutralized by an electron jumping from the
metal on to the ion
That leaves a space amongst the electrons
in the metal, and the electrons in the wire
shuffle along to fill it

Detection (cont.)

Fourier-Transform MS

Magnetic-sector MS

Quadrupole MS

Time-of-flight MS

ICP-MS
Inductively

Coupled Plasma Mass


Spectrometry
In ICP-MS, the plasma is formed from Argon
gas
Plasma is defined as a gas consisting of
ions, electrons, and neutral particles

SSMS
Spark

Source Mass Spectrometry


Semi-quantitative trace element technique
for the analysis of solids and liquid materials
Advantages include total simultaneous
elemental coverage, low detection limits,
semi-quantitative accuracy (+2-3x), and high
resolution capabilities to eliminate many
spectral interferences

GDMS
Glow-Discharge

Mass Spectrometry
Analytical technique for the bulk elemental
analysis of inorganic solid samples
The most comprehensive and sensitive
technique available for the analysis of solids

Glow Discharge Ion Source

Useful Websites Dealing With Mass Spectrometry

http://www.anachem.umu.se/jumpstation.htm
http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~kmurray/mslist.html
http://www.chemcenter/org
http://www.sciencemag.org
http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/A/atomMas.html
http://www.webref.org/geology/a/atomic_mass.htm
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/masspec/howitworks.html
http://www.northernanalyticallab.com/tech2.htm
http://www.shivatec.com/new/gdmsdesc.php4