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Live your life. Create your destiny. FORMAL CHARGES

Live your life. Create your destiny.

Live your life. Create your destiny. FORMAL CHARGES
Live your life. Create your destiny. FORMAL CHARGES

FORMAL CHARGES

Resonance Hybrids & Formal charges

Outcomes

•Represent all possible resonance hybrids •Allocate formal charges •Determine the most stable resonance structure using formal charges

Formal charges (FC)

Formal charges help to weight different resonance structures

(Which one of them is more important than others?). They also help to predict the reactivity of molecules. This is of particular importance in organic chemistry: many mechanisms involve intermediates which carry formal charges.

Formal charges - continued

To allocate formal charges to an atom in a Lewis electron-dot structure (LEDS) of a molecule:

• compare the number of valence electrons in the free atom with the number of valence electrons (lone pairs) in the bonded atom. For each bond, the bonding electrons are divided between the two atoms which are connected. The non-bonding electrons (lone pairs) remain the sole property of the atom which carries them:

FCFC (X)

(X) == No.

No. of

of valence

valence electrons

electrons inin aa free

free atom

atom -- (1/2

(1/2 bonding

bonding electrons

electrons ++ non-bonding

non-bonding

electrons) electrons)

Faculty/Department name here 18pt Arial

Formal charges - continued

Formal charge calculations are used as a guideline to the correct structure.

A zero formal charge structure.

is

usually a

good

indication

of

a

stable

The sum of formal charges in a neutral molecule is zero e.g. CH 3 CONH 2 .

 

The sum of formal charges in an ion equals the charge of the ion, e.g. NH 4 + .

Formal charges - continued

There are

two rules

used to determine

the most

likely Lewis

structure(s).

Atoms try to achieve formal charges possible.

as

close

to

zero as

Any negative formal charges should reside on the most electronegative atoms.

Formal charges - continued Exercise

• Consider the ion SCN -1 and draw all valid Lewis dot structures for the ion.
Consider the ion SCN -1 and draw all valid Lewis dot structures for
the ion.
Use formal charges to determine the major contributor(s) to the
actual structure of the ion.

http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/principles-of-general-chemistry-v1.0/s12-05-lewis-

structures-and-covalent-.html

Exercise - continued

Draw Lewis structures for the BeF 2 molecule in which (a) the BeF 2

molecule has two single bonds and (b) the BeF 2 molecule has two double bonds. Which of the two structures satisfies the octet rule for both Be and

F? Calculate formal charge values for atoms in both the single bonded and double bonded structure. Do formal charge values favour one structure over the other?

Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Molecules with odd no. of electrons, e.g. ClO 2 , NO, NO 2 and O 2 . Molecules with less than an Octet of valence electrons, e.g. BF 3 . More than an Octet of valence electrons, e.g. PF 5 .

-

Challenging problem

Determine the most dominant Lewis structure of phosphate ion (PO 4 3- ) and explain why?

END OF LECTURE