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Modern Chemistry

Chapter 15
Acid-Base Titration
and pH
Sections 1 & 2
Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH
Determining pH and Titrations
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

Determining pH
and
Titration

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

Chapter 15 Vocabulary
Self Ionization
pH
pOH
Acid-base indicator
Transition interval
Titration
Equivalence Point
Endpoint

Standard
Solution
Primary
Standard
Standardization

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

p. 511

Indicators
Acid-base indicators- compounds
whose colors are sensitive to pH

HIn

H+ + In-

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Indicators
Transition Interval the pH range over
which an indicator changes color

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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p. 513

Color Range of Indicators

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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p. 513

Color Range of Indicators

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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p. 513

Color Range of Indicators

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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p. 512

pH of Common Materials

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

pH Meter
Determines the pH of a solution by
measuring the voltage between two
electrodes that are placed in a
solution

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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How does a pH meter work?


In 1901 a German chemist named Fritz Haber
discovered that the voltage at certain glass surfaces
changed in a regular manner with the acidity of a
solution. Modern pH sensing electrodes are a
refinement of this fundamental discovery.
The pH electrode consists of a thin membrane
of Hydrogen sensitive glass blown on the end of an
inert glass tube. Because this is a special type of
glass and very thin, the bulb is very fragile and great
care must be exercised in handling it.
This tube is filled with an electrolyte, and the
signal is carried through Ag/AgCL wire. This is a pH
half cell.

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Titration
The controlled addition and
measurement of the amount of a
solution
of known concentration
required to react completely with a
measured amount of a solution
of unknown concentration.
A quantitative lab procedure to
determine concentration or amount.
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

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Doing a Titration

p. 518

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Doing a Titration

p. 518

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Doing a Titration

p. 518

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Doing a Titration

p. 519

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Doing a Titration

p. 519

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Doing a Titration

p. 519

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Titration Video

Glencoe Disc 3

Insert Holt Disc 2

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Titration
Equivalence point the point at which
the two solutions in a titration are
chemically equivalent.
M
=
MOLESbase = MOLESacid
mol/L
mol =
If the coefficients are all 1 MxL
then the
mole ratio has no effect so
M B x LB = MA x LA
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

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STANDAR
D
SOLUTION

ANALYTE

Titration
IN BURETTE

TAmL of base
2
A
D
5 known
0.2M

concentration
of base

mL of acid
1 unknown
0
X
M concentration
IN FLASK
of acid
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
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Equivalence Points
Titration Combination
STRONG acid + STRONG
base
STRONG acid + WEAK base
WEAK

acid + STRONG base

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

Equivalen
ce Point
pH=7
pH<7
pH>7

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Equivalence Point & Endpoint


Endpoint the point in a titration at
which an indicator changes color.
If the
equivalence
point is 7,
what is the
best
indicator to
use?
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
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Titration Curve

p. 517

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Titration Curve

p. 517

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Standardization
Standard solution a solution that
contains the precisely known
concentration of a solute.
The standard solution has be
standardized (determined its
concentration) with a primary
standard (a solution with a known
concentration).

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Molarity & Titration

1.

2.

3.

M=
mol/L
MOLESbase = MOLESacid
mol
=
Calculate the moles of the substance
MxL and
in which you know the molarity
concentration.
Use the mole ratio to convert these
moles to moles of the other
substance.
Now that you have moles of the
other substance divide by liters of
Chapter 15to
Sec get
2 Determini
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that substance
molarity.
ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

Sample Problems p.520


In a titration, 27.4 mL of 0.0154 M Ba(OH) 2 is
added to a 20.0 mL sample of HCl solution
of unknown concentration until the
equivalence point is reached. What is the
molarity of the acid solution?

4.22 102 M HCl


Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
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Molarity & Titration


1. Calculate the moles of the substance
in which you know the molarity and
concentration.
0.0154 M Ba(OH)2 x 0.0274 L
Ba(OH)2 =
0.000422 moles Ba(OH)2

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Molarity & Titration


2. Use the mole ratio to convert these
moles to moles of the other substance
Ba(OH)2 (aq) + 2HCl
2HOH (l)

(aq)

BaCl2 (aq) +
x

2 mole HCl
1 moles Ba(OH)2

= 0.000844 moles HCl


Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
ng pH & Titration p. 511-5

MOLE RATIO
(coefficients)
30

Molarity & Titration


3.Now that you have moles of the other
substance divide by liters of that
substance to get molarity.
0.000844 moles HCl
= 0.0422 M HCl
0.0200 L HCl

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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Practice Problems p.521


1. A 15.5 mL sample of 0.215 M KOH
solution required 21.2 mL of aqueous
acetic acid solution in a titration
experiment. Calculate the molarity of the
acetic acid solution. 1. 0.157 M CH3COOH
2. By titration, 17.6 mL of aqueous H2SO4
neutralized 27.4 mL of 0.0165 M LiOH
solution. What was the molarity of the
aqueous acid solution? 2. 0.0128 M H2SO4
Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini
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Ch 15 Sec 2 Homework
Titration Calculations Worksheet

Chapter 15 Sec 2 Determini


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