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Structural Engineer

Engineering Mechanics
. covers relations between forces acting on rigid bodies
Statics the bodies are in equilibrium
Dynamics the bodies are accelerated but can be put to
equilibrium by applying correctly placed inertia forces
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies
deals with relations between externally applied loads and their
internal effects on bodies;
the bodies are no longer assumed to be ideally rigid;
deformation of bodies, however small, are of major interest
Two Fundamental Concepts


Determine the force required at the end of the crowbar to pry up a given
A moment summation about the fulcrum determines P
Assumes the crowbar to be both rigid and strong enough to permit the
desired action.
Mechanics of Materials
Investigate the bar itself to be sure it will neither break nor so flexible
that it bends without lifting the load.

Analysis of Internal Forces

Consider a body of any shape acted upon by the forces shown in Fig. 1-2

Engineering Mechanics
start by determining the resultant of the applied f orces determine
whether or not the body remains at rest
If resultant is zero, then body is in static equilibrium (condition generally
prevailing in structures)
If resultant is not zero, apply inertia forces to bring about dynamic

Analysis of Internal Forces

Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

additional investigation of the internal distribution of forces

In general, the internal forces reduce to a force and couple, for
convenience, are resolved into components normal and tangent , as shown
in Fig. 1-3.

Analysis of Internal Forces

. Axial force. This component measures the pulling(or pushing) action over
the section. A pull represents a tensile force which tends to elongate the member,
whereas a push is a compressive force which tends to shorten it. It is denoted by P.
Pxy, Pxz Shear force. These are components of the total resistance to sliding the
portion to one side of the exploratory section Vy and Vz to identify their directions.
Mxx Torque. This component measures the resistance to twisting the
and is commonly given the symbol T.


Mxy, Mxz Bending moments. These components measure the resistance to

bending the member about Y or Z axes and are often denoted merely by My or

Analysis of Internal Forces

o Internal effect of a given loading depends upon the selection and
. orientation of the exploratory section
o If the loading acts in one plane, the six components reduce to only three,
viz, the axial force Pxx (or P), the shear force Pxy (or V), and the bending
moment Mxx (or M) and are equivalent to single resultant force R.
o If the exploratory section is oriented differently as in Fig. 1-4b, the shearing
effect on the section would reduce to zero and the tensile effect will be at

Analysis of Internal Forces


Types of Loads
1.Simple Axial Loads
2.Twisting Loads
3.Bending Loads
Purpose of Study
4. Ensure that the structures will be safe against the maximum internal
effects that may be produced by any combination of loading

Simple Stress
Considerations in design of machines or structures

Selection of the proper material

Correct use and proportioning
Essential criteria to determine
Other properties of materials

Simple Stress
.Consider Fig. 1-5
Bars 1
Safe Load (N)

Bar 2


Question: Which material is stronger?

Ans. : Can not be determined unless a common basis ofc omparison is


Simple Stress
.Consider Fig. 1-5
Bars 1
Bar 2
Safe Load (N)
Cross-sectional Area (mm2)
Question: Which material is stronger?
Ans. :
1 = 500 N/10 mm2 = 50 MPa
2 = 5000 N/1000 mm2 = 5 Mpa
Thus, Bar 1 is 10 times stronger than Bar 2.

Simple Stress
Unit strength of a material
= P/A
where, P, applied load
A, cross-sectional area
Max stress occurs over a section normal to the load
Average stress, does not give the stress at all points in the crosssection
More exact definition,
= dP/dA

Simple Stress
Simple Stress
the condition under which the stress is constant or uniform, i.e.
resultant of the applied loads passes through the centroid of the crosssection
Consider Fig. 1-6, the resisting forces over the cut section must balance the
applied load P. A typical resisting force is dP.

Simple Stress
Applying the conditions of equilibrium,
[ My = 0 ]

P = dP = dA
P = x dP = x ( dA)

If stress distribution is constant over the cut section, may be written outside
the integrals
P = dA = A
and therefore,
Pb = (A) b = x dA
b = x dA/A =
from which the coordinate b of the point C is recognized as being the x
coordinate of the centroid of the section. Similar process will prove the same
thing for summation about the X axis.

Simple Stress
Consider Fig. 1-7

The load P is applied at the center line of the bar at sections b-b and f-f,
stress distribution is uniform

Simple Stress
Other sections, stresses are not uniform.
At e-e, the stress distribution is not uniform be cause the line of action of P
does not pass through the centroid of the section.
At c-c and d-d because of abrupt changes in the section, and stresses are
highly localized and can be determined only by the mathematical theory of
elasticity or some experimental method such as photoelasticity.

Simple Stress
Sample Problem 1
An aluminum tube is rigidly fastened between a bronze rod and a steel rod as
shown. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Determine the
stress in each material.

Simple Stress

Summation of forces about the horizontal yields,

Pb = 20 kN
Pa = 5 kN
Ps = 10 kN

Simple Stress

b = 20 000 N/700 mm2 = 28.6 Mpa

a = 5 000 N/1000 mm2 = 5 Mpa
s = 10 000 N/800 mm2 = 12.5 MPa

Shearing Stress
Shearing stress

produced whenever the applied loads cause one section of a body to tend
to slide past its adjacent section.
caused by forces acting along or parallel to the area resisting the forces
also called tangential stress
Tensile and compressive stress
caused by forces perpendicular to the areas over they act
also called normal stresses

Shearing Stress
Examples of direct shear

*a and c - single shear, and b double shear

Shearing Stress
= V/A
where, V, resultant shearing stress
A, sheared area
will exist only if the resultant shearing stress passes through the
centroid of the cross-section being sheared
average stress, does not give the stress at all points in the crosssection
assumption is true when distance between the applied shearing stress
and the depth of the shearing area are small

Shearing Stress
Sample Problem 2

As in Fig. 1-10c, a hole is to be punched out of a plate having an ultimate

shearing stress of 300 MPa . (a) If the compressive stress in the punch is
limited to 400 MPa, determine the maximum thickness of plate from which a
hole 100 mm in diameter can be punched. (b) If the plate is 10mm thick,
compute the smallest diameter hole which can be punched.

Shearing Stress

Shearing Stress

Bearing Stress
Bearing stress
contact pressure between separate bodies
soil pressure beneath piers
forces in bearing plates

Bearing Stress
In Fig. 1-11, the result of an excessive bearing stress is to cause yielding of the
plate or of the rivet, or both. The intensity with which the rivet bears against
the rivet hole is not constant, but actually varies from zero at the hole to a
maximum directly in the back of the rivet. The difficulty inherent in a variable
stress distribution is avoided by the common practice of assuming the
bearing stress b to be uniformly distributed over a reduced area which is
the projected area of the rivet hole. Then the bearing load is expressed by,
Pb = Ab b = (t d) b

Bearing Stress
Sample Problem 3
The lap joint is fastened by 20mm rivets placed alongside each other as shown
along the length of the plate. Determine if the assembly is capable to carry the
axial load P of 180 KN if the shearing stress in the rivets is limited to 60 MPa,
the bearing stress in the plates to 110 MPa, and the average tensile stress in
the plate is limited to 140 MPa. Plate width, W=140 mm and splice plate
thickness, t1=20 mm, and main plate thickness, t2=30 mm.

Bearing Stress

Bearing Stress
Sample Problem 4
The lap joint is fastened by 20mm rivets placed alongside each other as shown
along the length of the plate. Determine the maximum safe load P the
assembly is capable to carry if the shearing stress in the rivets is limited to 60
MPa, the bearing stress in the plates to 110 MPa, and the average tensile
stress in the plate is limited to 140 MPa. Plate width, W=140 mm and splice
plate thickness, t1=20 mm, and main plate thickness, t2=30 mm.

A cylindrical tank carrying a gas or fluid under a pressure p N/m2 is
subjected to tensile forces which resist the bursting forces developed across
longitudinal and transverse sections.
Consider a typical longitudinal section as in Fig. 1-13 (a) , and free-body
diagram of the half-cylinder as in Fig. 1-13 (b)


The elementary force acting to an element of the cylinder located at an angle
from the horizontal diameter is

A similar force acts on symmetrically placed element on the other side of the
vertical center line. Since the horizontal components of such pairs of forces
1 bursting force F is the summation of the vertical components of
cancel out, the
these elementary forces:

which reduces to,

the total bursting force F , acting normal to the cutting plane A-A, is resisted
by the equal forces P acting on each cut surface of the cylinder wall.
applying a vertical summation of forces,
another simpler method of determining bursting force F is as shown in
Fig. 1-14 where the lower half of the cylinder is occupied by a fluid.


Since a fluid transmits pressure equally in all directions, the pressure
distribution is the same as in Fig. 1-13.
From Fig. 1-14, it is apparent that the bursting force F , acting over the flat
surface of the fluid, equals the pressure intensity p multiplied by the area DL
over which it acts, or F = pDL as before.
The stress in the longitudinal section that resists the bursting force F is
obtained by dividing it by the area of the two cut surfaces which gives,

this stress is called the tangential stress because it acts tangent to the
surface of the cylinder; other names are circumferential stress, hoop stress,
and girth stress
the formula gives the average stress for cylinders having a wall thickness of
1/10 or less of the inner radius, and practically the maximum stress at the
inner radius

A free-body diagram of the transverse section, Fig. 1-15, the bursting force
is resisted by the resultant P of the tearing forces acting over the tranverse

The area of the transverse section is the wall thickness multiplied by the
mean circumference , or (D + t) t, if t is small compared to D, it is closely
approximated by D t. Thus,

the formula gives the longitudinal stress because it acts parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the cylinder.
longitudinal stress is one-half of the tangential stress.








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