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Modern Chemistry Chapter 12Solutions

Section 1- Types of Mixtures


Solutions are
homogeneous mixtures of
two or more substances in
a single phase.
Soluble describes a
substance as capable of
being dissolved.
Solvent is the dissolving
medium in a solution.
Solute is the substance that
is dissolved in a solution.

Types of Solutions
Solutions can be in
any of the three
common physical
states.
solid- a mixture of
metals called an alloy
liquid- salt water,
sugar water, KoolAid
gas- the atmosphere

Suspensions & Colloids


A suspension has
large particles that
settle out of a solvent.
eg. muddy water
A colloid has
intermediate size
particles. Also called
an emulsion or a
foam.

Solutes:
electrolytes vs. nonelectrolytes
An electrolyte is a
substance that dissolves in
water to give a solution
that conducts electricity.
A nonelectrolyte is a
substance that dissolves in
water to give a solution
that does NOT conduct
electricity.
Do section review
questions #1, #2, & #6 on
page 406.

Section 2- The Solution Process


Factors that affect the rate of solution
(how quickly a substance dissolves):
Any process that increases the number of
contacts between the solvent and the solute
will increase the solution rate.
increasing the surface area of the solute
agitating (shaking or stirring) the solution
heating the solvent

Solutions
Solution equilibrium is the physical state in which the
opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization
occur at equal rates.
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of
dissolved solute.
An unsaturated solution contains less than the
maximum amount of dissolved solute.
A supersaturated solution contains more dissolved
solute than a saturated solution.

Solubility

Solubility is a measurement of how much solute will dissolve in a specific


amount of solvent at a specific temperature to make a saturated solution.

Likes dissolve likes- polar solvents dissolve polar solutes & nonpolar
solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.

Hydrationis the solution process with water as the solvent.

Hydrates are ionic compounds that have formed crystals that have
incorporated water molecules in their structure.

Immiscible liquids are not soluble in one another. eg. oil & water

Miscible liquids dissolve freely in one another in any proportion. eg. water
& alcohol

Solubility

Increasing the pressure has no effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid


but does increase the solubility of gases in a liquid.

Increasing temperature often increases the solubility of a solid in a liquid but


decreases the solubility of a gas in a liquid.

Henrys Law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly


proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the surface of the liquid.

Effervescence is the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which the gas is
dissolved.

A solvated solute particle is surrounded by solvent molecules.

Enthalpy of solution is the amount of heat absorbed by a solution when a


specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent.

Problems
Do section review
questions #1, #2, #3,
#5, & #6 on page 416.
Read the CrossDisciplinary
Connection on page
417 and answer the
questions at the end
of the reading.

Section 3
Concentrations of Solutions
The concentration of a solution is a measure of
the amount of solute dissolved in a given
amount of solvent or solution.
Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute in
one liter of solution.
M = #mol
L

Do practice problems #1, #2, & #3 on page 421.

Solution Concentrations
Molality (m) is the concentration of a
solution expressed in moles of solute per
kilogram of solvent.
m = #mol
kg
Do practice problems #1 & #2 on page 424.

Solution Concentrations
Percent composition by mass (%) is a
concentration that expresses the percent
of solute in a solution.
% = #g solute x 100
# g solution
Do section review problems #1, #2, & #3 on page 424.

Chapter 12 Test Review


multiple choice (30)

define & identify suspensions & solutions


define an alloy
define & identify electrolytes & nonelectrolytes
factors that affect the rate of dissolution
definitions of unsaturated, saturated & supersaturated solutions
general rules for predicting whether a solute is soluble in a
solvent
definition of solubility
effects of temperature & pressure on the solubility of gases and
solids in liquids
definitions of molarity (M) and molality (m)
solving molarity & molality problems
FORMULAS:
M = #mol/L
m = #mol/kg